Garratt

A Garratt (often referred to as a Beyer Garratt) is a type of steam locomotive invented by British engineer Herbert William Garratt that is articulated into three parts.[1] Its boiler, firebox and cab are mounted on a centre frame or "bridge". The two other parts, one at each end, have a pivot to support the central frame; they consist of a steam engine unit – with driving wheels, trailing wheels, valve gear and cylinders – and, above it, fuel and/or water storage.

Key components of the Garratt locomotive design
South African Railways 2 ft (610 mm) gauge SAR NGG 16 Class Garratt, preserved in operating condition on the Welsh Highland Railway

Articulation permits larger locomotives to negotiate curves that might restrict large rigid-framed locomotives. The design also provides more driving wheels per unit of locomotive weight, permitting operation on lightly engineered track. Garratt locomotives produced as much as twice the power output of the largest conventional locomotives of railways that introduced them, reducing the need for multiple locomotives and crews.

Advantages of the Garratt conceptEdit

 
Works drawing of K1, the first Garratt built, showing how the boiler and firebox are not inhibited by the running gear

The principal benefit of the Garratt design is that the boiler and firebox unit are slung between the two engine units.

As O.S. Nock wrote,[2] the Garratt type holds several advantages over the Mallet type:

This [the Mallet] was so designed to provide a very large engine unit, to be managed by a single crew, but to spread the dead-weight over many axles and thus avoid excessive loads on the track and under-line bridges, and at the same time retain flexibility of wheelbase to facilitate operation on severely curved sections of line. The Mallet, having driving-wheel units beneath the boiler, retains the limitation in dimensions inherent in the orthodox type of steam locomotive, while the immense length of some of these machines is itself a handicap. Except with oil firing, ... one cannot put the cab in front. H.W. Garratt ... patented ... the idea of having a single large boiler slung on a cradle carried on two entirely separate engine units. ... The boiler could be developed to ideal proportions, unfettered by any wheels beneath it. It could be kept short, and of large diameter, which is the best possible form for securing a high rate of evaporation.

A further advantage is that the firebox and ashpan are not restricted in dimensions by running gear: the ashpan can have much larger capacity than on a normal locomotive, allowing longer continuous runs without needing to stop and empty the ashpan to clear combustion products from the grate.[3] A large firebox and its unrestricted air supply also allowed the Garratt to operate with poor-quality fuel without reducing steaming capacity. [4]

Garratts ran equally well in either direction, and many engine crews preferred to run with the cab leading the boiler, particularly in tunnels.[4]

Most Garratts were designed for freight or mixed traffic, but several Garratt classes were designed for passenger service. A French-built Algerian Railways Garratt holds the world speed record for an articulated locomotive at 132 kilometres per hour (82 mph).[5] Garratts operating at higher speeds had one advantage over the Mallet design on account of the geometry of the design. When swinging around curves, the boiler and cab unit moved inward, reducing the centrifugal force, whereas the Mallet's forward articulated unit moved out as the locomotive rounded curves.[6]

Although at the end of the steam locomotive era most conventional steam locomotives had reached their maximum in "critical dimensions", the Garratt still had potential for further development, with larger driving wheels, larger boilers and greater output still achievable.[6]

Disadvantages of the Garratt conceptEdit

The major disadvantage of a Garratt (shared with all tank engines) is that the adhesive weight decreases as the water is used from the front tank and coal from the rear bunker. As the weight on the wheels decreases, slipping occurs.

Competitors, look-alikes, and variations on the themeEdit

 
South African Union Garratt

The Garratt was not alone in the field of articulated locomotives: most notably, articulated locomotives in the United States based on the Mallet design achieved power outputs far exceeding those of Garratts. Away from North America were the Fairlie and Meyer articulated types. Further, similar designs to the Garratt were the Union Garratt, Modified Fairlie and Golwé. Of these, the closest was the Union Garratt, a type originally prompted by the perceived necessity for a rigid connection between a bunker or tender and a firebox fed by a mechanical stoker. They were, in effect, a hybrid Fairlie and Garratt with the rear bunker attached to the frame instead of being carried on the rear bogie.[7] The class GH and class U Union Garratts of the South African Railways were examples.[note 1]

Garratt developmentEdit

 
A builder's photo of K1, the first Garratt locomotive

The Garratt articulated locomotive concept was developed by Herbert William Garratt, a British locomotive engineer who was granted a patent (no. 12079). At the time he was the New South Wales Railways' inspecting engineer in London following a career with British colonial railways. Garratt first approached Kitson & Co with his design, but his idea was rejected, perhaps because that company were already committed to the Kitson-Meyer articulated design. He then approached Beyer, Peacock and Company, who were only marginally more interested.[8][page needed]

