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Interstate 405 (California)

  (Redirected from I-405 (CA))

Interstate 405 (I-405) is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. The entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway. I-405 is a bypass auxiliary route of I-5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles urban area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north.

Interstate 405 marker

Interstate 405
San Diego Freeway
I-405 highlighted in red
Route information
Auxiliary route of I-5
Defined by Streets and Highways Code § 615
Maintained by Caltrans
Length72.415 mi[1] (116.541 km)
Existed1964–present
Major junctions
South end I-5 in Irvine
 
North end I-5 near San Fernando
Location
CountiesOrange, Los Angeles
Highway system
US 395US 466

I-405 is a heavily traveled thoroughfare by both commuters and freight haulers along its entire length and is the busiest and most congested freeway in the United States.[2][3] The freeway's annual average daily traffic between exits 21 and 22 in Seal Beach reached 374,000 in 2008, making it the highest count in the nation.[4] It has played a crucial role in the development of dozens of cities and suburbs along its route through Los Angeles and Orange counties. It also serves Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and Orange County's John Wayne Airport.

Contents

Route descriptionEdit

Orange CountyEdit

 
The Bristol exit near South Coast Plaza and Segerstrom Center for the Arts, with Saddleback in the background

I-405 begins at the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine in Orange County, splitting from its parent I-5 and inheriting that route's San Diego Freeway title; I-5 continues north as the Santa Ana Freeway. The freeway passes immediately south of the Irvine Spectrum Center mall before intersecting with State Route 133 (SR 133). It then continues through Irvine, passing north of UC Irvine and then along the northern boundary of John Wayne International Airport. After passing the airport, the freeway enters Costa Mesa and has an interchange with SR 55. It passes South Coast Plaza before a partial interchange with SR 73, which serves as a partially-tolled bypass of I-405 between Costa Mesa and Laguna Niguel.

The freeway then travels through Fountain Valley and along the edges of Westminster and Huntington Beach before entering Seal Beach, where it begins to run concurrently with SR 22. It continues along the northern edge of Seal Beach, passing between Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach and Joint Forces Training Base Los Alamitos, before SR 22 splits from I-405 and continues west while the freeway turns north. I-405 then intersects the southern end of I-605 before crossing the San Gabriel River and entering Los Angeles County.

Los Angeles CountyEdit

I-405 enters Los Angeles County in the city of Long Beach. It passes to the north of California State University, Long Beach and then along the south of Long Beach Airport. The freeway then intersects with I-710 before entering Carson, where it meets I-110. It also passes near California State University, Dominguez Hills and Dignity Health Sports Park, home of Major League Soccer club LA Galaxy.

After leaving Carson, I-405 briefly enters the city of Los Angeles by passing through the Harbor Gateway, a strip of land connecting San Pedro to the rest of the city. The freeway then continues to roughly parallel the contour of the coastline as it passes through the South Bay communities of Torrance, Lawndale, Redondo Beach, Hawthorne, and El Segundo. The freeway then encounters I-105 in an interchange on the southeastern corner of Los Angeles International Airport. It passes to the east of the airport, serving it with exits at Imperial Highway and Century Boulevard.

I-405 next passes through Inglewood, coming near the site of the Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park, future home to the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. It then passes through Westchester and Culver City where it meets SR 90, the Marina Freeway. It serves the Los Angeles neighborhoods of Mar Vista and West Los Angeles while passing a few miles east of Santa Monica, interchanging with I-10 in the process. The freeway continues into Westwood, passing just to the west of UCLA. It then passes the Getty Center as it ascends the Sepulveda Pass through the Santa Monica Mountains.

 
I-405 near the interchange with the Ventura Freeway (U.S. Route 101)

After cresting the mountains, I-405 descends into the San Fernando Valley, intersecting U.S. Route 101 (US 101) in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of Los Angeles. The freeway then continues due north through the western part of the valley, passing east of Van Nuys Airport and California State University, Northridge. It intersects SR 118 in the Mission Hills area before ending in a merge with I-5 in Sylmar.

