Interstate 405 (California)
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Interstate 405 (I-405) is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass auxiliary route of Interstate 5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles Area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north. The entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway.
|San Diego Freeway|
I-405 highlighted in red
|Defined by Streets and Highways Code § 615|
|Maintained by Caltrans|
|Length:||72.415 mi (116.541 km)|
|Existed:||1964 – present|
|South end:||I-5 in Irvine|
|North end:||I-5 near San Fernando|
|Counties:||Orange, Los Angeles|
I-405 is a heavily traveled thoroughfare by both commuters and by freight haulers along its entire length and is the busiest and most congested freeway in the United States. The freeway's annual average daily traffic between exits 21 and 22 in Seal Beach reached 374,000 in 2008, making it the highest count in the nation. It has played a crucial role in the development of dozens of cities and suburbs along its route through Los Angeles and Orange counties.
Interstate 405 begins at the El Toro Y interchange with Interstate 5 in southeastern Irvine. It then runs northwest through Orange County to Long Beach in Los Angeles County. The freeway then roughly follows the outline of the Pacific coast, varying between five and ten miles (16 km) inland before crossing over the Sepulveda Pass in the Santa Monica Mountains. I-405 next travels northerly through the San Fernando Valley, before its termination with I-5 in the Mission Hills district of Los Angeles. Large portions of the route closely parallel Sepulveda Boulevard.
The freeway's congestion problems are legendary, leading to jokes that the road was numbered 405 because traffic moves at "four or five" miles per hour, or because drivers need "four or five" hours to get anywhere. Indeed, average speeds as low as 5 mph are routinely recorded during morning and afternoon commutes, and its interchanges with the Ventura Freeway (U.S. Route 101) and with the Santa Monica Freeway (Interstate 10) each consistently rank among the five most congested freeway interchanges in the United States. As a result of these congestion problems, it may take longer to pass through the entire Los Angeles area using this bypass route instead of merely taking the primary route I-5 through Downtown.
Of the major reasons for the excessively heavy traffic on the freeway, the 405 is the only major North–South freeway in the densely populated areas between West LA and Downtown, crossing the Santa Monica Mountains and connecting San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles basin. Another parallel freeway is proposed to connect the Valley and the LA basin (the Laurel Canyon Freeway or La Cienega Freeway), but has faced upper class home-owner opposition. Despite 4 years of construction disruptions, billions of dollars of public money, LA Times commentary claims traffic with the lane expansions is actually just as bad or worse.
I-405 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, and is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. The freeway from present-day I-10 to I-5 near San Fernando is known as the San Diego Freeway, and less commonly as the Sepulveda Freeway (after Sepulveda Boulevard).
Points of interestEdit
There are a number of points of interest that I-405 passes by or connects to. For transportation, these include (in the order passed from south to north) John Wayne Airport in Orange County, Long Beach Municipal Airport and Los Angeles International Airport. With connections, it is also very close to the Port of Long Beach, the Port of Los Angeles and Burbank Airport.
Some of the educational institutions it passes include the California state universities at Dominguez Hills, Long Beach, and Northridge; the University of California at Irvine and UCLA, Loyola Marymount University, and Pepperdine University's West LA and Irvine campuses.
I-405 also passes cultural facilities such as the Getty Center, the Skirball Cultural Center and the Segerstrom Center for the Arts. In addition, several shopping malls such as Sherman Oaks Galleria, Westfield Culver City, The Promenade at Howard Hughes Center, Westminster Mall, South Coast Plaza and the Irvine Spectrum Center are located along I-405.
The route also passes by or through many recreation and commercial destinations. These include more than ten California state beaches, several other beaches owned by counties and municipalities, many of the beach cities favored by tourists, as well as Century City and Marina del Rey.
I-405 was approved as a chargeable interstate (in other words, an interstate financed with federal funds) in 1955. Construction began in 1957 with the first section, mostly north of LAX Airport being completed in 1961 (signed as SR 7) followed by sections west of Interstate 605 within the following few years. The highway was renumbered to Interstate 405 during the 1964 renumbering. The final section covering most of Orange County opened in 1969. Construction required the already existing Mulholland Highway to be re-routed 1.1 miles to the south along a new 579-foot-long bridge, the Mulholland Drive Bridge, to span Interstate 405.
A section of I-405 was closed over the weekend of Friday, July 15, 2011 as part of the Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project. Before the closing, local radio DJs and television newscasts referred to it as "Carmageddon" and "Carpocalypse", parodying the notion of Armageddon and the Apocalypse, since it was anticipated that the closure would severely impact traffic.
