Vikersundbakken

Vikersundbakken or Vikersund Hill[1][2][3] is a ski flying hill at Vikersund in Modum, Norway. It is one of the two largest purpose-built ski flying hills in the world.[4] Nine world records have been set there, including the current record of 253.5 meters, set by Stefan Kraft.[5] The complex consists of a large hill, a normal hill and several training hills.

Vikersundbakken
VikersundbakkenWorld Cup Ski flying 2011.jpg
LocationVikersund
Norway
Opened29 Jan 1936 (LH test)
16 Feb 1936 (LH official)
12 Mar 1966 (FH conver.)
Renovated1956, 1966, 1977, 1990, 2000, 2011
Size
K–point200 m
Hill size240 m
Longest jump
(unofficial / fall)
254 m (833 ft)*
Russia Dimitry Vassiliev
(15 February 2015)
Hill record253.5 m (831.7 ft) Sport records icon WR.svg
Austria Stefan Kraft
(18 March 2017)
Top events
Ski Flying World Championships1977, 1990, 2000, 2012
World Cup1980, 1983, 1986, 1995,
1998, 2007, 2009, 2011,
2013, 2015, 2016

The hill originally constructed by Kristian Hovde was opened in 1936 as a large hill. It was rebuilt as ski flying hill in 1964, and was modified in 1989, 1999 and 2010. The present large hill was built in 1988. Vikersundbakken was the first ski flying hill to receive floodlights in 2006. It has hosted the FIS Ski Flying World Championships in 1977, 1990, 2000 and 2012.

HistoryEdit

In 1894, Vikersund SK was established and started with ski jumping. Until the 1930s, they used six different ski jumping hills around the area. By then, the club had fostered sufficiently good jumpers that it was proposed to build a proper hill. A committee was established on 19 March 1935 and led by Gustav N. Hovde. At first they found a suitable location north of Heggen. However, they failed to reach an agreement with the land owner. Instead, Hovde proposed using the steep hill close to Heggen Church. After purchasing the land, construction started later in 1935. The original hill was designed by Thunold Hansen. Construction cost 6,290 Norwegian krone (NOK), of which NOK 1000 was borrowed and the rest of financed through private donations.[6]

The first hill had a length from the top of the in-run to the bottom of the out-run of 425 meters (1,394 ft) and an elevation difference of 130 meters (430 ft). The in-run was 115 meters (377 ft) long and had an elevation difference of 46 meters (151 ft).[6] The hill was inaugurated on 29 January 1936 with a 50-meter jump by Birger Henriksen. The longest jump on the opening day was made by Reidar Andersen, who jumped 86 meters. At the most he was 10 to 12 meters (33 to 39 ft) above the landing slope, so the take-off was lowered 40 centimeters (16 in) from 6 to 11 degrees.[7]

The main logistical issue with the events was the poor transport service, with only a narrow road to the hill. During the 1950s, the attendance rose well beyond the former 5,000, forcing the road to be upgraded in 1955.[8] By the 1950s, ski jumps were being built larger and in 1954, Kristian Hovde proposed to expand Vikersundbakken, which he hoped would allow jumps of 100 meters (330 ft). The plans were passed by the club's annual meeting on 13 September, with construction starting in the summer of 1955. The lower part of the landing slope was dug down 1.75 meters (5 ft 9 in), the in-run was raised up to 85 centimeters (33 in) and a new jury tower and stairway was built. Additional expansion was passed on 27 April 1956: a 12-meter (39 ft) tall scaffolding in-run was built on top of the old in-run. The hill was designed by Carl Borgen. Contractors were Brødrene Teigen and since the club did not have sufficient funds, they were willing to wait with the payment until they had. The new hill was inaugurated on 10 March 1956.[9]

