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The Four Hills Tournament (German: Vierschanzentournee) or the German-Austrian Ski Jumping Week (German: Deutsch-Österreichische Skisprung-Woche) is a ski jumping event composed of four World Cup events and has taken place in Germany and Austria each year since 1953. With a few exceptions the ski jumping events are held chronologically at Oberstdorf, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Innsbruck and Bischofshofen. Winning these all four events in one Four Hills Tournament edition is called the grand slam.

Four Hills Tournament
Vierschanzentournee
Vierschanzentournee logo.png
logotype
Statusactive
Genresporting event
Date(s)29/30 December – 6 January
Frequencyannual
CountryAustria
Germany
Inaugurated1953 (1953)
Organised byFIS
Websitevierschanzentournee.com Edit this at Wikidata

The Four Hills Tournament champion is the one who gets the most points over the four events. Unlike the World Cup ranking, however, the actual points scored during the competitions are the ones that are used to determine the winner. In 2005–06, Janne Ahonen and Jakub Janda shared the overall victory after finishing with exactly the same points total after the four competitions. In 2001–02, the anniversary 50th edition, Sven Hannawald became the first to win all the four events in the same edition. In 2017-18 season Kamil Stoch became just the second man in history to achieve the grand slam of ski jumping. Just a year later, in the 2018-19 edition, Ryoyu Kobayashi became the third ski jumper in history to win the grand slam.

The four individual events themselves are part of the World Cup and award points toward the world cup in exactly the same manner as all other world cup events.

Tournament hillsEdit

Date Image Place Hill name K-Point Hill size Hill record
29 or 30 December     Oberstdorf, Germany Schattenbergschanze K-120 HS 137 143.5 m (2003)
  Sigurd Pettersen
1 January     Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany Große Olympiaschanze K-125 HS 142 143.5 m (2010)
  Simon Ammann
3 or 4 January     Innsbruck, Austria Bergiselschanze K-120 HS 130 138.0 m (2015)
  Michael Hayböck[1]
6 January     Bischofshofen, Austria Paul-Ausserleitner-Schanze K-125 HS 142 145.0 m (2019)
  Dawid Kubacki

Traditionally, the order of the tournament competitions has been: Oberstdorf, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Innsbruck, Bischofshofen – with the following exceptions:

  • 1953: Garmisch-Partenkirchen was the first, and Oberstdorf the second event.
  • 1956–57, 1961–62, 1962–63: Innsbruck was the second event, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen third.
  • 1971–72: Innsbruck was first, and Oberstdorf third.
  • 2007–08: The Innsbruck event was cancelled due to bad weather, and replaced with an additional competition at Bischofshofen.

Knock-out systemEdit

One of the tournament's peculiarities is its qualifying system. Unlike other ski jumping events where the best 30 competitors in the first round qualify for the second round, all Four Hills events follow a knock-out system first introduced for the 1996–97 season.

The 50 competitors are divided into 25 pairs. All 25 winners of these duels plus the five best losers qualify for the second round. It is theoretically possible that a competitor who finishes the first round 12th will not qualify for the second round (if he loses his internal duel, five lucky losers and winners of their duels have better results) while the one with the 49th first series result may still qualify (if his "rival" has the worst result). On the other hand, jumpers are less likely to be disadvantaged by a possible significant change in weather conditions between the start and end of the first series. A change in the direction and speed of the wind can make it impossible for the best jumpers to produce a good result. In the event of significantly worse conditions during the second half of the first series, the possibility exists that most of the best jumpers would be eliminated by bad luck alone. Directly pairing rivals reduces the impact of these conditions. In this competition format the qualifying series are valued as well, since jumpers with a better qualification result will have the opportunity to compete against jumpers with worse result. Therefore, it is not enough for a jumper to be among 50 best jumpers in qualifications (with whatever result), but it is better for him to achieve a result as good as possible.

The first jumper in the competition is the one who qualified 26th, followed by his pair who qualified 25th. The next pair has 27th and 24th from the qualification, one after that 28th and 23rd etc. The last pair has last qualified jumper against qualification winner.

If qualification is postponed until the day of competition, the knock-out system is not used, and competition follows regular world cup rules. Because of that in the 2007/08 tournament, the knock-out system was used only in Oberstdorf.