The first GarrattsEdit

In 1907 Beyer, Peacock & Co. submitted a proposal for a 2 ft (610 mm) gauge 0-4-0+0-4-0 Garratt to the New South Wales Government Railways, which was not proceeded with. The following year a design for a 2 ft gauge Mallet locomotive was submitted in reply to an enquiry from the Government of Tasmania. The company then proposed a Garratt design based on, but a little heavier than, the design for New South Wales, with capacity to negotiate curves of 99 ft (30.18 m) radius and 1 in 25 gradients.[9][10] The proposal was accepted, and two locomotives were built in 1909, which became the K class.[11]

The Tasmanian Railways stipulated two features that were not in Herbert Garratt's original concept. The first was a compound configuration in which two high-pressure cylinders were on the rear engine unit and a pipe led to two larger, low-pressure cylinders on the front engine unit. The second was to have the cylinders facing inwards, which would reduce the distances between both the main steam pipe and the high-pressure cylinders and between the high-pressure and low-pressure cylinders.[12] The latter feature made the locomotive unnecessarily complicated and placed the high-pressure cylinders directly underneath the cab, making it uncomfortably hot for the crew on the rare days when Tasmania's West Coast Range was warm. Only one more Garratt locomotive was produced with compound propulsion (by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1927 for Burma Railways).[13] The company built no more Garratts with inward-facing cylinders, but two Garratts operated by the Southern Fuegian tourist railway at Ushuaia in Argentina, largely based on the K class, have that feature.[7][note 2]

Early design and construction difficulties involved the steam-tight flexible connections between the boiler unit and the power units. However, Beyer, Peacock's engineers solved them after studying a description of the spherical steam joints used on a Fairlie locomotive.[15]

Darjeeling Himalayan RailwayEdit

The third Garratt (another 0-4-0+0-4-0, like the first two) was built in 1910 for the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway and given the class letter "D". The power output was intended to be double that of the line's existing 0-4-0ST locomotives, but only a 65% increase in loading was achieved.[16]

First main-line classEdit

In 1911 Beyer, Peacock & Co. built six 2-6-0+0-6-2 Garratts for the Western Australian Government Railways. The M class were followed by the Ms class and the Msa class. These locomotives formed the pattern for the Victorian Railways narrow gauge G class and the Australian Portland Cement Garratts.[8][page needed]

Final Garratts constructedEdit

Beyer-Peacock built more than a thousand Garratt or Beyer-Garratt locomotives.[17][note 3] The final built to a Beyer-Peacock design, in 1967–1968, were eight 2 ft (610 mm) gauge South African Railways class NG G16 locomotives.[note 4]

Production listEdit

The following list shows known Garratt construction by all manufacturers.[19][20][21]