I-405 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System,[5] and is part of the National Highway System,[6] a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.[7] The freeway from present-day I-10 to I-5 near San Fernando is known as the San Diego Freeway, and less commonly as the Sepulveda Freeway (after Sepulveda Boulevard).[8]

The view from the Getty Center, south of the Sepulveda Pass, looking east, south, and west. I-405 can be seen at the center.

Traffic congestionEdit

 
I-405 in the Sepulveda Pass

The freeway's congestion problems are legendary, leading to jokes that the road was numbered 405 because traffic moves at "four or five" miles per hour, or because drivers had spent "four or five" hours to travel anywhere. Indeed, average speeds as low as 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h) are routinely recorded during morning and afternoon commutes, and its interchanges with the Ventura Freeway (US 101) and with the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10) each consistently rank among the five most congested freeway interchanges in the United States. As a result of these congestion problems, delays passing through the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area using this bypass route instead of merely using the primary route I-5 through Downtown may be present.

Of the major reasons for the excessively heavy traffic on the freeway, I-405 is the only major north–south freeway in the densely populated areas between West Los Angeles and Downtown, crossing the Santa Monica Mountains and connecting San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles basin. Another parallel freeway is proposed to connect the Valley and the LA basin (the Laurel Canyon Freeway or La Cienega Freeway), but has faced upper class home-owner opposition.[9] Despite four years of construction disruptions, billions of dollars of public money, LA Times commentary claims traffic with the lane expansions is actually just as bad or worse.[10]


HistoryEdit

 

State Route 7
LocationPalos Verdes Peninsula - New Pine Creek
Existed1934–1964
 
1955 map of the planned Interstates in the Los Angeles area; present-day I-405 roughly corresponds to the 1955 proposed route through the western regions of the area.
 
Civil engineers Marilyn Reece and Carol Schumaker, at the Reece-designed I-10/I-405 interchange, 1964

I-405 was approved as a chargeable Interstate (in other words, an Interstate financed with federal funds) in 1955. Construction began in 1957 with the first section, mostly north of LAX Airport, completed in 1961 (signed as SR 7) followed by sections west of I-605 within the following few years. The highway was renumbered to I-405 during the 1964 renumbering. The final section covering most of Orange County opened in 1969. Construction required the already existing Mulholland Highway to be re-routed 1.1 miles (1.8 km) to the south along a new 579-foot-long (176 m) bridge, the Mulholland Drive Bridge, to span I-405.[11]

"Carmageddon"Edit

A section of I-405 was closed over the weekend of Friday, July 15, 2011 as part of the Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project.[12] Before the closing, local radio DJs and television newscasts referred to it as "Carmageddon" and "Carpocalypse", parodying the notion of Armageddon and the Apocalypse, since it was anticipated that the closure would severely impact traffic.[13][14]

In reality, traffic was lighter than normal across a wide area. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) reported that fewer vehicles used the roads than usual, and those who did travel by road arrived more quickly than on a normal weekend.[15] The Metrolink commuter train system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership since it began operating in 1991. Ridership was 50% higher than the same weekend in 2010, and 10% higher than the previous weekend ridership record, which occurred during the U2 360° Tour in June 2011.[16] In response to jetBlue Airlines' offer of special flights between Bob Hope Airport in Burbank and Long Beach Airport, a distance of only 29 miles (47 km), for $4,[17][18] a group of cyclists did the same journey in one and a half hours, compared to two and a half hours by plane (including a drive to the airport from West Hollywood 90 minutes in advance of the flight and travel time to the end destination).[19] There was also some debate about whether the Los Angeles area could benefit from car-free weekends regularly.[15]

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority had full closure of a 10-mile (16 km) stretch of I-405 on the weekend of September 29–30, 2012, while construction crews worked to demolish a portion of the Mulholland Bridge.[20]

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles used the closure of I-405 to study particulate matter air pollution. The researchers took air samples before, during, and after the closure. The researchers found an 83% reduction in ultrafine particles, 55% reduction in fine particle matter, and 62% less black carbon.[21]