The new hill was too large to be regarded as a large hill, but was not large enough to be categorized as a ski flying hill. In 1964, the club appointed a committee led by Ottar Grøtterud to consider an expansion of the hill.[10] There was only to be built one ski flying hill in the Nordic Countries, with the main alternative being Renabakken in Rena.[11] Construction cost NOK 445,000 and was in part financed with a NOK 75,000 grant and NOK 150,000 loan from Modum Municipality, NOK 20,000 from volunteer work, NOK 80,000 from the club, grants from companies and banks and from Buskerud County Municipality, and NOK 100,000 in betting funds.[12] Construction was done by Entreprenør Gunnar Sterkebye. The hill received a new 23-meter (75 ft) tall in-run and a new jury tower 70 meters (230 ft) form the jump. On the landing slope and out-run, 200,000 cubic meters (7,100,000 cu ft) of earthwork had to be moved. Work was made more difficult because of high snowfall and temperatures down to −28 °C (−18 °F). The hill was inaugurated on 13 March 1966.[13]

The next upgrade of the venue were minor upgrades ahead of the 1977 World Championships.[13] Ahead of the 1990 World Championships, the venue was again renovated. However, to secure better recruitment, the venue also received a new normal hill with a K point of K-90.[14]

The hill was rebuilt for the 2012 Ski Flying World Championships. It was the first in the world with a hill size of 225 meters, making Vikersundbakken the largest ski flying hill in the world at the time. It has been built further into the terrain with sidewalls made of natural gravel to avoid wind problems during competitions. Furthermore, it has been slanted slightly to the south from the inrun area to further reduce wind problems. The hill was ready for the 2011 Trial Ski Flying World Championships held on 11–13 February 2011.

The old inrun was demolished in 2010. The engineers of the new and larger hill were Slovenians Janez Gorišek and his son Sebastjan. Janez, together with his brother Lado, is most famous for creating Letalnica Bratov Gorišek in Planica, previously the largest hill in the world at HS 215, before Vikersundbakken was reprofiled and enlarged in 2011. Janez is usually named as the 'father' of modern ski flying and is also known as an expert on ski flying hills.

At the trial ski flying championship, Johan Remen Evensen jumped 243 meters to set a new world record during the first official training on 11 February 2011. Later, during qualification, Evensen improved the world record to 246.5 meters.

During autumn 2011 the hill was further improved with a different radius at HS 225, increasing the ability to stand on greater lengths. Additionally the jump itself was cut a meter short because of decreased inrun speed needed by the jumpers. During the 2011 event, it was deemed necessary to add several inrun gates the hill below gate 1 due to better conditions not anticipated by the organisers during construction in 2010. A total of five gates were added. Gregor Schlierenzauer praised the hill during interviews, calling it the best hill in the world.[citation needed] Evensen was also extremely satisfied with the hill, calling it "perfect".[citation needed] The K point was increased from K-195 in 2012 to K-200 in time for the 2015 event,[15] resulting in two new world records on the same weekend: Peter Prevc jumped 250 m (820 ft) and became to first to ever surpass the 250 m mark, and this was followed by Anders Fannemel with 251.5 m (825 ft) the next day. In a training round prior to Fannemel's jump, Dimitry Vassiliev jumped 254 m (833 ft) but fell hard upon landing, rendered his jump invalid as a world record.

EventsEdit

Opened as large hill in 1936 and converted into flying hill in 1966.