List of winnersEdit

* Won all four events in the same season
Won three events in the same season
Year Oberstdorf Garmisch-
Partenkirchen
Innsbruck Bischofshofen Overall victory
1953   Erling Kroken   Asgeir Dølplads[a]   Sepp Bradl   Halvor Næs   Sepp Bradl
1953–54   Olav Bjørnstad   Olav Bjørnstad   Olav Bjørnstad   Sepp Bradl   Olav Bjørnstad
1954–55   Aulis Kallakorpi   Aulis Kallakorpi   Torbjørn Ruste   Torbjørn Ruste   Hemmo Silvennoinen
1955–56   Eino Kirjonen   Hemmo Silvennoinen   Koba Zakadze   Yuri Skorzov   Nikolay Kamenskiy
1956–57   Pentti Uotinen   Nikolay Kamenskiy[b]   Nikolai Schamov[b]   Eino Kirjonen   Pentti Uotinen
1957–58   Nikolai Kamenski   Willi Egger   Helmut Recknagel   Helmut Recknagel   Helmut Recknagel
1958–59   Helmut Recknagel   Helmut Recknagel   Helmut Recknagel   Walter Habersatter   Helmut Recknagel
1959–60   Max Bolkart   Max Bolkart   Max Bolkart   Albin Plank   Max Bolkart
1960–61   Juhani Kärkinen   Koba Zakadze   Kalevi Kärkinen   Helmut Recknagel   Helmut Recknagel (3)
1961–62   Eino Kirjonen   Georg Thoma[b]   Willi Egger[b]   Willi Egger   Eino Kirjonen
1962–63   Toralf Engan   Toralf Engan[b]   Toralf Engan[b]   Torbjørn Yggeseth   Toralf Engan
1963–64   Torbjørn Yggeseth   Veikko Kankkonen   Veikko Kankkonen   Baldur Preiml   Veikko Kankkonen
1964–65   Torgeir Brandtzæg   Erkki Pukka   Torgeir Brandtzæg   Bjørn Wirkola   Torgeir Brandtzæg
1965–66   Veikko Kankkonen   Paavo Lukkariniemi   Dieter Neuendorf   Veikko Kankkonen   Veikko Kankkonen (2)
1966–67   Dieter Neuendorf   Bjørn Wirkola   Bjørn Wirkola   Bjørn Wirkola   Bjørn Wirkola
1967–68   Dieter Neuendorf   Bjørn Wirkola   Gariy Napalkov   Jiří Raška   Bjørn Wirkola
1968–69   Bjørn Wirkola   Bjørn Wirkola   Bjørn Wirkola   Jiří Raška   Bjørn Wirkola (3)
1969–70   Gariy Napalkov   Jiří Raška   Bjørn Wirkola   Jiří Raška   Horst Queck
1970–71   Ingolf Mork   Ingolf Mork   Zbyněk Hubač   Ingolf Mork   Jiří Raška
1971–72   Yukio Kasaya[c]   Yukio Kasaya   Yukio Kasaya[c]   Bjørn Wirkola   Ingolf Mork
1972–73   Rainer Schmidt   Rainer Schmidt   Sergei Botschkov   Rudolf Höhnl   Rainer Schmidt
1973–74   Hans-Georg Aschenbach   Walter Steiner   Hans-Georg Aschenbach   Bernd Eckstein   Hans-Georg Aschenbach
1974–75   Willi Pürstl   Karl Schnabl   Karl Schnabl   Karl Schnabl   Willi Pürstl
1975–76   Toni Innauer   Toni Innauer   Jochen Danneberg   Toni Innauer   Jochen Danneberg
1976–77   Toni Innauer   Jochen Danneberg   Henry Glaß   Walter Steiner   Jochen Danneberg (2)
1977–78   Matthias Buse   Jochen Danneberg   Per Bergerud   Kari Ylianttila   Kari Ylianttila
1978–79   Yuri Ivanov   Josef Samek   Pentti Kokkonen   Pentti Kokkonen   Pentti Kokkonen
1979–80   Jochen Danneberg   Hubert Neuper   Hubert Neuper   Martin Weber   Hubert Neuper
1980–81   Hubert Neuper   Horst Bulau   Jari Puikkonen   Armin Kogler   Hubert Neuper (2)
1981–82   Matti Nykänen   Roger Ruud   Manfred Deckert
  Per Bergerud
  Hubert Neuper   Manfred Deckert
1982–83   Horst Bulau   Armin Kogler   Matti Nykänen   Jens Weißflog   Matti Nykänen
1983–84   Klaus Ostwald   Jens Weißflog   Jens Weißflog   Jens Weißflog   Jens Weißflog
1984–85   Ernst Vettori   Jens Weißflog   Matti Nykänen   Hroar Stjernen   Jens Weißflog
1985–86   Pekka Suorsa   Pavel Ploc   Jari Puikkonen   Ernst Vettori   Ernst Vettori
1986–87   Vegard Opaas   Andreas Bauer   Primož Ulaga   Tuomo Ylipulli   Ernst Vettori (2)
1987–88   Pavel Ploc   Matti Nykänen   Matti Nykänen   Matti Nykänen   Matti Nykänen (2)
