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Holmenkollbakken is a large ski jumping hill located at Holmenkollen in Oslo, Norway. It has a hill size of HS134, a construction point of K-120, and a capacity for 70,000 spectators. Holmenkollen has hosted the Holmenkollen Ski Festival since 1892, which since 1980 have been part of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup and 1983 the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup. It has also hosted the 1952 Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011.

Holmenkollbakken
Kollen
Bakken2.jpg
LocationHolmenkollen, Oslo
Norway
Opened30 January 1892
Renovated1894, 1904, 1907, 1910, 1914, 1928, 1931, 1940, 1945, 1952, 1966, 1977, 1982, 1992, 2010
Size
K–pointK-120
Hill sizeHS 134
Hill record144 m (472 ft)
NorwayRobert Johansson
(9 Mar 2019)
Spectator capacity70.000
Top events
Olympics1952
World Championships1930, 1966, 1982, 2011
World Cup1980, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

The hill has been rebuilt 19 times; important upgrades include a stone take-off in 1910, an in-run superstructure in 1914, and a new superstructure in 1928. During the Second World War, the venue was used as a military installation, but upgraded in the late 1940s. Further expansions were made ahead of the 1966 and 1982 World Championships, as well as in 1991. Between 2008 and 2010, the entire structure was demolished and rebuilt. As of 8 February 2011, the hill record is unofficially held by Anders Jacobsen at 142.5 meters. The official hill record was set at 5 March 2011 by Andreas Kofler at 141 meters. The hill is part of Holmenkollen National Arena, which in addition to cross-country and biathlon venues has the normal hill Midtstubakken.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Holmenkollbakken in 1904, after the stone take-off had been built
 
Growth of the Holmenkollbakken

Original hillEdit

The first major skiing competition in Oslo was Husebyrennet, which was held in Husebybakken in Ullern from 1879 until 1891.[1] In 1887, the road to Holmenkollen was opened, although it was at the time only used for recreation, as there was no housing in the area. I. C. L. Holm saw the potential to develop the area into a recreational centre, and established Peisestuen in 1886, Holmenkollen Sportsstue in 1891, Holmenkollen Sanatorium og Turisthotell in 1894, and Voksenkollen Sanatorium in 1900.[2] In 1890, Husebyrennet had to be canceled due to lack of snow, and instead the tournament was held at Ullbakken at Frognerseteren. Because of the distance, the tournament was held on a Sunday; this caused some criticism, and to compensate it was decided not to collect entrance fees. The following year, the final event was held in Husebybakken.[3]

Following the 1891 season, the lease with the land owner for Husebybakken needed to be renegotiated. Several times the venues had had too little snow and Fritz Huitfeldt and Hans Krag proposed building a new hill at Besserudmyra. After half a year of planning, the general assembly of the Association for the Promotion of Skiing approved the move in late 1891.[3] To create sufficient water supply for the hotels, a dam had been built and this created Besserudtjernet, a small lake, at the bottom of the hill. It would cover with ice during the winter.[4] Construction was simple: a few trees had to be chopped down and when the snow came, branches were laid where the jump was to be.[5] The first competition was held on 30 January 1892, and was spectated by between fifteen and twenty thousand people,[6] who saw jumpers reach 15 to 21.5 meters.[7][8]

 
Holmenkollbakken in 1917, after the first scaffold had been erected

The original hill had a knoll just after the take-off, which gave the psychological feeling of falling and made landing more difficult. It was therefore decided to change the profile slightly to make the hill safer and allow more jumpers to land properly. No standard profiles existed at the time, so the Association for the Promotion of Skiing had to do guesswork to create a better profile. The new profile was taken into use from 1894 and had cost NOK 2000. For the first decade, the take-off was rebuilt for every year, and its position would therefore vary. In 1904, the take-off was rebuilt with rocks, giving it a specific location on the hill. Prior to the 1907 season, landing slope was built down slightly into the terrain down from the 25 meter mark, as it would give easier landing. The take-off was moved in 1910 and built as a 2-meter (6 ft 7 in) tall stone structure.[5] To keep the lake with a hard layer of ice, the snow was removed as it fell; if the ice was not thick enough it could create problems with flooding the spectator areas during the events.[4] From 1913, the lake was opened as a skating rink and marketed by the hotels as part of their services.[9] However, it was never a success, and was abandoned within a few years.[10]

During the 1910s it had become common in the United States to build jumps with a scaffold superstructure for the in-run, and this had been described as an abomination in the Norwegian press. Prior to the 1914 season, a 10-meter (33 ft) tall steel superstructure was built.[5] This resulted in massive negative reactions in the press, and it was the public's opinion that ski jumping was to be done in natural hills. The same year, two other major Norwegian hills received similar structures, Nydalsbakken and Solbergbakken. The first trials were made on 15 January, giving jumps 34 meters. This was regarded as the furthest anyone would jump.[11] The hill was subsequently expanded slightly a few times afterwards, including blasting it steeper, chopping it wider, and covering the landing slope with earth and sowing grass to improve the profile.[12]