Type Gauge Railway Class Units Year Builder
0-4-0+0-4-0 500 mm Southern Fuegian Railway, Argentina Ing.L.D.Porta 1 1994 Argentina
0-4-0+0-4-0 500 mm Southern Fuegian Railway, Argentina Ing.H.R.Zubieta 1 2006 Girdlestone Rail, South Africa
0-4-0+0-4-0 600 mm C.F.Vicinaux du Mayumbe, Zaïre E 1 1927 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 600 mm C.F.Vicinaux du Mayumbe, Zaïre A 2 1911 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 600 mm C.F.Vicinaux du Mayumbe, Zaïre A 2 1911 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 600 mm C.F.Vicinaux du Mayumbe, Zaïre B 2 1919 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 600 mm C.F.Vicinaux du Mayumbe, Zaïre B 4 1921 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 600 mm C.F.Vicinaux du Mayumbe, Zaïre 5 1924 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 600 mm C.F.Vicinaux du Mayumbe, Zaïre C 4 1926 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 2 ft Darjeeling Himalayan, India D 1 1910 Beyer, Peacock
0-4-0+0-4-0 2 ft Tasmanian Government Railways K 2 1909 Beyer, Peacock
0-4-0+0-4-0 750 mm Mines du Zaccar, Algeria 1 1936 Du Haine Saint-Pierre
0-4-0+0-4-0 750 mm Mines du Zaccar, Algeria 1 1937 Du Haine Saint-Pierre
0-4-0+0-4-0 750 mm Mines du Zaccar, Algeria 1 1912 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 1,000 mm Porto Feliz Sugar Co., Brazil 1 1927 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 1,000 mm Piracicaba Sugar Co., Brazil 1 1927 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-4-0+0-4-0 4 ft 8 12 in Vivian & Sons (British Copper/ICI) 1 1924 Beyer, Peacock
0-4-0+0-4-0 4 ft 8 12 in Sneyd Colliery, Burslem 1 1931 Beyer, Peacock
0-4-0+0-4-0 4 ft 8 12 in Guest, Keen & Baldwins 1 1934 Beyer, Peacock
0-4-0+0-4-0 4 ft 8 12 in Baddesley Colliery, Baddesley Ensor 1 1937 Beyer, Peacock
0-6-0+0-6-0 750 mm C.F. du Congo 1 1913 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-6-0+0-6-0 750 mm C.F. du Congo 12 1920-21 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-6-0+0-6-0 750 mm C.F. du Congo 9 1924-25 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-6-0+0-6-0 750 mm C.F. du Congo 10 1925-26 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-6-0+0-6-0 2 ft 6 in Buthidaung-Maungdaw Tramway, Burma 2 1913 Beyer, Peacock
0-6-0+0-6-0 1,000 mm SNCV, Belgium Type 23 1 1929 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-6-0+0-6-0 1,000 mm SNCV, Belgium Type 23 1 1930 St. Leonard, Belgium
0-6-0+0-6-0 4 ft 8 12 in Limburg Tramway, the Netherlands 1 1931 Hanomag & Henschel
2-4-0+0-4-2 2 ft 6 in Ceylon Government Railway H1 1 1929 Beyer, Peacock
2-4-0+0-4-2 1,000 mm São Paulo Railway Company, Brazil 1 1919 São Paulo Railway
2-4-0+0-4-2 5 ft 3 in São Paulo Railway Company, Brazil Q 3 1915 Beyer, Peacock
2-4-2+2-4-2 1,000 mm Leopoldina Railway, Brazil 4 1943 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 10 14 in Wells & Walsingham Light Railway 1 1986 Neil Simkins
2-6-0+0-6-2 10 14 in Wells & Walsingham Light Railway 1 2010 Wells & Walsingham Light Railway
2-6-0+0-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G11 3 1919 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G11 2 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 2 ft 6 in Victorian Railways, Australia G 2 1926 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 1,000 mm São Paulo Railway, Brazil U 1 1912 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 1,000 mm São Paulo Railway, Brazil V 1 1936 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 1,000 mm C.F.Madagascar B 2 1926 St. Leonard, Belgium
2-6-0+0-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GA 1 1920 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 3 ft 6 in Australian Portland Cement 1 1936 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 3 ft 6 in Australian Portland Cement 1 1939 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways M 6 1911 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways Ms 7 1912 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways Msa 10 1930 Midland Railway Workshops
2-6-0+0-6-2 4 ft 8 12 in Argentine North Eastern Railway (FCNEA) 3 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 4 ft 8 12 in London Midland & Scottish Railway 3 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 4 ft 8 12 in Argentine North Eastern (FCNEA) 4 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 4 ft 8 12 in East African Railways 5 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-0+0-6-2 4 ft 8 12 in London Midland & Scottish Railway 30 1930 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G16 8 1939 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G16 7 1951 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G16 7 1958 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G12 2 1927 Franco-Belge, Belgium
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G14 1 1930 Hanomag
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G13 3 1927 Hanomag
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G13 2 1928 Hanomag
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G13 7 1928 Hanomag
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G16 8 1967-68 Hunslet-Taylor
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft South African Railways NG G16 4 1936 John Cockerill
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft 6 in Nepal Government Railway 1 1932 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft 6 in Nepal Government Railway 1 1947 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Government Railway 3 1926 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Government Railway 2 1928 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Government Railway 2 1929 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Government Railway 4 1942 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 2 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Government Railway 2 1943 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm Great Western of Brazil 2 1929 Armstrong Whitworth
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm La Robla Railway, Spain 2 1931 Babcock & Wilcox, Spain
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm Assam Bengal Railway, India T 5 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm Transandine Railway, Argentina E12 4 1930 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm Minera de Sierra Minera, Spain 2 1930 Euskalduna, Spain
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm La Robla Railway, Spain 2 1929 Hanomag
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm C.G. de F. Catalanes, Spain 4 1922 St. Leonard, Belgium
2-6-2+2-6-2 1,000 mm C.G. de F. Catalanes, Spain 4 1925 St. Leonard, Belgium