1988–89   Dieter Thoma   Matti Nykänen   Jan Boklöv   Mike Holland   Risto Laakkonen
1989–90   Dieter Thoma   Jens Weißflog   Ari-Pekka Nikkola   František Jež   Dieter Thoma
1990–91   Jens Weißflog   Jens Weißflog   Ari-Pekka Nikkola   Andreas Felder   Jens Weißflog
1991–92   Toni Nieminen   Andreas Felder   Toni Nieminen   Toni Nieminen   Toni Nieminen
1992–93   Christof Duffner   Noriaki Kasai   Andreas Goldberger   Andreas Goldberger   Andreas Goldberger
1993–94   Jens Weißflog   Espen Bredesen   Andreas Goldberger   Espen Bredesen   Espen Bredesen
1994–95   R. Schwarzenberger   Janne Ahonen   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Andreas Goldberger   Andreas Goldberger (2)
1995–96   Mika Laitinen   R. Schwarzenberger   Andreas Goldberger   Jens Weißflog   Jens Weißflog (4)
1996–97   Dieter Thoma   Primož Peterka   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Dieter Thoma   Primož Peterka
1997–98   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Sven Hannawald   Kazuyoshi Funaki
1998–99   Martin Schmitt   Martin Schmitt   Noriaki Kasai   Andreas Widhölzl   Janne Ahonen
1999–00   Martin Schmitt   Andreas Widhölzl   Andreas Widhölzl   Andreas Widhölzl   Andreas Widhölzl
2000–01   Martin Schmitt   Noriaki Kasai   Adam Małysz   Adam Małysz   Adam Małysz
2001–02   Sven Hannawald   Sven Hannawald   Sven Hannawald   Sven Hannawald   Sven Hannawald *
2002–03   Sven Hannawald   Primož Peterka   Janne Ahonen   Bjørn Einar Romøren   Janne Ahonen
2003–04   Sigurd Pettersen   Sigurd Pettersen   Peter Žonta   Sigurd Pettersen   Sigurd Pettersen
2004–05   Janne Ahonen   Janne Ahonen   Janne Ahonen   Martin Höllwarth   Janne Ahonen
2005–06   Janne Ahonen   Jakub Janda   Lars Bystøl   Janne Ahonen   Janne Ahonen
  Jakub Janda
2006–07   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Andreas Küttel   Anders Jacobsen   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Anders Jacobsen
2007–08   Thomas Morgenstern   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Janne Ahonen[d]   Janne Ahonen   Janne Ahonen (5)
2008–09   Simon Ammann   Wolfgang Loitzl   Wolfgang Loitzl   Wolfgang Loitzl   Wolfgang Loitzl
2009–10   Andreas Kofler   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Thomas Morgenstern   Andreas Kofler
2010–11   Thomas Morgenstern   Simon Ammann   Thomas Morgenstern   Tom Hilde   Thomas Morgenstern
2011–12   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Andreas Kofler   Thomas Morgenstern   Gregor Schlierenzauer
2012–13   Anders Jacobsen   Anders Jacobsen   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Gregor Schlierenzauer (2)
2013–14   Simon Ammann   Thomas Diethart   Anssi Koivuranta   Thomas Diethart   Thomas Diethart
2014–15   Stefan Kraft   Anders Jacobsen   Richard Freitag   Michael Hayboeck   Stefan Kraft
2015–16   Severin Freund   Peter Prevc   Peter Prevc   Peter Prevc   Peter Prevc
2016–17   Stefan Kraft   Daniel-André Tande   Daniel-André Tande   Kamil Stoch   Kamil Stoch
2017–18   Kamil Stoch   Kamil Stoch   Kamil Stoch   Kamil Stoch   Kamil Stoch * (2)
2018–19   Ryoyu Kobayashi   Ryoyu Kobayashi   Ryoyu Kobayashi   Ryoyu Kobayashi   Ryoyu Kobayashi *
Notes
  1. ^ In the inaugural tournament, the first competition was held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen
  2. ^ a b c d e f Innsbruck was the second event, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen third.
  3. ^ a b Innsbruck was the first event, and Oberstdorf third.
  4. ^ The competition was held in Bischofshofen due to bad weather