 
In-run in 1934, after the second scaffold had been erected

Olympic hillEdit

The day after the race in 1927, the superstructure collapsed, caused by rot in combination with a heavy snowfall. This caused the introduction of public control with scaffolding and bleachers in Norway. By then, Holmenkollbakken was lagging behind internationally, and the world record at the time had exceeded 60 meters. It was therefore decided that a new superstructure would be 19 meters (62 ft) tall and moved 9 meters (30 ft) further back.[12] Besserudtjernet was partially drained in 1928, but the hotels, which received their water from the lake, would not allow draining the following years.[13] In 1931, the lake was fully drained, which allowed the out-run to be longer.[12] In the 1930s, talk of an 80-meter hill started, which would potentially be built in Rødkleiva, further out in Nordmarka. The Association for the Promotion of Skiing made a formal investigation into the matter in 1937.[14] There was agreement that the venue was becoming too small for international competitions.[15]

Following the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1940 being awarded to Oslo, the Association for the Promotion of Skiing decided to build a larger in-run. Construction started in 1938 and consisted of a 40-meter (130 ft) tall in-run tower. The take-off was moved 12 meters (39 ft) further back and 6 meters (20 ft) higher. The new structure was inaugurated in 1940, although the World Championships were canceled due to the Second World War. The venue was subsequently left unused for five years during the German occupation of Norway. German forces used the hill as a site for anti-aircraft artillery and the in-run was painted green. In 1945, the venue received a new upgrade, this time with new grandstands and a larger profile.[15]

 
The hill in 1952, one week after the 1952 Winter Olympics had been held there

In 1948, Oslo was awarded to host the 1952 Winter Olympics. This caused a bonanza of plans, one superseding the other.[15] Until then, the grandstand on the sides of the hill had been temporary; prior to the Olympics these were rebuilt as permanent.[16] A new grandstand was built, a jury tower was constructed, as was facilities for the delegates, the royal family and radio broadcasting.[15] The in-run was rebuilt; while it previously had been a mess of open, wooden structures, it was shelled in, painted white and received an elevator.[17] The hill had to be expanded, and to allow this, the landing slope needed to be lifted by being built as an artificial structure. Below the lifted part of the hill was built a three-story building, with the ski museum in the lower two floors and a restaurant in the top floor.[16] The lake was dug 6 meters (20 ft) deep and made a swimming pool during the summer. The upgrades cost NOK 1.5 million, paid for by Oslo Municipality.[17] These upgrades resulted in an artificial lake being constructed in the off-run, which became a recreational and swimming venue for the city's residents. The lake was at the time 3 meters (9.8 ft) deep and had a typical temperature of 10 °C (50 °F).[18] Oslo had a failed bid for the 1968 Winter Olympics.[19]

Following Oslo's decision to bid for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1966, it became evident that more upgrades would be needed to meet the International Ski Federation's requirements. To allow for longer jumps, the take-off needed to be moved 10 meters (33 ft) back, and the lake dug deeper, with new concrete stands being built into the sides. Combined with the tower being built taller, this gave a 56-meter (184 ft) height difference between the start and the off-run, allowing for the desired lengths. The championships were the first to use computer to calculate the scores, but communication still used wired telephones, as had been used during the Olympics. The public announcement and scoreboard systems remained manual.[17]

 
The hill during the summer of 1975

By 1971, the Association for the Promotion of Skiing was no longer making much money off the Ski Festival, and they started discussing rebuilding the entire complex. Rolf Ramm Østgaard made a proposal which would include a twin hill, with both a normal and large hill. Again the proposal of building the large hill at Rødkleiva was launched. The arguments for keeping the hill at Holmenkollen was that it would allow for a close connection between the ski jumping and cross-country skiing events. However, Holmenkollen, because it was built with a superstructure, was plagued with wind. Experience from among other things Salpausselkä in Lahti, Finland, showed that this could be partially combated by building the jump into the hill. No immediate solution was found, and maintenance of the old structure continued.[17] Lighting which allowed the venue to be seen from the city during night was installed in 1977. The main problem was the elevator, which was eventually replaced in 1978.[20] During the 1970s, a stage was built in the lake, which allowed concerts, plays and other entertainment events to take place.[21] Oslo City Council considered bidding for the 1980 Winter Olympics during the 1970s, but it was found that it would not be a suitable investment.[19]