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GB 1 1921 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Natal Navigation Collieries, South Africa 1 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GG 1 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Dundee Coal & Coke, South Africa 1 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Trans Zambezia, Moçambique/Nyasaland E 1 1930 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Consolidated Main Reef Mine, South Africa 1 1935 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Tasmanian Government Railways L 2 1912 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in New Cape Central Railway, South Africa G 2 1923 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Trans Zambezia, Moçambique/Nyasaland E 2 1924 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GB 6 1924 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GC 6 1924 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GD 4 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 13 12 1926 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GD 7 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GD 3 1926 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 14 6 1929 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Guayaquil & Quito Railway, Ecuador 3 1929 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Rio Tinto Railway, Spain 2 1928 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 14 10 1930 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 14A 12 1952 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 14A 6 1953 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GCA 26 1928 Krupp
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GCA 13 1927 Krupp
2-6-2+2-6-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GDA 5 1929 Linke-Hofmann-Busch
2-6-2+2-6-2 5 ft 6 in North Western Railway, India GAS 1 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 5 ft 6 in Ceylon Government Railway C1 1 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 5 ft 6 in São Paulo Railway, Brazil R1 6 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-6-2+2-6-2 5 ft 6 in Ceylon Government Railway C1A 8 1945 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 1,000 mm Burma Railways GA.I 1 1924 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 1,000 mm Burma Railways GA.II 1 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 1,000 mm Burma Railways GA.III 3 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 1,000 mm War Department, Assam Bengal Railway Light 10 1943 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 1,000 mm Burma Railways GA.IV 8 1929 Krupp
2-8-0+0-8-2 4 ft 8 12 in London & North Eastern Railway U1 1 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 4 ft 8 12 in Ottoman Railways, Turkey 1 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 4 ft 8 12 in Mauritius Railway 3 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-0+0-8-2 5 ft 6 in Bengal Nagpur Railway, India HSG 2 1925 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 1,000 mm C.F. Franco Ethiopien & Libya 6 1939 Ansaldo, Italy
2-8-2+2-8-2 1,000 mm War Department, India/Burma 14 1944 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 1,000 mm Royal State Railways of Thailand 6 1929 Henschel
2-8-2+2-8-2 1,000 mm Royal State Railways of Thailand 2 1936 Henschel
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Development Corporation 1 1937 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Development Corporation 1 1937 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GE 6 1924 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GE 10 1927 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 8 1929-30 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GE 2 1930 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Development Corporation 2 1931 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 6 1938 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 6 1937 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in War Department, Congo/Gold Coast/Rhodesia 18 1943 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 30 1953 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 4 ft 8 12 in Central of Peru 1 1931 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 4 ft 8 12 in Nitrate Railways, Chile 3 1926 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 4 ft 8 12 in Nitrate Railways, Chile 3 1928 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 4 ft 8 12 in Central of Peru 3 1930 Beyer, Peacock
2-8-2+2-8-2 5 ft 6 in Central of Aragon, Spain 6 1931 Babcock & Wilcox, Spain
2-8-2+2-8-2 5 ft 6 in RENFE, Spain 10 1960 Babcock & Wilcox, Spain
4-4-2+2-4-4 3 ft 6 in Tasmanian Government Railways M 2 1912 Beyer, Peacock
4-4-2+2-4-4 4 ft 8 12 in Entre Rios Railway (FCER), Argentina 5 1927 Beyer, Peacock
4-4-2+2-4-4 4 ft 8 12 in Argentine North Eastern (FCNAR) 3 1930 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-0+0-6-4 3 ft Ferrocarril Pacifico de Colombia 2 1924 Armstrong Whitworth
4-6-0+0-6-4 1,000 mm Mogyana Railway, Brazil 2 1912 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-0+0-6-4 1,000 mm Mogyana Railway, Brazil 3 1914 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft Ferrocarril Dorada, Colombia 2 1938 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 1,000 mm Midland of Buenos Aires, Argentina 2 1929 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 1,000 mm Leopoldina Railway, Brazil 2 1929 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 1,000 mm Leopoldina Railway, Brazil 6 1937 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 1,000 mm Leopoldina Railway, Brazil 8 1943 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 1,000 mm Vicoa Ferrea do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 10 1931 Henschel
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in New Zealand Government Railways G 3 1928 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in Nigerian Railways 4 1935 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in Nigerian Railways 2 1936 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in Nigerian Railways 6 1937 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in Nigerian Railways 4 1939 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in Nigerian Railways 6 1943 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GF 37 1927 Hanomag
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GF 18 1928 Henschel
4-6-2+2-6-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GF 10 1928 Maffei
4-6-2+2-6-4 4 ft 8 12 in PLM, Algeria 231-132.AT 1 1932 Franco-Belge, France
4-6-2+2-6-4 4 ft 8 12 in C.F.Algeria 231-132.BT 12 1936 Franco-Belge, France
4-6-2+2-6-4 4 ft 8 12 in C.F.Algeria 231-132.BT 4 1937 Franco-Belge, France
4-6-2+2-6-4 4 ft 8 12 in C.F.Algeria 231-132.BT 6 1939 Franco-Belge, France
4-6-2+2-6-4 4 ft 8 12 in C.F.Algeria 231-132.BT 7 1940 Franco-Belge, France
4-6-2+2-6-4 5 ft 6 in Central of Aragon, Spain 6 1931 Euskalduna, Bilbao
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Sudan Railways 250 4 1936 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Sudan Railways 250 6 1937 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 15th 4 1940 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 15th 10 1947 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 15th 20 1948–49 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 15A 15 1949–50 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 15A 15 1950 Beyer, Peacock