Date Hillsize Competition Winner Second Third
LARGE HILL (original)
16 February 1936   OP   Hilmar Myhra
1937   VIKC   Reidar Andersen
1938   VIKC
1939   VIKC
1940   VIKC   Reidar Andersen
17 February 1946   VIKC   Arnholdt Kongsgård   Reidar Andersen   Vidar Lindboe-Hansen
9 March 1947   VIKC   Thorleif Schjelderup   Svein Haakonsen   Hans Kaarstein
14 March 1948   VIKC   Arnholdt Kongsgård   Ivar Nilsen   Christian Mohn
1949   VIKC cancelled
19 March 1950   VIKC   Hans Bjørnstad   Ivar Nilsen   Birger Arnesen
18 February 1951   VIKC   Kjell Knarvik   Arne Hoel   Reidar Andersen
2 March 1952   VIKC   Arnfinn Bergmann   Arne Hoel   Svein Lien
8 March 1953   VIKC   Georg Thrane   Per Thyness   Thorleif Schjelderup
28 February 1954   VIKC   Asgeir Dølplads
3 April 1954   NRA
13 March 1955   VIKC wind; rescheduled to 26 March
26 March 1955   VIKC   Arnfinn Karlstad   Simon Slåttvik   Erling Kroken
4 March 1956   VIKC   Asbjørn Osnes
10 March 1957   VIKC   Arne Hoel   Simon Slåttvik   Asbjørn Osnes
15 March 1958   VIKC
1 March 1959   VIKC   Arne Hoel   Odd A. Brevik   Olinius Skaaret
27 March 1960   VIKC   Markku Maatela   Paavo Lukkariniemi   Asbjørn Osnes
5 March 1961   VIKC   Olinius Skaaret
4 March 1962   VIKC   Asbjørn Osnes   Pekka Remes   Vesa Ekholm
10 March 1963   VIKC   Torbjørn Yggeseth   Torgeir Brandtzæg   Raimo Vitikainen
8 March 1964   VIKC   Toralf Engan   Bjørn Wirkola   Christoffer Selbekk
FLYING HILL (converted)
13 March 1966   VIKC   Bjørn Wirkola   Toralf Engan   Christoffer Selbekk
11-12 March 1967   ISFW   Reinhold Bachler   Jiří Raška   Bjørn Wirkola
10 March 1968   KOP strong wind
8-9 March 1969   KOP   Bjørn Wirkola   Jiří Raška   Zbyněk Hubač
27-28 February 1971   KOP   Frithjof Prydz   Zbyněk Hubač   Bent Tomtum
11-18 February 1973   KOP lack of snow
22-23 February 1975   KOP   Reinhold Bachler   Hans Wallner   Edi Federer
18 February 1977   K150 SFWC   Walter Steiner   Anton Innauer   Henry Glaß
29 February - 2 March 1980   K155 WC   Per Bergerud   Stanisław Bobak   Ján Tánczos
18 February 1983   K155 WC   Matti Nykänen   Pavel Ploc   Hans Wallner
19 February 1983   K155 WC   Matti Nykänen   Horst Bulau   Tuomo Ylipulli
20 February 1983   K155 WC   Matti Nykänen   Olav Hansson   Pavel Ploc
15 February 1986   K155 WC   Andreas Felder   Matti Nykänen   Piotr Fijas
16 February 1986   K155 WC   Andreas Felder   Ernst Vettori   Matti Nykänen
25 February 1990   K175 SFWC   Dieter Thoma   Matti Nykänen   Jens Weißflog
20 March 1993   K175 WC cancelled
21 March 1993   K175 WC
18 February 1995   K175 WC   Andreas Goldberger   Takanobu Okabe   Lasse Ottesen
19 February 1995   K175 WC   Andreas Goldberger   Takanobu Okabe   Roberto Cecon
28 February 1998   K175 WC postponed on next day
1 March 1998   K175 WC   Andreas Widhölzl   Sven Hannawald   Akira Higashi
1 March 1998   K175 WC   Takanobu Okabe   Hiroya Saito   Noriaki Kasai
12-13 February 2000   K185 SFWC original date; strong winds, postponed to 14 February
14 February 2000   K185 SFWC   Sven Hannawald   Andreas Widhölzl   Janne Ahonen
6 March 2004   K185 CC   Roland Müller   Olav Magne Dønnem   Balthasar Schneider
7 March 2004   K185 CC   Roland Müller   Balthasar Schneider   Martin Koch
13 January 2007   HS207 WC cancelled
(night) 14 January 2007   HS207 WC   Anders Jacobsen   Thomas Morgenstern   Matti Hautamäki
(night) 14 March 2009   HS207 WC-T   Austria
Martin Koch
Wolfgang Loitzl
Thomas Morgenstern
Gregor Schlierenzauer
  Finland
Matti Hautamäki
Kalle Keituri
Ville Larinto
Harri Olli
  Norway
Johan Remen Evensen
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Anders Jacobsen
15 March 2009   HS207 WC   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Simon Ammann   Dimitry Vassiliev
(night) 12 February 2011   HS225 WC   Gregor Schlierenzauer
  Johan Remen Evensen
  Simon Ammann
13 February 2011   HS225 WC   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Johan Remen Evensen   Adam Małysz
(night) 25 February 2012   HS225 SFWC-I   Robert Kranjec   Rune Velta   Martin Koch
26 February 2012   HS225 SFWC-T   Austria
Thomas Morgenstern
Andreas Kofler
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Martin Koch
  Germany
Andreas Wank
Richard Freitag
Maximilian Mechler
Severin Freund
  Slovenia
Jernej Damjan
Jurij Tepeš
Jure Šinkovec
Robert Kranjec
(night) 26 February 2013   HS225 WC   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Simon Ammann   Robert Kranjec
27 February 2013   HS225 WC   Robert Kranjec   Michael Neumayer   Gregor Schlierenzauer
(night) 14 February 2015   HS225 WC   Peter Prevc   Anders Fannemel   Noriaki Kasai
15 February 2015   HS225 WC   Severin Freund   Anders Fannemel   Johann André Forfang
(night) 12 February 2016   HS225 WC   Robert Kranjec   Kenneth Gangnes   Noriaki Kasai
(night) 13 February 2016   HS225 WC   Peter Prevc   Johann André Forfang   Robert Kranjec
14 February 2016   HS225 WC   Peter Prevc   Stefan Kraft   Andreas Stjernen
17 March 2017   HS225 WC/RA(Q)–prol   Kamil Stoch   Andreas Wellinger   Domen Prevc
18 March 2017   HS225 WC/RA–T   Norway
Daniel-André Tande
Robert Johansson
Johann André Forfang
Andreas Stjernen
  Poland
Piotr Żyła
Dawid Kubacki
Maciej Kot
Kamil Stoch
  Austria
Michael Hayböck
Manuel Fettner
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Stefan Kraft
19 March 2017   HS225 WC/RA–I   Kamil Stoch   Noriaki Kasai   Michael Hayböck
16 March 2018   HS240 WC/RA(Q)–prol   Kamil Stoch   Robert Johansson   Andreas Stjernen
17 March 2018   HS240 WC/RA–T   Norway
Daniel-André Tande
Johann André Forfang
Andreas Stjernen
Robert Johansson
  Poland
Piotr Żyła
Stefan Hula Jr.
Dawid Kubacki
Kamil Stoch
  Slovenia
Domen Prevc
Jernej Damjan
Tilen Bartol
Peter Prevc
18 March 2018   HS240 WC/RA–I   Robert Johansson   Andreas Stjernen   Daniel-André Tande