In 1979, Oslo was awarded the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1982, and further upgrades to the hill were necessary. The costs of the upgrades were NOK 50 million, of which the Norwegian Ski Federation paid NOK 5 million, and Oslo Municipality and the state split the rest.[20] The large expenditures resulted in a public debate.[22] The upgrades saw the introduction of electronics into most parts of the venue. The old system of manual distance measurement by people standing beside the hill was abolished, and replaced by the video-based system Robotron. Other new installations was an electronic result and scoreboard system, a new time-keeping and speed system, and a new central system to calculate scores.[20] The in-run was expanded, and a mobile start platform was installed, but later removed and replaced by a bar. The knoll and landing slope were adjusted, and the straight section was moved 10 meters (33 ft) further down. In the transition to the out-run, 130,000 cubic meters (4,600,000 cu ft) of earthwork was blasted away, and Besserudtjernet was sunk another 7 meters (23 ft). This allowed for additional grandstands to be built and the last wooden grandstands were removed. New structures were built for delegates, broadcasting and the jury.[23]

 
The in-run in 2007

The Robotron system was found to be unreliable, and was taken out of use in 1986.[23] In 1990, a porcelain track was laid in the in-run.[24] An aluminum stage was also built across the off-run, which could be used for concerts during the summer.[21] In 1992, the hill was further expanded by digging down another 3.5 meters (11 ft). This increased the K-point from 105 to 110. From 1992, the venue used a system of video still images to determine the length.[24] Following the decision to upgrade the hill in 1991, Kollenhopp was established. A cooperation between the ski jumping clubs in Eastern Norway, it was to create more jumping activity in Holmenkollbakken, similar to the success of Trønderhopp.[25] From 1992, the hill received floodlighting, allowing events to be scheduled into the evening, and the organizers able to move events to the evening, if wind conditions were not good during the day.[20]

New hillEdit

In 2002, the Association for the Promotion of Skiing and the city started the process of applying for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2009.[26] The city council decided to grant NOK 52.8 million to upgrade Holmenkollen, including Holmenkollbakken, for the 2009 World Championships.[27] Oslo lost the vote in the International Ski Federation (FIS) against Liberec, Czech Republic, on 4 June 2004. The Norwegian Ski Federation subsequently stated that they would apply for the 2011 World Championships.[28] The Association for the Promotion of Skiing stated that they wanted a new hill in Rødkleiva instead of expanding the existing ski flying hill in Vikersund, Vikersundbakken. Holmenkollbakken would then be used for the last time as a large hill during the 2011 World Championships, and would then converted to a normal hill.[29] In May 2005, the general assembly of the Norwegian Ski Federation voted to build a new ski flying and normal hill in Rødkleiva ahead of the 2011 World Championships.[30] Following Vikersundbakken being awarded the FIS Ski-Flying World Championships 2012 in 2008, the general assembly of the Norwegian Ski Federation that year decided to terminate the plans for a ski flying hill in Rødkleiva.[31]

On 22 September 2005, FIS stated that an all-new Holmenkollbakken would have to be built if Oslo was to host the World Championships and World Cup tournaments. FIS stated that similar reconstructions had been done with Schattenbergschanze in Oberstdorf, Germany, and Bergiselschanze in Innsbrück, Austria.[32] In December 2005, the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage gave permission for the tower to be demolished, on the condition it was replaced by a new in-run with a similar architectural quality and retain its function as a landmark. They stated that it was the activity itself that is worthy of preservation, not the structure itself.[33] The city council made the final decision to apply for the World Championships and build a new hill on 1 March 2006. A new hill was at the time estimated to cost NOK 310 million, and the state was willing to finance NOK 70 million of those.[34] Oslo was awarded the 2011 World Championships in May 2006.[35]

 
The new hill during construction; ski stadium is in foreground

The municipality issued an architectural design competition to rebuild the hill; Julien De Smedt's proposal was selected among 104 entrants.[36] At the time, it was estimated that the new national arena would cost NOK 653 million.[27] Demolition of Holmenkollbakken started on 16 October 2008.[37] The World Cup tournament in 2009 was held at Vikersundbakken instead of Holmenkollen because of the reconstruction.[citation needed] By 2008, the cost had accelerated to NOK 1.2 billion, and by the following year it had reached NOK 1.8 billion. City Commissioner For Business and Culture, Anette Wiig Bryn of the Progress Party, had to leave her position because of the cost overruns. A consultant report ordered by the municipality concluded that the pressure to find cost savings to stay within the budget, which was underestimated to start with, resulted in slower progress, which again resulted in higher costs.[27]