Sepulveda Pass Improvements ProjectEdit

The $1 billion Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project added a high-occupancy vehicle lane and associated changes to freeway entrances, exits, and underpasses along a 10-mile stretch through the Sepulveda Pass between I-10 and U.S. 101/Ventura Boulevard.[22] The project was completed as a design-build in contrast to the traditional design-bid-build used typically in infrastructure improvement. This section of I-405 was closed for a weekend in mid-July 2011 to demolish the Mulholland Drive Bridge, and a 10-mile (16 km) section was closed for the last weekend of September 2012.[12]

Jamzilla was the name for the I-405 closure on President's Day Weekend 2014. There were lane closures and complete closures on I-405 starting February 14 at 10 p.m. until February 18 at 6 a.m. to pave and re-stripe the northbound lanes.[23]

On May 23, 2014, the 10-mile (16 km) high-occupancy vehicle lane was opened to traffic.[24]

FutureEdit

 
Aerial view from the north of Interstate 405's interchange with I-105 near Los Angeles International Airport from directly above Arbor Vitae Street; the hills of the Palos Verdes Peninsula are visible in the distance.

Manchester and Century Boulevard interchangesEdit

Proposed changes between the Manchester and Century Boulevard interchanges in the City of Inglewood to provide a new southbound on-ramp and a new northbound off-ramp for Arbor Vitae Street, to reconstruct and widened the Arbor Vitae Street over-bridge and replace the Century Boulevard overcrossing structure.[25] This work would reduce congestion on the approach to Los Angeles International Airport.[citation needed] The California Department of Transportation has not yet issued a start date for this work.

Orange CountyEdit

The Orange County Transportation Authority is currently preparing the design plans to add a High-occupancy toll (HOT) express lane and one mixed flow lane in each direction between SR 73 in Costa Mesa and I-605 in Seal Beach.[26] The I-405 Improvement Project is starting construction in 2018 and is scheduled to be completed in 2023.

IncidentsEdit

UCLA protest, 1966Edit

Following the 1966 UCLA–USC rivalry game, USC was voted into the Rose Bowl despite the UCLA team's having defeated the Trojans—with both teams having only one loss during the season. UCLA students protested by blocking the freeway's northbound lanes at Wilshire Boulevard.[citation needed]

The O.J. Simpson chase, 1994Edit

While dangerous high-speed chases along the San Diego Freeway are not uncommon, perhaps the most famous chase in its history was also one of the slowest. On the afternoon of June 17, 1994, former athlete and actor O.J. Simpson, who was accused of murdering his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and waiter Ronald Goldman, took to the freeway in a white Ford Bronco (driven by former teammate Al Cowlings) with police in pursuit. A widely televised low-speed chase ensued and ended hours later when Simpson returned to his Brentwood, Los Angeles, home and surrendered to law enforcement.[27]

Murder of Ennis Cosby, 1997Edit

Ennis Cosby, the only son of Bill Cosby, was murdered along I-405 in Los Angeles on January 16, 1997, while fixing a flat tire.[28]

Sherman Oaks truck crash, 2019Edit

On March 10, 2019, the portion of I-405 between the Ventura Freeway (US 101) and Burbank Boulevard in the Sherman Oaks area was closed in both directions as a propane tanker truck carrying more than 9,000 US gallons (34,000 l) of flammable gas overturned along the southbound lanes of I-405. No explosion resulted from the incident.[29]

In popular cultureEdit

I-405 was the location for the short film 405.

The Swedish rock band Europe's song "California 405" is featured on their 2015 studio album War of Kings.

Chuck Lorre used an end-of-show vanity card in 2013 to berate workers on I- for their apparent lack of progress after five years.[30]

The Jimmy Eat World song "If you don't, don't", from the album "Bleed America" includes the line "Don't you know I'm thinking (know I'm thinking), driving 405 past midnight".

The Death Cab for Cutie song "405" on their second studio album, We Have the Facts and We're Voting Yes, may be incorrectly associated with California's I-405. The song is actually referring to I-405 in Seattle, as the band is from Bellingham.[31]

The song "Drive" on Halsey's 2015 album Badlands uses the story of a reckless drive on the I-405 to frame its relatively unstructured lyrics.[32]

Video games

The San Diego freeway, was featured in call of duty ghosts, in the mission, No Mans Land. I-405 was part of the freeway map, in Midnight club Los Angeles.