4-6-4+4-6-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 15A 10 1952 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-0+0-8-4 5 ft 6 in Bengal Nagpur Railway, India N 16 1929 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-0+0-8-4 5 ft 6 in Bengal Nagpur Railway, India NM 10 1931 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 2 ft 6 in Sierra Leone Government 14 1955-56 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC 4 1926 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC1 12 1928 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC1 8 1928 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Antofagasta (Chili) & Bolivia Railway 3 1929 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Cordoba Central Railway, Argentina E11 10 1929 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC1 2 1930 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Tanganyika Railway GA 3 1931 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm War Department, Kenya Uganda Railway Heavy 7 1943 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm War Department, Burma Light 20 1945 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC6 6 1949 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Burma Railways GE 4 1949 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Angola: Luanda Railway (CFL) 500 6 1949 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Antofagasta (Chili) & Bolivia Railway 6 1950 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm East African Railways 60 4 1954 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm East African Railways 59 27 1955 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm East African Railways 60 8 1954 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm East African Railways 59 7 1955 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm East African Railways 60 5 1954 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm CF d'Afrique Occidentale Française 93 10 1938 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm CF d'Afrique Occidentale Française 93 10 1939 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm CF d'Afrique Occidentale Française 93 7 1941 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm East African Railways 60 12 1954 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Rede Ferrovaria do Noroeste, Brazil 6 1952 Henschel
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC 10 1931 NBL
4-8-2+2-8-4 1,050 mm PLM, Algeria 241-142.YAT 4 1931 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Queensland Railways ASG 5 1944 Clyde Engineering
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Tasmanian Government Railways ASG 2 1945 Clyde Engineering
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Queensland Railways ASG 3 1944 Clyde Engineering
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 6 1945 Clyde Engineering
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Tasmanian Government Railways ASG 3 1945 Clyde Engineering
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 3 1945 Clyde Engineering
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Queensland Government Railways ASG 9 1943-44 Islington Railway Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 1 1943-44 Islington Railway Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 2 1944 ca Islington Railway Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 5 1943-44 Midland Railway Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 5 1944 ca Midland Railway Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Queensland Government Railways ASG 5 1943-44 Newport Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 1 1944 Newport Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Western Australian Government Railways ASG 2 1945 Newport Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Australian Portland Cement ASG 1 1945 Newport Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Tasmanian Government Railways ASG 3 1944 Newport Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Queensland Railways ASG 1 1944 Newport Workshops
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Benguela Railway (CFB) 10A 6 1927 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GL 2 1930 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Emu Bay Railway, Tasmania 3 1929 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Benguela Railway (CFB) 10B 14 1930 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Nigerian Railways 2 1930 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GL 6 1930 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GM 16 1938 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GEA 50 1945-47 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Queensland Government Railways BG 10 1951 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Benguela Railway (CFB) 10C 10 1951 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Benguela Railway (CFB) 10C 2 1952 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 3 1956 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Benguela Railway (CFB) 10C 6 1952 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Benguela Railway (CFB) 10D 10 1955-56 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 5 1956 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 20 15 1954-55 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 15 1956 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 20 6 1957 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Rhodesia Railways 20A 40 1957-58 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 10 1958 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in C.F.Moçambique 951 12 1952 Du Haine Saint-Pierre
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in C.F. du Bas Congo a Katanga 900 12 1953 Du Haine Saint-Pierre
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Queensland Government Railways BG 20 1951 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South Australian Railways 400 10 1953 Franco-Belge, France
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Moçamedes Railway (CFM) 100 6 1953 Henschel
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in C.F.Moçambique 971 5 1956 Henschel
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 25 1952 Henschel
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GO 25 1954 Henschel
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 30 1954 Henschel
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in Angola: Luanda Railway (CFL) 550 6 1954 Krupp
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 12 1956 NBL
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 10 1958 NBL
4-8-2+2-8-4 3 ft 6 in South African Railways GMA 10 1958 NBL
4-8-2+2-8-4 4 ft 8 12 in Iranian State Railway 86 4 1936 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 5 ft Soviet Railways ? [Ya] 1 1932 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 5 ft 6 in Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, Argentina 951 1 1931 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 5 ft 6 in Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway, Argentina 14 12 1928 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 5 ft 6 in Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, Argentina 951 3 1930 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-2+2-8-4 5 ft 6 in Bengal Nagpur Railway, India P 4 1939 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-4+4-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC3 6 1939 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-4+4-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC3 6 1940 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-4+4-8-4 1,000 mm Kenya Uganda Railway EC3 18 1949 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-4+4-8-4 4 ft 8 12 in New South Wales Government Railways AD60 25 1952 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-4+4-8-4 4 ft 8 12 in New South Wales Government Railways AD60 17 1952 Beyer, Peacock
4-8-4+4-8-4 4 ft 8 12 in New South Wales Government Railways AD60 5 1952 Beyer, Peacock