The costs of the new large hill were NOK 715 million, while total costs for the upgrade of the national arena and infrastructure ended at NOK 2,426 million. This included the construction of a new ski stadium next to Holmenkollbakken, and Midtstubakken, and upgrades to the Holmenkollen Line.[38] It was originally decided that the first jump would be taken by Anette Sagen, Norway's leading female jumper, on 3 March 2010. However, the organizers decided that Bjørn Einar Romøren would be allowed to test-jump the venue the evening before. In the first ever jump in the new venue, Romøren jumped 110.0 meters. The organizers stated that Sagen's jump the following day, which reached 106.5 meters, was to be considered the official first jump.[39] Romøren was subsequently suspended from the following World Cup round.[40]

On January 1, 2018, Holmenkollen hosted alpine skiing for the first time when World Cup parallel slalom events for men and women were held under the lights on a temporary 180-metre (590 ft) 19-gate course constructed inside the ski jumping arena, replacing a similar event previously held in Munich.[41][42] The races returned the next season, also on New Year's.

FacilitiesEdit

 
View from the old tower in summer; in the off-run is Besserudkjernet, with the stage visible opposite the in-run

The hill is part of Holmenkollen National Arena, which also consists of a combined cross-country skiing and biathlon stadium, the normal hill Midtstubakken.[43] Along with Granåsen in Trondheim and Lysgårdsbakken in Lillehammer, Holmenkollen is one of three normal and large hill national arenas for ski jumping and Nordic skiing.[44] The hill is the most popular tourist attraction in Norway, and has roughly one million visitors each year. Holmenkollbakken is co-located with Holmenkollen Ski Museum, which presents the history of skiing. It has a simulator which allows the public to visualize a ski jump in the hill.[45] The hill record is 139.5 meters (458 ft), set by Anders Jacobsen in 2011, and the women's record is 131.0 m (430 ft) set by Anette Sagen in 2006.[citation needed]

After the 1992 upgrades, the Olympic hill had a K-spot of 110 meters (361 ft) and the top of the in-run was 417 m (1,368 ft) above mean sea level. The tower was 42 m (138 ft) tall; the top of the in-run was located behind the tower and was 60 m (200 ft) above ground, and the in-run was 94 m (308 ft) in length. The landing slope was 37 degrees at the steepest and 115 m (377 ft) in length. The vertical height difference between the top of the in-run and the off-run was 121 meters (397 ft).[46]

 
The amphitheater of the new hill

The new hill has a hill size of 134 meters (440 ft) and K-spot of 120 m (394 ft). The steepest part of the landings slope is 35.7 degrees, which is 105.6 m (346 ft) from the take-off. The angle at the hill size point is 30.8 degrees, while the width of the landing slope is 25.2 m (83 ft). The in-run, built of steel, is 96.95 meters (318 ft) long, which is 36 degrees at the steepest. The take-off is 3.0 m (9.8 ft) in height, and the height distance from take-off to the K-point is 59.1 m (194 ft). The grandstands are made of steel and concrete, and include VIP facilities. It is the only hill in the world with a permanent wind screen built as part of the designed construction, and the only steel jump in the world. The hill is 375 m (1,230 ft) above sea level; the venue is owned by Oslo Municipality and operated by the Association for the Promotion of Skiing.[47]

Transport is based on that no spectators will use private cars to the venue. Instead, all spectators must use the Holmenkollen Line of the Oslo Metro.[48] Holmenkollen Station is located within walking distance of the large hill and cross-country stadium. Holmenkollen Station is the only one the line with platforms long enough for six cars, which allows a capacity of 9,000 people per hour.[49]

EventsEdit

LadiesEdit

Date Competition Winner Second Third
12 March 2000   HSF   Daniela Iraschko   Eva Ganster   Helena Olsson
11 March 2001   HSF   Daniela Iraschko   Henriette Smeby   Eva Ganster
17 March 2002   HSF   Helena Olsson   Daniela Iraschko   Henriette Smeby
9 March 2003   HSF   Daniela Iraschko   Anette Sagen   Helena Olsson
17 March 2013   WC   Sarah Hendrickson   Sara Takanashi   Jacqueline Seifriedsberger
8 March 2014   WC   Sara Takanashi   Katja Požun   Yūki Itō
13 March 2015   WC   Sara Takanashi   Sarah Hendrickson   Taylor Henrich
4 February 2016   WC   Sara Takanashi   Maren Lundby   Irina Avvakumova
12 March 2017   WC   Yūki Itō   Sara Takanashi   Maren Lundby
11 March 2018   WC   Maren Lundby   Daniela Iraschko-Stolz   Yūki Itō

MenEdit

In 1896 the cross-country part of Nordic combined was cancelled and ski jumping counted as final result. Ski jumping events listed only:

Date Competition Winner Second Third
24 February 1896   HSF–NCO   Sigurd Svendsen   Frimann Dahl   Robert Pehrson
28 February 1930   NWSC   Gunnar Andersen   Reidar Andersen   Sigmund Ruud
5 March 1933   HSF   Arne B. Christiansen   Reidar Andersen   Sverre Ruud
4 March 1934   HSF   Birger Ruud   Roar Hellum   Hans Kleppen
3 March 1935   HSF   Hans Beck   Sven Eriksson   Bjarne Bryntesen
1 March 1936   HSF   Reidar Andersen   Sigurd Sollid   Arnholdt Kongsgård
28 February 1937   HSF   Reidar Andersen   Sven Selånger   Birger Ruud
6 March 1938   HSF   Reidar Andersen   Arnholdt Kongsgård   Hilmar Myhra
5 March 1939   HSF   Sven Selånger   Kaare Wahlberg   Hilmar Myhra
3 March 1940   HSF   Hilmar Myhra   Reidar Andersen   Jens Østby
1941–1945   HSF no competition; World War II
3 March 1946   HSF   Asbjørn Ruud   Thorleif Schjelderup   Yngvar Myhra
2 March 1947   HSF   Georg Thrane   Henry Amdal   Asbjørn Ruud
7 March 1948   HSF   Arne Hoel   Thorleif Schjelderup   Petter Hugsted
6 March 1949   HSF   Torbjørn Falkanger   Matti Pietikäinen   Jens Østby
5 March 1950   HSF   Torbjørn Falkanger   Hans Bjørnstad   Petter Hugsted
25 February 1951   HSF   Arne Hoel   Georg Thrane   Sepp Bradl
24 February 1952   OWG   Arnfinn Bergmann   Torbjørn Falkanger   Karl Holmström
9 March 1952   HSF   Arnfinn Bergmann   Christian Mohn   Arne Hoel
  Halvor Næs
1 March 1953   HSF   Otto Austad   Torbjørn Falkanger
  Sverre Stallvik
7 March 1954   HSF strong wind
4 April 1954   ELE   Arne Hoel   Halvor Næs   Christian Mohn
6 March 1955   HSF   Aulis Kallakorpi   Eino Kirjonen
  Torbjørn Falkanger
26 February 1956   HSF   Antti Hyvärinen   Arne Hoel   Aulis Kallakorpi
  Werner Lesser
3 March 1957   HSF   Helmut Recknagel   Eino Kirjonen   Juhani Kärkinen
16 March 1958   HSF   Nikolay Kamenskiy   Helmut Recknagel   Rudolf Bykov
  Otto Leodolter
8 March 1959   HSF   Arne Hoel   Inge Lindqvist
  Nikolay Kamenskiy
20 March 1960   HSF   Helmut Recknagel   Toralf Engan   Max Bolkart
12 March 1961   HSF   Nikolaj Sjamov   Hemmo Silvennoinen   Nikolay Kamenskiy
18 March 1962   HSF   Toralf Engan   Willi Egger
  Veikko Kankkonen
17 March 1963   HSF   Torbjørn Yggeseth   John Balfanz   Kjell Sjöberg
15 March 1964   HSF   Veikko Kankkonen   Toralf Engan   Bjørn Wirkola
14 March 1965   HSF   Dieter Neuendorf   Lars Grini   Toralf Engan
27 February 1966   NWSC   Bjørn Wirkola   Takashi Fujisawa   Kjell Sjöberg
5 March 1967   HSF   Bjørn Wirkola   Bent Tomtum   Max Golser
17 March 1968   HSF   Vladimir Belousov   Bjørn Wirkola   Ludvik Zajc
16 March 1969   HSF   Topi Mattila   Gjert Andersen   Jiří Raška
15 March 1970   HSF   Vladimir Belousov   Garij Napalkov   Rudolf Höhnl
14 March 1971   HSF   Ingolf Mork   Yukio Kasaya   Walter Steiner
12 March 1972   HSF   Ingolf Mork   Hans Schmid   Akitsugu Konno
18 March 1973   HSF   Hans Schmid   Hans-Georg Aschenbach   Leoš Škoda
10 March 1974   HSF   Walter Steiner   Yukio Kasaya   Finn Halvorsen
9 March 1975   HSF   Toni Innauer   Odd Hammernes   Alfred Grosche
14 March 1976   HSF   Karl Schnabl   Toni Innauer   Johan Sætre
13 March 1977   HSF   Aleksej Borovitin   Thomas Meisinger   Walter Steiner
12 March 1978   HSF   Harald Duschek   Johan Sætre   Peter Leitner
11 March 1979   HSF   Per Bergerud   Johan Sætre   Valerij Savin
16 March 1980   WC   Armin Kogler   Jari Puikkonen   Hubert Neuper
15 March 1981   WC   Roger Ruud   Horst Bulau   Johan Sætre
26 February 1982   NWSC / WC–T   Norway
Johan Sætre
Per Bergerud
Ole Bremseth
Olav Hansson
  Austria
Hans Wallner
Hubert Neuper
Armin Kogler
Andreas Felder
  Finland
Keijo Korhonen
Jari Puikkonen
Pentti Kokkonen
Matti Nykänen
28 February 1982   NWSC–I   Matti Nykänen   Olav Hansson   Armin Kogler
13 March 1983   WC   Steinar Bråten   Horst Bulau   Armin Kogler
11 March 1984   WC   Vladimír Podzimek   Pavel Ploc   Ole Christian Eidhammer
10 March 1985   WC   Matti Nykänen   Franz Wiegele   Gérard Balanche
16 March 1986   WC   Ernst Vettori   Matti Nykänen   Andreas Felder
22 March 1987   WC   Andreas Felder   Ari-Pekka Nikkola   Miran Tepeš