In reality, traffic was lighter than normal across a wide area. California Department of Transportation reported that fewer vehicles used the roads than usual, and those who did travel by road arrived more quickly than on a normal weekend. The Metrolink commuter train system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership since it began operating in 1991. Ridership was 50% higher than the same weekend in 2010, and 10% higher than the previous weekend ridership record, which occurred during the U2 360° Tour in June 2011. In response to jetBlue Airlines' offer of special flights between Bob Hope Airport in Burbank and Long Beach Airport, a distance of only 29 mi (47 km), for $4, a group of cyclists did the same journey in one and a half hours, compared to two and a half hours by plane (including a drive to the airport from West Hollywood 90 minutes in advance of the flight and travel time to the end destination). There was also some debate about whether the Los Angeles area could benefit from car-free weekends regularly.
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority had full closure of a 10-mile stretch of I-405 on the weekend of September 29–30, 2012, while construction crews worked to demolish a portion of the Mulholland Bridge.
Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles used the closure of I-405 to study particulate matter air pollution. The researchers took air samples before, during, and after the closure. The researchers found an 83% reduction in ultrafine particles, 55% reduction in fine particle matter, and 62% less black carbon.
Sepulveda Pass Improvements ProjectEdit
The $1 billion Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project added a high-occupancy vehicle lane and associated changes to freeway entrances, exits, and underpasses along a 10-mile stretch through the Sepulveda Pass between I-10 and U.S. 101/Ventura Boulevard. The project was completed as a design-build in contrast to the traditional design-bid-build used typically in infrastructure improvement. This section of I-405 was closed for a weekend in mid-July 2011 to demolish the Mulholland Drive Bridge, and a 10-mile section was closed for the last weekend of September 2012 (See 'Carmageddon 2011' and 'Carmageddon 2012' above).
Jamzilla was the name for the 405 closure on President's Day Weekend 2014. There were lane closures and complete closures on the 405 Freeway started Feb. 14 at 10pm till Feb. 18 at 6 a.m to pave and re-stripe the northbound lanes.
On May 23, 2014, the 10-mile high-occupancy vehicle lane was opened to traffic.
Manchester and Century Boulevard interchangesEdit
Proposed changes between the Manchester and Century Boulevard interchanges in the City of Inglewood to provide a new southbound on-ramp and a new northbound off-ramp for Arbor Vitae Street, to reconstruct and widened the Arbor Vitae Street over-bridge and replace the Century Boulevard overcrossing structure. This work would reduce congestion on the approach to Los Angeles International Airport. The California Department of Transportation has not yet issued a start date for this work.
The Orange County Transportation Authority is currently preparing the design plans to add a HOT lane and one mixed flow lane in each direction between Highway 73 in Costa Mesa and I-605 in Seal Beach.
UCLA protest 1966Edit
Following the 1966 UCLA–USC rivalry game, USC was voted into the Rose Bowl despite the UCLA team's having defeated the Trojans—with both teams having only one loss during the season. UCLA students protested by blocking the freeway's northbound lanes at Wilshire Boulevard.
The O.J. Simpson chase 1994Edit
While dangerous high-speed chases along the San Diego Freeway are not uncommon, perhaps the most famous chase in its history was also one of the slowest. On the afternoon of June 17, 1994, former football star O.J. Simpson, a suspect in the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and waiter Ronald Goldman, took to the freeway in a white Ford Bronco (driven by former USC teammate Al Cowlings) with police in pursuit. A bizarre, widely televised low-speed chase ensued and ended hours later when Simpson returned to his Brentwood estate via the Sunset Boulevard exit and surrendered to law enforcement.
Murder of Ennis Cosby 1997Edit
In popular cultureEdit
I-405 was the location for the short film 405.
The Death Cab For Cutie song "405" on their second studio album, We Have the Facts and We're Voting Yes, may be incorrectly associated with California's I-405. The song is actually referring to I-405 in Seattle, as the band is from Bellingham.
This section contains a table that is missing mileposts for one or more junctions.
Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, and do not necessarily reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since then, M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, and T indicates postmiles classified as temporary (for a full list of prefixes, see the list of postmile definitions). Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted. The numbers reset at county lines; the start and end postmiles in each county are given in the county column.