Exit listEdit

Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, and do not necessarily reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since then, M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, and T indicates postmiles classified as temporary (for a full list of prefixes, see the list of postmile definitions).[1] Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted. The numbers reset at county lines; the start and end postmiles in each county are given in the county column.

CountyLocationPostmile
[1][33][34]
Exit
[35]
DestinationsNotes
Orange
ORA 0.23–24.18
Irvine0.23  I-5 south (San Diego Freeway) – San DiegoSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; former US 101 south; southern terminus; I-5 north exit 94A
  I-5 southHOV access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance
1ALake Forest DriveSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
1BBake ParkwaySouthbound exit and northbound entrance
0.951CIrvine Center DriveSigned as exit 1 northbound
1.802  SR 133 (Laguna Freeway) – Laguna BeachNo northbound exit to SR 133 north; SR 133 north exit 8, south exits 8A-B
2.883Shady Canyon Drive / Sand Canyon Avenue
3.954Jeffrey Road / University Drive
5.625Culver Drive
6.927Jamboree Road
7.808  MacArthur Boulevard – John Wayne Airport
Costa Mesa8.749A  SR 55 (Costa Mesa Freeway)SR 55 north exit 6, south exits 6A-B
  SR 55 northHOV access only
9BAnton Boulevard / Avenue of the ArtsNorthbound exit and entrance
9.519BBristol Street
10.2810   SR 73 south (Corona del Mar Freeway) to SR 55 south (Costa Mesa Freeway) – San Diego via toll roadSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
11South Coast DriveNorthbound exit only
10.7511AFairview RoadSigned as exit 11 northbound
11.4511BHarbor Boulevard – Costa MesaSigned as exit 11 northbound
Fountain Valley12.4712Euclid Street / Newhope Street / Ellis Avenue
13.7814Brookhurst Street – Fountain Valley
14.8215AWarner Avenue eastSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
Huntington Beach15.2115BMagnolia Street / Warner Avenue westSigned as exit 15 northbound
16.5416  SR 39 (Beach Boulevard) – Westminster, Huntington Beach
Westminster17.7518Bolsa Avenue / Goldenwest StreetGoldenwest Street is signed as Golden West Street.
19.1619Westminster Avenue / Springdale Street
20.5620Bolsa Chica Road / Valley View StreetFor southbound only, omits Valley View Street on signage
  SR 22 eastHOV access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance
20.7521  SR 22 east (Garden Grove Freeway) / Valley View Street / Bolsa Chica Road / Garden Grove Boulevard – Garden GroveSouthern end of SR 22 concurrency, signage omits Bolsa Chica Road.
Seal Beach22.6422Seal Beach Boulevard / Los Alamitos BoulevardFormer SR 35
23.2823  SR 22 west (7th Street) – Long BeachNorthern end of SR 22 concurrency; I-605 exit 1A
  I-605 northHOV access only; northbound exit and southbound entrance
24.0424A  I-605 north (San Gabriel River Freeway)Signed as exit 24 northbound; I-605 south exits 1B-1C; SR 22 east exit 2
Los Angeles
LA 0.27–48.64
Long Beach0.4524BStudebaker RoadSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
1.1125Palo Verde Avenue
1.6426AWoodruff AvenueNo southbound exit
2.1826BBellflower BoulevardSigned as exit 26 southbound
3.3227   SR 19 (Lakewood Boulevard) – Long Beach Airport
4.8829Spring Street / Cherry Avenue – Signal HillSigned as exits 29A (south) and 29B (north)
Signal Hill5.3929COrange Avenue
Long Beach6.0830AAtlantic Avenue
6.3430BLong Beach BoulevardFormer SR 15
6.7032APacific AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
7.6032  I-710 (Long Beach Freeway) – Long Beach, PasadenaSigned as exits 32A (north) and 32B (south) northbound, and 32B (south) and 32C (north) southbound; I-710 exit 4
8.0632CHughes Way / Santa Fe AvenueSigned as exit 32D southbound
Carson8.7833AAlameda Street (SR 47 south)
9.5633BWilmington Avenue
10.5434Carson Street
11.2235Avalon Boulevard – CarsonNorthbound exit to Avalon Boulevard south is via exit 34.
12.6036Main StreetNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
12.9737A  I-110 (Harbor Freeway) – San Pedro, Los AngelesSigned as exit 37 northbound; former US 6; I-110 exit 9
Los Angeles13.2837BVermont AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
13.8338ANormandie Avenue – Gardena
14.4038BWestern Avenue
Torrance15.4539Crenshaw Boulevard – Torrance