20 March 1988   WC   Erik Johnsen   Ole Gunnar Fidjestøl   Günther Stranner
5 March 1989   WC   Jens Weißflog   Jon Inge Kjørum   Kent Johanssen
18 March 1990   HSF   Jens Weißflog   Andreas Felder   Pavel Ploc
17 March 1991   WC   Ernst Vettori   Stefan Horngacher   Staffan Tällberg
15 March 1992   WC   Toni Nieminen   Jiří Parma   Martin Höllwarth
14 March 1993   WC   Espen Bredesen   Didier Mollard   Jaroslav Sakala
13 March 1994   WC strong wind
12 March 1995   WC   Andreas Goldberger   Takanobu Okabe   Jens Weißflog
15 March 1996   WC–T   Austria
Martin Höllwarth
Reinhard Schwarzenberger
Andreas Widhölzl
Andreas Goldberger
  Norway
Pål Hansen
Sturle Holseter
Espen Bredesen
Roar Ljøkelsøy
  Germany
Gerd Siegmund
Michael Uhrmann
Christof Duffner
Jens Weißflog
17 March 1996   WC   Adam Małysz   Janne Ahonen   Masahiko Harada
16 March 1997   WC   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Hiroya Saitō   Bruno Reuteler
15 March 1998   WC   Primož Peterka   Bruno Reuteler   Masahiko Harada
14 March 1999   WC   Noriaki Kasai   Martin Schmitt   Kazuyoshi Funaki
12 March 2000   WC   Sven Hannawald   Ville Kantee   Janne Ahonen
11 March 2001   WC   Adam Małysz   Stefan Horngacher   Martin Schmitt
17 March 2002   WC   Simon Ammann   Sven Hannawald   Adam Małysz
8 March 2003   WC–T   Austria
Florian Liegl
Thomas Morgenstern
Christian Nagiller
Andreas Widhölzl
  Finland
Matti Hautamäki
Veli-Matti Lindström
Tami Kiuru
Arttu Lappi
  Germany
Michael Uhrmann
Martin Schmitt
Sven Hannawald
Georg Späth
9 March 2003   WC   Adam Małysz   Roar Ljøkelsøy
  Florian Liegl
14 March 2004   WC   Roar Ljøkelsøy   Simon Ammann   Bjørn Einar Romøren
13 March 2005   WC   Matti Hautamäki   Bjørn Einar Romøren   Michael Uhrmann
12 March 2006   WC   Adam Małysz   Thomas Morgenstern   Andreas Kofler
17 March 2007   WC   Adam Małysz   Andreas Küttel   Anders Bardal
18 March 2007   WC   Simon Ammann   Martin Koch   Matti Hautamäki
9 March 2008   WC   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Tom Hilde   Bjørn Einar Romøren
2009   WC under renovation; substituted with Vikersund
14 March 2010   WC   Simon Ammann   Adam Małysz   Andreas Kofler
(night) 3 March 2011   NWSC–I   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Thomas Morgenstern   Simon Ammann
5 March 2011   NWSC–T   Austria
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Martin Koch
Andreas Kofler
Thomas Morgenstern
  Norway
Anders Jacobsen
Johan Remen Evensen
Anders Bardal
Tom Hilde
  Slovenia
Peter Prevc
Jurij Tepeš
Jernej Damjan
Robert Kranjec
11 March 2012   WC   Martin Koch   Severin Freund   Robert Kranjec
17 March 2013   WC   Gregor Schlierenzauer
  Piotr Żyła
  Robert Kranjec
9 March 2014   WC   Severin Freund   Anders Bardal   Kamil Stoch
(night) 14 March 2015   WC   Severin Freund   Peter Prevc   Rune Velta
15 March 2015   WC   Severin Freund   Noriaki Kasai   Peter Prevc
  Kamil Stoch
(night) 6 February 2016   WC–T   Slovenia
Jurij Tepeš
Domen Prevc
Robert Kranjec
Peter Prevc
  Norway
Daniel-André Tande
Anders Fannemel
Johann André Forfang
Kenneth Gangnes
  Japan
Taku Takeuchi
Kento Sakuyama
Daiki Itō
Noriaki Kasai
7 February 2016   WC heavy fog; replaced by ski flying event in Vikersund
10 March 2017   WC/RA(Q)–prol.   Andreas Wellinger   Peter Prevc   Richard Freitag
11 March 2017   WC/RA–T   Austria
Michael Hayböck
Manuel Fettner
Markus Schiffner
Stefan Kraft
  Germany
Markus Eisenbichler
Stephan Leyhe
Richard Freitag
Andreas Wellinger
  Poland
Piotr Żyła
Kamil Stoch
Dawid Kubacki
Maciej Kot
12 March 2017   WC/RA–I   Stefan Kraft   Andreas Wellinger   Markus Eisenbichler
9 March 2018   WC/RA(Q)–prol.   Kamil Stoch   Robert Johansson   Richard Freitag
10 March 2018   WC/RA–T   Norway
Daniel-André Tande
Andreas Stjernen
Johann André Forfang
Robert Johansson
  Poland
Maciej Kot
Stefan Hula Jr.
Dawid Kubacki
Kamil Stoch
  Austria
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Clemens Aigner
Michael Hayböck
Stefan Kraft
11 March 2018   WC/RA–I   Daniel-André Tande   Stefan Kraft   Michael Hayböck
 