|Irvine||0.23||I-5 south (San Diego Freeway) – San Diego||Southbound exit and northbound entrance; former US 101 south; southern terminus; I-5 north exit 94A|
|||—||I-5 south||HOV access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|||1A||Lake Forest Drive||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|||1B||Bake Parkway||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|0.95||1C||Irvine Center Drive||Signed as exit 1 northbound|
|1.80||2||SR 133 (Laguna Freeway) – Laguna Beach||No northbound exit to SR 133 north; SR 133 north exit 8, south exits 8A-B|
|2.88||3||Shady Canyon Drive, Sand Canyon Avenue|
|3.95||4||Jeffrey Road, University Drive|
|7.80||8||MacArthur Boulevard – John Wayne Airport|
|Costa Mesa||8.74||9A||SR 55 (Costa Mesa Freeway)||SR 55 north exit 6, south exits 6A-B|
|||—||SR 55 north||HOV access only|
|||9B||Anton Boulevard, Avenue of the Arts||Northbound exit and entrance|
|10.28||10||SR 73 south (Corona del Mar Freeway) to SR 55 south (Costa Mesa Freeway) – San Diego via toll road||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|||11||South Coast Drive||Northbound exit only|
|10.75||11A||Fairview Road||Signed as exit 11 northbound|
|11.45||11B||Harbor Boulevard – Costa Mesa||Signed as exit 11 northbound|
|Fountain Valley||12.47||12||Euclid Street, Newhope Street, Ellis Avenue|
|13.78||14||Brookhurst Street – Fountain Valley|
|14.82||15A||Warner Avenue east||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|Huntington Beach||15.21||15B||Magnolia Street, Warner Avenue west||Signed as exit 15 northbound|
|16.54||16||SR 39 (Beach Boulevard) – Westminster, Huntington Beach|
|Westminster||17.75||18||Bolsa Avenue, Goldenwest Street||Goldenwest Street is signed as Golden West Street|
|19.16||19||Westminster Avenue, Springdale Street|
|||20||Bolsa Chica Road||Southbound exit only|
|||—||SR 22 east||HOV access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|20.75||21||SR 22 east (Garden Grove Freeway) / Valley View Street – Garden Grove||South end of SR 22 overlap|
|Seal Beach||22.64||22||Seal Beach Boulevard, Los Alamitos Boulevard||Former SR 35|
|23.28||23||SR 22 west (7th Street) – Long Beach||North end of SR 22 overlap; I-605 exit 1A|
|||—||I-605 north||HOV access only; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|24.04||24A||I-605 north (San Gabriel River Freeway)||Signed as exit 24 northbound; I-605 south exits 1B-1C; SR 22 east exit 2|
|Long Beach||0.45||24B||Studebaker Road||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|1.11||25||Palo Verde Avenue|
|1.64||26A||Woodruff Avenue||No southbound exit|
|2.18||26B||Bellflower Boulevard||Signed as exit 26 southbound|
|3.32||27||SR 19 (Lakewood Boulevard) – Long Beach Airport|
|4.88||29||Spring Street, Cherry Avenue – Signal Hill||Signed as exits 29A (south) and 29B (north)|
|Signal Hill||5.39||29C||Orange Avenue|
|Long Beach||6.08||30A||Atlantic Avenue|
|6.34||30B||Long Beach Boulevard||Former SR 15|
|6.70||32A||Pacific Avenue||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|7.60||32||I-710 (Long Beach Freeway) – Long Beach, Pasadena||Signed as exits 32A (north) and 32B (south) northbound, and 32B (south) and 32C (north) southbound; I-710 exit 4|
|8.06||32C||Hughes Way, Santa Fe Avenue||Signed as exit 32D southbound|
|Carson||8.78||33A||Alameda Street (SR 47 south)|
|11.22||35||Avalon Boulevard – Carson||Northbound exit to Avalon Boulevard south is via exit 34|
|12.60||36||Main Street||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|12.97||37A||I-110 (Harbor Freeway) – San Pedro, Los Angeles||Signed as exit 37 northbound; former US 6; I-110 exit 9|
|Los Angeles||13.28||37B||Vermont Avenue||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|13.83||38A||Normandie Avenue – Gardena|
|Torrance||15.45||39||Crenshaw Boulevard – Torrance|
|16.57||40||To SR 91 / Artesia Boulevard||Signed as exit 40A southbound; former SR 91|
|16.88||40B||Redondo Beach Boulevard - Redondo Beach||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|Lawndale||17.59||42A||SR 107 (Hawthorne Boulevard) – Lawndale|
|Redondo Beach||18.23||42B||Inglewood Avenue|
|Hawthorne||19.21||43||Rosecrans Avenue – Manhattan Beach||Signed as exits 43A (east) and 43B (west) southbound|
|20.22||44||El Segundo Boulevard – El Segundo|
|Los Angeles||R21.18||45A||I-105 (Century Freeway) – El Segundo, Norwalk||Signed as exit 45 southbound; serves Los Angeles International Airport; I-105 east exit 2, west exit 2B|
|R21.22||45B||Imperial Highway||Southbound exit is part of exit 46|
|Inglewood||22.22||46||Century Boulevard – LAX Airport|
|23.36||47||Manchester Boulevard, La Cienega Boulevard, Florence Avenue||Manchester Boulevard was former SR 42|
|Los Angeles||24.27||48||La Tijera Boulevard|
|24.56||49A||Howard Hughes Parkway, Sepulveda Boulevard||Signed as exit 49 southbound|