16.5740  To SR 91 / Artesia BoulevardSigned as exit 40A southbound; former SR 91
16.8840BRedondo Beach Boulevard – Redondo BeachSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
Lawndale17.5942A  SR 107 (Hawthorne Boulevard) – Lawndale
Redondo Beach18.2342BInglewood Avenue
Hawthorne19.2143Rosecrans Avenue – Manhattan BeachSigned as exits 43A (east) and 43B (west) southbound
20.2244El Segundo Boulevard – El Segundo
Los AngelesR21.1845A  I-105 (Century Freeway) – El Segundo, NorwalkSigned as exit 45 southbound; serves Los Angeles International Airport; I-105 east exit 2, west exit 2B
R21.2245BImperial HighwaySouthbound exit is part of exit 46.
Inglewood22.2246  Century Boulevard – LAX Airport
23.3647Manchester Boulevard / La Cienega Boulevard / Florence AvenueManchester Boulevard was former SR 42.
Los Angeles24.2748La Tijera Boulevard
24.5649AHoward Hughes Parkway / Sepulveda BoulevardSigned as exit 49 southbound
Culver City25.4649BSepulveda Boulevard / Slauson Avenue (SR 90 east)Northbound exit only; SR 90 exit 2
25.9550AJefferson BoulevardSigned as exit 50B northbound
25.9550B  SR 90 (Marina Freeway) / Slauson Avenue – Marina del ReySigned as exit 50A northbound; no access from I-405 north to SR 90 east; SR 90 exit 2
27.2051Culver Boulevard / Washington Boulevard – Culver City
27.9652Venice Boulevard (SR 187) / Washington Boulevard
Los Angeles29.1653ANational BoulevardNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
29.5453B  I-10 (Santa Monica Freeway) – Santa Monica, Los AngelesSigned as exit 53 southbound; I-10 exits 3A-B
30.1854Olympic Boulevard / Pico BoulevardSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; former SR 26
30.8655A  SR 2 (Santa Monica Boulevard)Former US 66
31.5455BWilshire BoulevardSigned as exits 55B (east) and 55C (west) southbound
32.5056Montana AvenueNorthbound exit only; demolished[36]
33.0057ASunset BoulevardSigned as exit 57 southbound
33.2957BMoraga DriveNorthbound exit and entrance
34.7659Getty Center Drive
36.0361Mulholland Drive / Skirball Center Drive
Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles39.0063AVentura Boulevard / Sepulveda Boulevard / Valley Vista Boulevard
39.4363B  US 101 (Ventura Freeway) – Ventura, Los AngelesUS 101 exit 19A
40.2964Burbank Boulevard
Van Nuys, Los Angeles41.3665Victory Boulevard – Van Nuys
42.3666Sherman Way – Van Nuys AirportSigned as exits 66A (east) and 66B (west) northbound
North Hills, Los Angeles43.7668Roscoe Boulevard – Panorama City
44.7469Nordhoff Street
Mission Hills, Los Angeles46.2470Devonshire Street – Granada Hills
46.8571A  SR 118 (Ronald Reagan Freeway) – Simi ValleySigned as exit 71 southbound; no southbound exit to SR 118 east or northbound entrance from SR 118 west; SR 118 east exit 42A, west exit 42B
47.2471BSan Fernando Mission Boulevard – San FernandoNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
47.7572Rinaldi Street – Mission Hills
48.64  I-5 north (Golden State Freeway) – Bakersfield, SacramentoNorthbound exit and southbound entrance; northern terminus; I-5 south exit 158
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c California Department of Transportation. "State Truck Route List". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (XLS file) on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  2. ^ "U.S. Highways With the Most Traffic". Time For Kids. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011.
  3. ^ Santa Monica College Corsair News Article Archived August 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Office of Highway Policy Information (July 27, 2010). "Most Travelled Urban Highways Average Annual Daily Traffic". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  5. ^ "Article 2 of Chapter 2 of Division 1 of the California Streets and Highways Code". Sacramento: California Office of Legislative Counsel. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  6. ^ Federal Highway Administration (March 25, 2015). National Highway System: Los Angeles, CA (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
  7. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  8. ^ California Department of Transportation; California State Transportation Agency (January 2015). 2014 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California. Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. pp. 82, 266. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