Ski jumper in 1924

The Holmenkollen Ski Festival is an annual Nordic skiing event which takes places at Holmenkollen. Until 1932, jumping was part of Nordic combined, and the events were completely dominated by Norwegians.[50] In 1903, Oslo hosted its only version of the Nordic Games, dubbed the Winter Sports Week. Regarded as the precursor of the Winter Olympics, the event featured among other things ski jumping in Holmenkollbakken.[51] The Ski Festival was first held on a Sunday in 1926.[52] Starting in 1933, there was a pure ski jumping competition, which made it easier for foreign jumping specialists to compete for the top positions.[50] Originally, the style scores were secret, creating public discussions about the fairness of judges in even races. This was changed in 1951, when the style scores started being announced over the PA system.[53]

The Holmenkollen Ski Festival has been regarded as the de facto World Championships prior to the 1924 Winter Olympics.[citation needed] The Norwegian Ski Federation had been an opponent of establishing World Championships and Winter Olympics because they felt it would take away the prestige of the Ski Festival.[54] Oslo was awarded the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1930; with exception of Sweden's Erik Rylandet who finished fifth, Norway had the top ten positions.[55]

Holmenkollen was the venue of the Nordic skiing during the 1952 Winter Olympics. Two events were held at Holmenkollbakken: ski jumping and the jumping part of Nordic combined. The exact number of people attending the ski jumping event on 24 February is not known, but it somewhere between 120,000 and 150,000,[56] with the official report stating 143,000.[57] The event was won by Arnfinn Bergmann ahead of Torbjørn Falkanger, both from Norway, and Karl Holmström of Sweden.[58]

 
The off-run during the 2005–06 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup; the stage is mounted above the off-run

The next World Championship was held in 1966. By then both normal and large hill competitions had been introduced, and the normal hill competition would be held at Midtstubakken, as they would later also be done in 1982 and 2011.[59] The 1966 large hill competition was won by Norway's Bjørn Wirkola,[60] while the 1982 event was won by Matti Nykänen of Finland.[61]

From the 1979–80 season, FIS introduced the Ski Jumping World Cup.[62] The FIS Nordic Combined World Cup was first held in the 1983–84 season.[citation needed] By 1990, a conflict had arisen between the ski jumpers and the International Ski Federation. On the day of the Ski Festival, the jumpers collectively demanded NOK 150,000 in increased prize money, or threatened to not jump. It was stated that the money would be used for charity, such as resurrecting Romanian ski jumping. The demand was rejected by the organizers, who stated that they would have to disqualify the jumpers, as they would be regarded as professionals, rather than amateurs.[63] Since 1997, the World Cup jumps in Holmenkollen have been part of the Nordic Tournament, which includes four successive jumps in four Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish ski jumps, inspired by the Four Hills Tournament.[64]