Garratts around the worldEdit

Garratts were used in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and South America. No Garratts were used on North American railroads, the most likely explanation being that American rail companies considered the Garratt's coal and water capacities insufficient for their requirements.[8][page needed]

AfricaEdit

 
South African Class GMAM Garratt

The Garratt was most widely used in Africa:[8][page needed] large numbers were in South Africa, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Algeria, and smaller numbers in Angola, Congo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda and Zaïre.

AlgeriaEdit

In Algeria 29 4-6-2+2-6-4 Garratts, constructed between 1936 and 1941 by the Société Franco-Belge de Matériel de Chemins de Fer at Raismes in Northern France, operated until the Algerian independence war caused their withdrawal in 1951. This class, designated 231-132BT, was streamlined and featured Cossart motion gear, mechanical stokers and 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) driving wheels, the largest of any Garratt class. On a test in France, one of these achieved a speed of 132 kilometres per hour (82 mph)—a record for any Garratt class (and indeed any articulated class).[5]

AngolaEdit

All three main railways in Angola used Garratts. The largest user was the 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge Caminho de Ferro de Benguela. Forty-eight were purchased from Beyer, Peacock between 1926 and 1956. They came in four batches: class 10A (301–306); class 10B (311–324) in 1930; class 10C (331–348) in 1954; and class 10D (361–370).

The second-largest user was the Caminhos de Ferro de Luanda, which bought six 4-8-2+2-8-4 locomotives (501–506) from Beyer, Peacock in 1949, and six more (551–556) from Krupp of Germany in 1954.

The third user was the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes, who bought six 4-8-2+2-8-4 locomotives (101–106) from Henschel & Son of Germany.

BotswanaEdit

Garratts operated on 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge through trains from South Africa to Rhodesia.[citation needed]

Kenya, Tanzania and UgandaEdit

The Kenya and Uganda Railways and Harbours, which operated railways in British East Africa and the Uganda Protectorate from 1929 to 1948, acquired 77 Garratts between the same years. The Tanganyika Railway also acquired 3 in 1928. In 1948, the railways merged to form the East African Railways and Harbours Corporation, commonly known in the railways context as East African Railways, as the letters "EAR" on rolling stock indicated.

In addition to the 80 acquired Garratts, East African Railways operated 63 that it purchased new between 1954 and 1956, making a total of 143 in its stable.

Class Type Qty Loco nos Built Formerly Notes
50 EC1 18 5001–5020 1928 KUR 45–64 1
51 EC1 2 5101–5102 1930 KUR 65–66
52 EC2 10 5201–5210 ? KUR 67–76 2
53 GA 3 5301–5303 1928 TR 700–702 1
55 GB 11 5501–5511 1945 KUR 120–121
plus 9 from Burma
56 EC6 6 5601–5606 1949 KUR 122–127
57 EC3 12 5701–5712 1940 KUR 77–88 3
58 EC3 18 5801–5818 1949 KUR 89–106 3
59 Mountain 34 5901–5934 1955–1956 (new)
60 Governor 29 6001–6029 1954 (new) 2
Notes:
  1. KUR: Kenya Uganda Railways. TR: Tanganyika Railway.
  2. All were built by Beyer, Peacock except for the 52 class, which was built by North British Locomotive Company, Glasgow.
    Some of the 60 class were built by Société Franco-Belge in France, under contract from Beyer, Peacock.
  3. All were of the 4-8-2+2-8-4 wheel arrangement, except the 57 and 58 classes, which were 4-8-4+4-8-4.