The inaugural competition was held on 25 February 1936 in front of 5,000 spectators.[7] Hilmar Myhra won the race, setting the first official hill record at 86 meters (282 ft).[16] The hill was used for a single major competition each year, Vikersundrennet. Arnold Kongsgård beat the hill record in 1946 when he jumped 87.5 meters (287 ft) and then beat it with another meter two years later. The ultimate hill record in the original hill was 98 meters (322 ft), which was also a new Norwegian record, set by Arne Hoel in 1951.[17] After the opening of the new jump in 1957, Hoel set a new hill record of 100.5 meters (330 ft).[9] The following year, Asbjørn Osnes set a new hill record of 108.5 meters (356 ft) and then again in 1960 by Paavo Lukkariniemi of 116.5 meters (382 ft).[8]

On the first ski flying competition on 14 March 1966 saw Bjørn Wirkola set a new world record at 146 meters (479 ft).[13] Starting on 12 March 1967, the club introduced the International Ski Flying Week. The inaugural tournament was held on 12 March 1967[18] and saw Austria's Reinhold Bachler set a world record of 154 meters (505 ft). On 11 March 1968, the tournament was canceled due to strong winds, although 22,500 people had come to spectate.[19] In 1973, the International Ski Flying Week was canceled because of lack of snow.[13] On this hill were also two Continental Cup competitions in 2004 both won by Austrian Roland Müller.