|Culver City||25.46||49B||Sepulveda Boulevard, Slauson Avenue (SR 90 east)||Northbound exit only; SR 90 exit 2|
|25.95||50A||Jefferson Boulevard||Signed as exit 50B northbound|
|25.95||50B||SR 90 (Marina Freeway) / Slauson Avenue – Marina del Rey||Signed as exit 50A northbound; no access from I-405 north to SR 90 east; SR 90 exit 2|
|27.20||51||Culver Boulevard, Washington Boulevard – Culver City|
|27.96||52||Venice Boulevard (SR 187), Washington Boulevard|
|Los Angeles||29.16||53A||National Boulevard||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|29.54||53B||I-10 (Santa Monica Freeway) – Santa Monica, Los Angeles||Signed as exit 53 southbound; I-10 exits 3A-B|
|30.18||54||Olympic Boulevard, Pico Boulevard||Southbound exit and northbound entrance; former SR 26|
|30.86||55A||SR 2 (Santa Monica Boulevard)||Former US 66|
|31.54||55B||Wilshire Boulevard||Signed as exits 55B (east) and 55C (west) southbound|
|32.50||56||Montana Avenue||Northbound exit only; demolished|
|33.00||57A||Sunset Boulevard||Signed as exit 57 southbound|
|33.29||57B||Moraga Drive||Northbound exit and entrance|
|34.76||59||Getty Center Drive|
|36.03||61||Mulholland Drive, Skirball Center Drive|
|39.00||63A||Ventura Boulevard, Sepulveda Boulevard, Valley Vista Boulevard|
|39.43||63B||US 101 (Ventura Freeway) – Ventura, Los Angeles||US 101 exit 19A|
|41.36||65||Victory Boulevard – Van Nuys|
|42.36||66||Sherman Way – Van Nuys Airport||Signed as exits 66A (east) and 66B (west) northbound|
|43.76||68||Roscoe Boulevard – Panorama City|
|46.24||70||Devonshire Street – Granada Hills|
|46.85||71A||SR 118 (Ronald Reagan Freeway) – Simi Valley||Signed as exit 71 southbound; no southbound exit to SR 118 east or northbound entrance from SR 118 west; SR 118 east exit 42A, west exit 42B|
|47.24||71B||San Fernando Mission Boulevard – San Fernando||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|47.75||72||Rinaldi Street – Mission Hills|
|48.64||I-5 north (Golden State Freeway) – Bakersfield, Sacramento||Northbound exit and southbound entrance; north end of I-405; I-5 south exit 158|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
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- Racine, Ned (January 11, 2011). "How the Mulholland Drive bridge was constructed". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- "Interstate 405: The 'Carmageddon', History, Myth and Trivia".
During 53 hours of closure, the north side of the Mulholland Bridge will be demolished as part of the $1 billion Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project.
- Judy Gish Issue Date: 06/2011. "Inside Seven – Caltrans, District 7 – Monthly Newsletter". Dot.ca.gov. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
- Gostar, Reza (2011-06-09). "Carpocalypse: The Weekend the 405 Freeway Will Stand Still – Brentwood, California Patch". Brentwood.patch.com. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
- Mather, Kate; Bloomekatz, Ari; Saillant, Saillant (July 19, 2011). "In 'Carmageddon,' some see road map for the future". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- "Metrolink sets weekend ridership recording during 405 closure". The Source. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
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- "Great Circle Mapper". Gcmap.com. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
- "LA avoids feared 'Carmageddon' traffic jam". The Independent. July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- Morgan, Jared (July 19, 2012). "Carmageddon 2012 Announced, Full 405 Closure in September". Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- Winer, Arthur; Zhu, Yifang; Paulson, Suzanne (Spring 2014). "Carmageddon or Carmaheaven? Air Quality Results of a Freeway Closure" (PDF). Access. 44: 17–21.
- "Sepulveda Pass Improvement Project". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- "LA Time Jamzilla , Feb. 14, 2014". latimes.com. February 14, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Carpool lane on North 405 Freeway opens". KABC-TV Los Angeles. May 23, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
- "405 on the move-PR" (PDF).
- "OCTA approves study of 405 widening project". Daily Pilot. February 10, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- THE SIMPSON CASE: THE INMATE; Simpson, Under Suicide Watch, Is Jailed on 2 Murder Charges, Seth Mydans, The New York Times, June 19, 1994, Retrieved December 9, 2007
- Bill Cosby's Son Is Slain Along Freeway, B. Drummond Ayres Jr., The New York Times, January 17, 1997, Retrieved December 9, 2007
- "CLP – Vanity Card #429". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- As told in track nine of their iTunes Originals Album
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- "405 Freeway NB Montana Avenue Offramp Dies At 57". CBS. Los Angeles, California: CBS Radio Inc. 2013-11-24. Retrieved 2014-03-19.