The East African Railways 4-8-2+2-8-4 59 class Garratts were the largest and most powerful steam locomotives to run on metre gauge, having a large 70-square-foot (6.5-square-metre) grate and a tractive effort of 83,350 pounds-force (370.76 kilonewtons). The 34 oil-fired locomotives remained in regular service until 1980. As of 2020, the Nairobi Railway Museum held two of them.[6]

MozambiqueEdit

4-6-4+4-6-4 and 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratts operated in Mozambique, some built as late as 1956.[22]

Rhodesia / Zimbabwe and ZambiaEdit

Rhodesia imported 246 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge Garratts of four different wheel arrangements: 2-6-2+2-6-2s of the 13th, 14th and 14A classes; 4-6-4+4-6-4s of the 15th class, 2-8-2+2-8-2s of the 16th, 16A, and 18th classes; and 4-8-2+2-8-4s of the 20th and 20A classes. Many went to Zambia Railways in 1967 when Rhodesia Railways surrendered the lines in Zambia to its government. Zimbabwe's economic and political situation has extended the life of its Garratts. Five Garratts, including some from the Zimbabwe National Railway Museum, were returned to service in 2004–05 to haul commuter trains. They also perform shunting duties around the city of Bulawayo to this day (December 2011).[23][24]

Sierra LeoneEdit

On the Sierra Leone Government Railway, this 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge system had 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratts starting in the 1920s and in the middle 1950s purchased 14 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratts.

South AfricaEdit

The most powerful of all Garratts irrespective of gauge were the South African Railways' eight 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge GL class locomotives of 1929–30, which delivered 89,130 lbf (396.47 kN) of tractive effort. However, they were all out of service by the late 1960s.[25] There was also a proposal for a quadruplex super Garratt locomotive with a 2-6-6-2+2-6-6-2 wheel arrangement for South African Railways, but this was never built.[26]

SudanEdit

Sudan operated at least one 4-6-4+4-6-4 Garratt.[27]

AsiaEdit

Myanmar (Burma)Edit

Burma had 43 metre gauge Garratts. Five B class 2-8-0+0-8-2 Garratts went to the Burma Railway Company between 1924 and 1927, with seven more built by Krupp of Germany in 1929.[28] They were followed by 31 locomotives transferred from India for War Department service: ten 2-8-0+0-8-2 locomotives, class GB (ex-Indian class MWGL); twelve 2-8-2+2-8-2 locomotives of class GC (ex-Indian class MWGH); and nine 4-8-2+2-8-4 locomotives of class GD (ex-Indian class MWGX).[29][30][31] A class of four 4-8-2+2-8-4 locomotives, the GE class, was built for Burma Railways in 1949,[31] but was diverted to the Assam Railway in India.[32]

Two 0-6-0+0-6-0 2ft 6in gauge Beyer-Garratts were supplied to the Buthidaung-Maungdaw Tramway which became the Arakan Light Railway. BP works Nos. 5702 & 5703 of 1913 refer.[33]

Ceylon (now Sri Lanka)Edit

Ceylon had 10 Garratts: an H1 class 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) 2-4-0+0-4-2 in 1924, a C1 class 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) 2-6-2+2-6-2 in 1927 and eight more C1 class 5 ft 6 in gauge 2-6-2+2-6-2s in 1945.[31][34]

IndiaEdit

 
Bengal Nagpur Railway 815, Class N (BP 6594 of 1930), at the National Rail Museum, New Delhi

India had 83 Garratts. One 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) gauge 2-6-2+2-6-2 was built for the Indian State in 1925.[31] The 5 ft 6 in gauge Bengal Nagpur Railway had 32 Garratts: a pair of HSG class 2-8-0+0-8-2 locomotives built in 1925; 16 N class and 10 NM class 4-8-0+0-8-4 locomotives built in 1930–31 and four P class 4-8-2+2-8-4 locomotives built in 1939.[31][35]

The metre gauge Assam-Bengal Railway had six T class 2-6-2+2-6-2 locomotives built in 1927. They later became the GT class on the Bengal Assam Railway. Three types of Garratt were supplied for war service on the BAR: ten MWGL class 2-8-0+0-8-2 locomotives; twelve MWGH 2-8-2+2-8-2 locomotives; and 18 MWGX class 4-8-2+2-8-4 War Department standard light Garratts. Of these, only nine MWGX stayed in India, with the remainder transferred to Burma.[29][31] After the war, the four Burma Railways GE class 4-8-2+2-8-4s were diverted to the Assam Railway.[citation needed]

IranEdit

The Trans-Iranian Railway had 10 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratts (class 86) built in 1936.[31]

MauritiusEdit

Mauritius had three standard gauge 2-8-0+0-8-2 Garratts that were built in 1927.[31]

NepalEdit

The Nepal Government Railway (NGR) had 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratt locomotives manufactured by Beyer, Peacock and Company in 1932 and 1947.[19]

Siam (Thailand)Edit

Royal State Railway of Siam acquired 8 German Henschel-built Garratt during 1929-1937 for heavy freight duties in Pak Chong highland areas. Only one survived and preserved, and currently on display in Kanchanaburi.