In the late 1960s, the International Ski Federation (FIS) started planning a world championship in ski flying. The Norwegian Ski Federation was opposed to this.[20] Vikersundbakken was awarded the fourth FIS Ski Flying World Championships, held in 1977. Switzerland's Walter Steiner won the race, while Czechoslovakia's František Novák set a new hill record of 157 meters (515 ft). Vikersundbakken was used in the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup in 1980, 1983 and 1986.[21]

The normal hill was used for the Norwegian Ski Championships in 1989. As there was no snow, 3,000 cubic meters (110,000 cu ft) was freighted by train from Finse via the Bergen Line and up from Vikersund Station by truck.[22]

Hill recordEdit

MenEdit

No. Date Length
UN 8 February 1936     Hilmar Myhra 92.0 m (302 ft)  
UN 25 February 1936     Alf Andersen 94.0 m (308 ft)  
HR March 1936     Hilmar Myhra 85.0 m (279 ft)  
HR 17 February 1946     Arnold Kongsgård 87.5 m (287 ft)  
HR 14 March 1948     Arnold Kongsgård 88.5 m (290 ft)  
HR 14 March 1948     Evert Karlsson 88.5 m (290 ft)  
HR 18 February 1951     Arnold Kongsgård 89.5 m (294 ft)  
HR 18 February 1951     Arne Hoel 98.0 m (321 ft)  
HR 10 March 1957     Arne Hoel 100.5 m (330 ft)  
HR 15 March 1958     Asbjørn Osnes 108.5 m (356 ft)  
HR 27 March 1960     Markku Maatela 115.0 m (377 ft)  
HR 27 March 1960     Paavo Lukkariniemi 116.5 m (382 ft)  
#58 12 March 1966     Bjørn Wirkola   145.5 m (476 ft)  
#59 13 March 1966     Bjørn Wirkola   146.0 m (479 ft)  
#63 12 March 1967     Reinhold Bachler   154.0 m (505 ft)  
F 8 March 1969     Ladislav Divila 166.0 m (545 ft)  
HR 20 March 1977     František Novák 157.0 m (515 ft)  
HR 15 February 1986     Piotr Fijas 163.0 m (535 ft)  
HR 25 February 1990     Ole Gunnar Fidjestøl 167.0 m (548 ft)  
HR 25 February 1990     Matti Nykänen 171.0 m (561 ft)  
HR 25 February 1990     Dieter Thoma 171.0 m (561 ft)  
FR 16 February 1995     Lasse Ottesen 182.0 m (597 ft)  
OT 17 February 1995     Takanobu Okabe 188.0 m (617 ft)  
TR 18 February 1995     Takanobu Okabe 194.0 m (636 ft)  
HR 18 February 1995     Lasse Ottesen 175.0 m (574 ft)  
No. Date Length
F 18 February 1995     Urban Franc 179.0 m (587 ft)  
HR 18 February 1995     Andreas Goldberger 179.0 m (587 ft)  
TR 19 February 1995     Lasse Ottesen 180.0 m (591 ft)  
HR 19 February 1995     Urban Franc 182.0 m (597 ft)  
HR 19 February 1995     Lasse Ottesen 184.0 m (604 ft)  
HR 19 February 1995     Ari-Pekka Nikkola 184.0 m (604 ft)  
HR 19 February 1995     Takanobu Okabe 184.0 m (604 ft)  
HR 19 February 1995     Janne Ahonen 187.0 m (614 ft)  
F 19 February 1995     Kazuyoshi Funaki 193.0 m (633 ft)  
HR 19 February 1995     Andreas Goldberger 188.0 m (617 ft)  
HR 1 March 1998     Takanobu Okabe 194.0 m (636 ft)  
HR 11 February 2000     Andreas Goldberger 207.0 m (679 ft)  
HR 12 January 2007     Michael Uhrmann 214.5 m (704 ft)  
F 12 January 2007     Martin Koch 220.5 m (723 ft)  
HR 14 March 2009     Martin Koch 216.5 m (710 ft)  
HR 14 March 2009     Harri Olli 219.0 m (718 ft)  
F 14 March 2009     Gregor Schlierenzauer 224.0 m (735 ft)  
HR 11 February 2011     Daiki Ito 220.0 m (722 ft)  
#104 11 February 2011     Johan Remen Evensen   243.0 m (797 ft)  
#105 11 February 2011     Johan Remen Evensen   246.5 m (809 ft)  
#106 14 February 2015     Peter Prevc   250.0 m (820 ft)  
F 15 February 2015     Dmitri Vassiliev 254.0 m (833 ft)  
#107 15 February 2015     Anders Fannemel   251.5 m (825 ft)  
#108 18 March 2017     Robert Johansson   252.0 m (826 ft)  
#109 18 March 2017     Stefan Kraft   253.5 m (832 ft)  