During summer, the old hill had a lake, which made it possible to use the amphitheater for concerts, plays and entertainment. The venue was then often referred to as Sommerkollen.[21] From 1963, a temporary, small in-run was built down the southern grandstand, which allowed skiers and divers to make a jump and land in the water. Between 1963 and 1983, a competition was held nine times.[18] Starting in 1983 was Ta sjansen, which was televised annually by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation and became Sommerkollen's most popular show. It was an informal competition with two main events: one where a home-made craft was to first slide down a short in-run and then slide along the water surface to hit a mounted bell in the shortest possible time. The other was a cycling competition where the cyclist had to complete a track on a wobbly floating wharf.[21]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 23
  2. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 24
  3. ^ a b Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 25
  4. ^ a b Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 47
  5. ^ a b c Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 31
  6. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 27
  7. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 28
  8. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 29
  9. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 49
  10. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 50
  11. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 35
  12. ^ a b c Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 36
  13. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 51
  14. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 37
  15. ^ a b c d Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 38
  16. ^ a b Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 120
  17. ^ a b c d Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 39
  18. ^ a b Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 52
  19. ^ a b Oslo City Archives (7 September 2006). "Oslos thtre OL-søknader" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  20. ^ a b c d Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 42
  21. ^ a b c d Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 53
  22. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 43
  23. ^ a b Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 44
  24. ^ a b Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 45
  25. ^ Thoresen 2007, p. 223
  26. ^ Kirkebøen, Stein Erik (9 October 2002). "Kommunen sier ja til Kollen-reprise". Aftenposten. p. 33.
  27. ^ a b c "Gratulerer, trøndere, Osloborgere betaler: Budsjettsprekk, stor bakke". Vårt Land (in Norwegian). 19 February 2011. p. 24. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  28. ^ Hole, Arne (4 June 2004). "Kollen søker VM i 2011". Aftenposten Aften. p. 30.
  29. ^ Kirkebøen, Stein Erik (14 January 2005). "Vil flytte Kollen-brølet". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  30. ^ "Skitinget valgte Rødkleiva". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian). 28 May 2005. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  31. ^ "Vikersund fortsatt nasjonalanlegg". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian). 7 June 2008. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  32. ^ "Holmenkollbakken gått ut på dato". Drammens Tidende (in Norwegian). 22 September 2005. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  33. ^ Skjellum, Hanne (29 December 2005). "Full jubel for Kollen-riving". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  34. ^ Gulseth, Hege Løvdal (1 March 2006). "Uavklart om Holmenkoll-bakke". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  35. ^ "Kollen kan rives til VM". Adresseavisen (in Norwegian). 26 May 2006. p. 28.
  36. ^ "Her er nye Holmenkollen". Teknisk Ukeblad (in Norwegian). 4 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  37. ^ "Kollen rives i det stille" (in Norwegian). Norwegian News Agency. 16 October 2008. p. 28.
  38. ^ Hagesæter, Pål V. (21 February 2011). "Prislapp for VM: 2,4 milliarder". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  39. ^ Andersen, Barbro (3 March 2010). "– En helt nydelig hoppbakke". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  40. ^ Herland, Claes-Tommy (16 March 2010). "Om førstehoppet i nye Holmenkollen" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Ski Federation. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  41. ^ "Mikaela Shiffrin wins parallel slalom city event in Oslo". USAToday.com. 1 January 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  42. ^ Erikstein-Midtbø, Gjermund; Barstein, Tommy (4 October 2016). "Alpinistane tek over Holmenkollen – nytt verdscuprenn til Noreg" [Alpine skiers take over Holmenkollen - new world cup races to Norway]. NRK.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  43. ^ "Faktaark om Holmenkollen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Association for the Promotion of Skiing. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  44. ^ Ministry of Culture (19 December 1999). "Nasjonalanlegg – anlegg for internasjonale mesterskap og konkurranser" (in Norwegian).
  45. ^ Buzzi, Kirsten M. (23 February 2011). "Drømmer du om å kjenne Kollensuget?". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  46. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 301
  47. ^ Association for the Promotion of Skiing. "Alt om bakken". Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  48. ^ Synstad, Alexander (18 April 2008). "Målet er å lage en knirkefri folkefest". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
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  51. ^ Jönsson, Åke (2002). "The Nordic Games: Precursor to the Olympic Winter Games" (PDF). Olympic Review (February–March): 64–68. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  52. ^ Thoresen 2007, p. 46
  53. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 136
  54. ^ Thoresen 2007, p. 44
  55. ^ Thoresen 2007, p. 61
  56. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 126
  57. ^ Organising Committee for the VI Winter Olympic Games (1952). Olympic Winter Games Oslo 1952 (PDF). Oslo, Norway. p. 54. Archived from the original (pdf) on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  58. ^ Dalby, Greve & Jorset 2006, p. 130
  59. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 165
  60. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 167
  61. ^ Vaage & Kristensen 1992, p. 183
  62. ^ Thoresen 2007, p. 185
  63. ^ Thoresen 2007, p. 220
  64. ^ Thoresen 2007, p. 255
Bibliography

External linksEdit