RecordsEdit

Janne Ahonen is the only ski jumper to have won the tournament five times, with wins in 1998–99, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2005–06 and 2007–08. Jens Weißflog was the first ski jumper to reach four wins, winning the tournament in 1984, 1985, 1991 and 1996. Helmut Recknagel and Bjørn Wirkola have the next best record, winning three titles each. Wirkola's victories came in three consecutive years (1967–1969), a record still uncontested.

Janne Ahonen's fourth victory in 2005–06 was also the first time the tournament victory was shared, with Jakub Janda, who claimed his first 4 Hills Tournament crown.

Jens Weißflog and Bjørn Wirkola have both won ten Four Hills Tournament events. Janne Ahonen and Gregor Schlierenzauer are next with 9 victories, followed by Matti Nykänen who has seven.

In 2000–01, the 49th edition of the tournament, Adam Małysz beat second placed Janne Ahonen by 104.4 points. This is the biggest winning margin in the tournament's history. He also won all four qualifications that year. The following year Sven Hannawald became the first person to win all four competitions in a single season. In 2017-18 Kamil Stoch has repeated Hannawald's record and year after, Ryoyu Kobayashi became the third person to win all four events.

Germany (with twelve of their wins pre-1989), Austria and Finland each have sixteen victories. Fourth is Norway with ten victories. Poland has three victories. Czechoslovakia and one of its successors the Czech Republic have two victories altogether, as have Slovenia and Japan. USSR has a single victory.

Overall winnersEdit

Record overall victories
Overall victories Name Tournament(s)
5   Janne Ahonen 1998–99, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2005–06, 2007–08
4    Jens Weissflog 1983–84, 1984–85, 1990–91, 1995–96
3   Helmut Recknagel 1957–58, 1958–59, 1960–61
  Bjørn Wirkola 1966–67, 1967–68, 1968–69
2   Veikko Kankkonen 1963–64, 1965–66
  Jochen Danneberg 1975–76, 1976–77
  Hubert Neuper 1979–80, 1980–81
  Matti Nykänen 1982–83, 1987–88
  Ernst Vettori 1985–86, 1986–87
  Andreas Goldberger 1992–93, 1994–95
  Gregor Schlierenzauer 2011–12, 2012–13
  Kamil Stoch 2016–17, 2017–18

National quotaEdit

During the Four Hills Tournament many national jumpers from Germany and Austria are allowed to qualify for the competition. This allows them to show themselves and get experience. The national jumping team starts first in the qualification.[citation needed]

Notable participantsEdit

In 1965, the Polish old-boy jumper, Stanisław Marusarz (silver medal in World Championship, 1938 in Lahti) who was visiting the tournament, asked the jury in Garmisch-Patenkirchen to allow him a showcase jump. After a long debate, the jury agreed. Marusarz, who at this time was 53 years old (and not practicing jumping for 9 years) achieved 66 meters, using borrowed skies and boots and making his try in official suit (in which he attended the New Years Party), which made the crowd applaud.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Germany's Freitag wins 3rd stop of 4 Hills Tour". Yahoo Sports. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  2. ^ http://www.sport.pl/skoki/1,65079,13075218,Skoki_narciarskie__Turniej_Czterech_Skoczni__Marusarz.html#BoxSportTxt

External linksEdit

  Media related to Four Hills Tournament at Wikimedia Commons