Hamsadhvani (meaning "the cry of the swan"[1]), is a rāga in Carnatic music (musical scale of Carnatic tradition of Indian classical music). It is an audava rāgam (or owdava rāga, meaning pentatonic scale).[2] It is a janya rāga of the Melakartha raga, Sankarabharanam (29th) but according to Hamsadhvani's prayoga or the way it is sung it is said to be the janya of Kalyani (65th).

Hamsadhvani
ThaatBilaval
TypeAudava
Time of dayEarly night, 9–12[1]
ArohanaS R G P N Ṡ[1]
AvarohanaṠ N P G R S[1]
PakadG P N - Ṡ N P G
VadiP
SamavadiR
SimilarShankara

Hamsadhvani is also extensively used in Hindustani music and said to be borrowed into it from Carnatic music.[3] It was created by the Carnatic composer Ramaswami Dikshitar (1735–1817),[4] father of Muthuswami Dikshitar (one of the musical trinity of Carnatic music), and brought into Hindustani music by Aman Ali Khan of the Bhendibazaar gharana. It has become popular due to Amir Khan.

Structure and lakshanaEdit

 
Hamsadhvani scale with shadjam (tonic) at C

Hamsadhvani does not contain madhyamam or dhavathum. It is a pentatonic scale (audava-audava ragam[3][5] in Carnatic music classification – audava meaning 'of 5'). Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

Hamsadhwani

The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chatushruti rishabham, antara gandharam, panchamam and kakali nishadam. In Hindustani music, it is associated with Bilaval thaat (equivalent of Shankarabharanam).

CompositionsEdit

Hamsadhvani rāgam lends itself for elaboration and exploration and has many compositions in both classical music and film music. It is usually sung at the beginning of a performance.[3] There are many kritis (compositions) in praise of Lord Ganesha set in this musical scale.

Film songsEdit

In Tamil languageEdit

Song Movie Year Composer Singer
Vaadaatha Pushpame.... Vanithaa Maniye Adutha Veettu Penn 1960 Adi Narayana Rao P. B. Sreenivas
Mazhalai Kaalamum Savithiri 1980 M. S. Viswanathan P. Jayachandran, Vani Jairam
Va Va Va Kanna Va Velaikkaran 1987 Ilaiyaraaja Mano, K. S. Chithra
Malargale Nadhaswarangal Kizhakke Pogum Rail 1978 Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Mayile Mayile Kadavul Amaitha Medai 1979 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Jency Anthony
Sevvaname Ponmegame Nallathoru Kudumbam 1979 P. Jayachandran, Kalyani Menon, Jency,Sasirekha
Therkondu Sendravan Enakkul Oruvan 1984 P. Susheela
Kalam Maralam

(Ragamalika: Hamsadhvani, Vasanthi)

Vaazhkai 1984 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Vani Jairam
Iru vizhiyin Siva 1989 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Poomudithu En Purushanthaan Enakku Mattumthaan 1989 P. Jayachandran,Sunandha
Nillavu Vandhadu

(Ragamalika: Hamsadhvani, Vasanthi)

Endrum Anbudan 1992 Mano, S. Janaki
Sriranga Ranganathanin

(Ragamalika: Hamsadhvani, Mohanam)