  9. ^ "Crossroads of Confusion". Los Angeles Times. March 20, 1998. p. 2. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
  10. ^ Hall, Carla (December 2, 2014). "Four ways the 405 freeway project has not made your life better". Los Angeles Times.
  11. ^ Racine, Ned (January 11, 2011). "How the Mulholland Drive bridge was constructed". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  12. ^ a b "Interstate 405: The 'Carmageddon', History, Myth and Trivia". During 53 hours of closure, the north side of the Mulholland Bridge will be demolished as part of the $1 billion Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project.
  13. ^ Gish, Judy (June 2011). "I-405 Summer Weekend Closure Planned". Inside Seven. California Department of Transportation District 7. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  14. ^ Gostar, Reza (June 9, 2011). "Carpocalypse: The Weekend the 405 Freeway Will Stand Still – Brentwood, California Patch". Brentwood.patch.com. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  15. ^ a b Mather, Kate; Bloomekatz, Ari; Saillant, Saillant (July 19, 2011). "In 'Carmageddon,' some see road map for the future". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  16. ^ "Metrolink sets weekend ridership recording during 405 closure". The Source. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
  17. ^ "JetBlue — 405 Freeway Closure? We're So Over It!". JetBlue. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  18. ^ "Great Circle Mapper". Gcmap.com. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  19. ^ "LA avoids feared 'Carmageddon' traffic jam". The Independent. London. July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
  20. ^ Morgan, Jared (July 19, 2012). "Carmageddon 2012 Announced, Full 405 Closure in September". Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  21. ^ Winer, Arthur; Zhu, Yifang; Paulson, Suzanne (Spring 2014). "Carmageddon or Carmaheaven? Air Quality Results of a Freeway Closure" (PDF). Access. 44: 17–21.
  22. ^ "Sepulveda Pass Improvement Project". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
  23. ^ Groves, Martha (February 14, 2014). "Jamzilla lane closures on the 405 Freeway begin tonight". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  24. ^ "Carpool lane on North 405 Freeway opens". Los Angeles: KABC-TV. May 23, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  25. ^ District 7. "Interstate 405: On- and Off-Ramp Improvements at Arbor Vitae Street" (PDF). California Department of Transportation.
  26. ^ "OCTA approves study of 405 widening project". Daily Pilot. February 10, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  27. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 19, 1994). "The Simpson Case: The Inmate; Simpson, Under Suicide Watch, Is Jailed on 2 Murder Charges". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  28. ^ Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr. (January 17, 1997). "Bill Cosby's Son Is Slain Along Freeway". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  29. ^ Hernandez, Jade (March 10, 2019). "405 Freeway closed in Sherman Oaks after tanker carrying 9,400 gallons of propane overturns". ABC7.com. Los Angeles: KABC-TV. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  30. ^ "CLP – Vanity Card #429". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  31. ^ As told in track nine of their iTunes Originals Album
  32. ^ Sherman, Maria (August 21, 2015). "Halsey Shares Unrestrained New 'Badlands' Song, "Drive"". Fuse. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
  33. ^ California Department of Transportation (July 2007). "Log of Bridges on State Highways". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation.
  34. ^ California Department of Transportation, All Traffic Volumes on CSHS, 2005 and 2006
  35. ^ Howe, Dan (April 17, 2007). "I-405 Northbound" (PDF). California Numbered Exit Uniform System. California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
    Howe, Dan (April 17, 2007). "I-405 Southbound" (PDF). California Numbered Exit Uniform System. California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
  36. ^ "405 Freeway NB Montana Avenue Offramp Dies At 57". Los Angeles: KCBS-TV. November 24, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2014.

External linksEdit