  Unofficial hill record. Test, trial round or training.

  Invalid. Fall at world record distance.

  Invalid. Fall at hill record distance.

LadiesEdit

Date Length
6 March 2004     Anette Sagen 174.5 m (672 ft)  
7 March 2004     Helena Olsson Smeby 174.5 m (672 ft)  

Technical dataEdit

Specifications
Inrun length 124 m[23]
Inrun angle 36°
Top to bottom height difference N/A
Take-off table to bottom height difference 135 m
Take-off table height 2.42 m
Landing zone angle 30° - 38°
Hillsize 240 m
K-point 200 m

ReferencesEdit

Bibliography
  • Drolsum, Nils; Flattum, Odd; Lund, Thure (1994). Klang har navnet: Vikersund idrettsforening 1894–1994 (in Norwegian). Vikersund: Vikersund idrettsforening. ISBN 82-993278-0-6.
  1. ^ MacArthur, Paul J. 2011. Taking Flight. Skiing Heritage 23(2) (March–April): 20–25, p. 23.
  2. ^ Bass, Howard. 1968. Winter Sports. South Brunswick, NJ: A. S. Barnes, p. 62.
  3. ^ Ski Jump: Watch Anders Fannemel Set the New World Record. 2015. The Telegraph (February 16).
  4. ^ "Largest ski jumping hill".
  5. ^ http://www.vg.no/sport/hopp/hopp/johansson-satte-verdensrekord-saa-ble-han-slaatt-av-kraft-253-5-meter/a/23952530/ (Norwegian)
  6. ^ a b Drolsum: 42
  7. ^ a b Drolsum: 43
  8. ^ a b Drolsum: 47
  9. ^ a b Drolsum: 46
  10. ^ Drolsum: 49
  11. ^ Drolsum: 54
  12. ^ Drolsum: 55
  13. ^ a b c d Drolsum: 53
  14. ^ Drolsum: 61
  15. ^ "Vikersundbakken now a K200". skisprungschanzen.com. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  16. ^ Drolsum: 44
  17. ^ Drolsum: 45
  18. ^ Drolsum: 56
  19. ^ Drolsum: 57
  20. ^ Drolsum: 58
  21. ^ Drolsum: 60
  22. ^ Drolsum: 50
  23. ^ "The Skiflying Hill - Technical Data". Archived from the original on March 24, 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 59°56′18″N 10°00′22″E / 59.93833°N 10.00611°E / 59.93833; 10.00611