Mahanadi 1994 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Uma Ramanan, Shobana
Maalai En Vethanai Sethu 1999 Unni Krishnan, Arunmozhi, S.N.Surendar
Diana Diana Kaadhal Kavithai 1998 Hariharan
Nandri Solla Chithirayil Nilachoru 2013 Karthik, Priyadarshini
Vasandhamum Neeye Kanneer Pookkal 1981 Shankar–Ganesh S. Janaki
Isaiyin Mazhaiyile Kadaikan Parvai 1986 V. Narasimhan K. J. Yesudas, Vani Jairam
Kuthuvilakkaga Cooliekkaran 1987 T. Rajendar S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Vellai Pookal Kannathil Muthamittal 2002 A. R. Rahman A. R. Rahman
Poovukkul Jeans 1998 P. Unnikrishnan, Sujatha Mohan
Manmadha Maasam (Ragamalika: Vasanthi) Paarthale Paravasam 2001 Shankar Mahadevan, Nithyasree Mahadevan
Dating Boys 2003 Blaaze, Vasundhara Das
Theekuruvi Kangalal Kaidhu Sei 2004 Johnson, Harini & Mukesh
En Manathai Kalloori Vaasal 1996 Deva Hariharan, Anuradha Sriram
Oru Mani Adithal Kaalamellam Kadhal Vaazhga 1997 Hariharan
Gadothkaja Pammal K. Sambandam 2002 Srinivas, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Vinodhamanavale Lovely 2001 Hariharan, Sujatha Mohan
Aayiram Thirnaal Pudhu Vasantham 1990 S. A. Rajkumar K. S. Chithra,Kalyan
Poongatru Veesum Mr. Madras 1995 Vidyasagar S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Imaikkatha Vizhigal Kadhal Dot Com 2004 Bharadwaj Srinivas, Srimathumitha
Ena Ithu Ena Ithu Rojavanam 1999 P. Unnikrishnan, Anuradha Sriram
Unnodu Vaazhatha Amarkalam 1999 K. S. Chithra
Siragillai Vaaname Ellai 1992 Maragadha Mani
Nenjodu Kalanthidu Kaadhal Kondein 2003 Yuvan Shankar Raja P. Unnikrishnan, Sujatha Mohan
Manja Kaattu Maina Manadhai Thirudivittai 2001 Karthik, Sadhana Sargam
Azhagana Chinna Devathai Samudhiram 2001 Sabesh–Murali Shankar Mahadevan, Harini
Suppose Unnai Sukran 2005 Vijay Antony Ranjith,Vinaya
Aval Appadi Onrum Angadi Theru 2010 Vineeth Sreenivasan, Ranjith,Janaki Iyer
Natta Nadu Rathiri A Aa E Ee 2009 Karthik, Sangeetha Rajeshwaran,Christopher
Molachu Moonu Velayudham 2011 Prasanna, Supriya Joshi
Ingivalai Ninaithu Ninaithu Parthen 2007 Joshua Sridhar Goutham, Harini Sudhakar
Koba Kanalgal Theeradha Unarvugal Thodarkathai Amin Mirza Gowtham Bhardwaj
Kadhale Kadhale Konjam Koffee Konjam Kaadhal 2012 Phani Kalyan Prasanna, Neha Nair

Related rāgasEdit

Graha bhedhamEdit

Hamsadhvani's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields another pentatonic rāgam, Nagasvaravali. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. For more details and illustration of this concept refer Graha bhedam on Hamsadhvani.

Scale similaritiesEdit

  • Mohanam is a rāgam which has chatushruti dhaivatam in place of the nishadam. Structures are shown in second table.
  • Amritavarshini is a rāgam which has Prati Madhyamam in place of the rishabham. Structures are shown in first table.
  • Gambhiranata is a rāgam which has shuddha madhyamam in place of the rishabham. Structures are shown in first table.
  • Niroshta is a rāgam which has chatushruti dhaivatam in place of the panchamam. Structures are shown in second table.
Rāgam Śruti
Tonic
C D E F G A B C
Hamsadhvani C S R2 G3 P N3 S'
Amritavarshini C S G3 M2 P N3 S'
Gambhiranata C S G3 M1 P N3 S'
Rāgam Śruti
Tonic
C D E F G A B C
Hamsadhvani C S R2 G3 P - N3 S'
Mohanam C S R2 G3 P D2 - S'
Niroshta C S R2 G3 - D2 N3 S'

In Hindustani musicEdit

Vadi and samavadiEdit

Vadi: Sa

Samavadi: Pa

Pakad or chalanEdit

ga pa ni Sa ga re ni pa Sa The Pakad is the one where one can identify to which raga does the composition belongs.

Organization and relationshipsEdit

Thaat: Bilaval.

TimeEdit

Late Evening [6]

Important recordingsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Bor, Joep; Rao, Suvarnalata (1999). The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindusthani Ragas. Nimbus Records with Rotterdam Conservatory of Music. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-9543976-0-9.
  2. ^ O'Brien, J.P. (1977). Non-western Music and the Western Listener. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8403-1755-1.
  3. ^ a b c Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  4. ^ P.P.Narayanaswami on www.carnatica.net
  5. ^ Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  6. ^ w.w.w.wikipedia

LiteratureEdit

  • Bor, Joep (ed). Rao, Suvarnalata; der Meer, Wim van; Harvey, Jane (co-authors) The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas. Zenith Media, London: 1999.

External linksEdit