TurkeyEdit

Ottoman Railways had just one standard gauge 2-8-0+0-8-2 Garratt that was built in 1927.[31]

AustralasiaEdit

Most states of Australia had sets of Australian Standard Garratt with varying degrees of success during the Second World War and for the decade after.[36][37]

New South WalesEdit

 
Preserved former New South Wales Government Railways AD60 class no. 6029, City of Canberra, in 2016

New South Wales Government Railways introduced the 4-8-4+4-8-4 AD60 Garratt in 1952, built by Beyer, Peacock. The AD60 weighed 265 tonnes, with a 16-tonne axle loading. As delivered, it developed a tractive effort of 60,000 lbf (270 kN)), not as powerful as the South African Railways GMA/M 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratts of 1954, which developed a tractive effort of 60,700 lbf (270 kN).[25] Following modifications in 1958 to thirty AD60s, their tractive effort was increased to 63,016 lbf (280.31 kN). These locomotives remained in service until the early 1970s with a replacement "6042" using the boiler cradle of 6043 (The original was scrapped in 1968) the last withdrawn in February 1973.[38] Oberg wrote he witnessed an AD60 clear a dead 1220-tonne double-headed diesel freight (total weight 1450 tonnes) from a 1 in 55 grade without wheel slip.[39] Four AD60's survive today: 6029 (which operates occasionally out of Thirlmere), 6039 (under private ownership at Dorrigo Museum), 6040 (on static display at THNSW, Thirlmere), & 6042 (also owned by the Dorrigo museum but sitting in the middle of a field in Forbes, NSW).

QueenslandEdit

Queensland Railways operated thirty Beyer Garratt locomotives. These were mainly based in the Rockhampton area.[40]

South AustraliaEdit

 
The South Australian Railways 400 class

One of ten Garratts delivered in 1953 to the South Australian Railways – number 409 – is on static display at the National Railway Museum, Port Adelaide, South Australia. The locomotives were ordered in 1951 from Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd, when there was a need for more and bigger motive power to haul the heavy ore trains on the 1067 mm (3 ft 6 in) narrow-gauge line between Broken Hill and Port Pirie. The company subsequently subcontracted the order, with main specifications identical to those of the notable 60th class of the East African Railways, to Société Franco-Belge, its European associate based in Raismes.[41]

By 1955 the 400 class had taken over most of the working of the Broken Hill line. They operated as oil-burners, with provision for a mechanical stoker to be installed if converted to burn coal. They were also designed to be easily converted for service on either the broad or standard gauge. They were superseded by diesel power in 1963.[41]

TasmaniaEdit

Following the success of the K class Garratts on the North East Dundas Tramway, the Tasmanian Government Railways imported Beyer, Peacock Garratts for their main lines, in particular the 4-4-2+2-4-4 M class for express passenger work. These were the only eight-cylinder Garratts.[42][page needed] The M1 achieved a world speed record of 55 miles per hour (89 km/h) on 30 November 1912. Their 5-foot (1.5 m) diameter driving wheels were at the time the largest on any narrow-gauge locomotive in Australia.[43] Their eight cylinders proved a nightmare to maintain, and after several fatal and disastrous derailments in the late 1920s, mainly due to inadequate trackwork, they were withdrawn and scrapped.

VictoriaEdit

Victorian Railways operated two Beyer Garratts, used on the Crowes and Walhalla narrow gauge railway lines. The two engines were classified as G class, numbered G41 and G42; the latter engine has been restored. It is currently in use at the Puffing Billy Railway near Melbourne. It was not used in public service on that line prior to the preservation era.

New ZealandEdit

 
A NZR G class Garratt locomotive

Beyer, Peacock built three 4-6-2+2-6-4 NZR G class locomotives in 1928, which were too powerful for the system and had complicated valve mechanisms. Unusually, these engines had three cylinders (24×16.5 in) each, on two sets of engine frames, thus creating a six-cylinder Garratt; they were the second and final Garratts to employ this arrangement, the other being the one-off LNER U1. They entered service in 1929. Walschaerts valve gear operated the outside cylinders with the inner third cylinder linked by a Gresley conjugated valve gear. Photos verify the coal bunker was carried on an extension to the boiler frame rather than on the rear engine frame, as with most Garratts. The engines delivered 51,580 lbf (229.44 kN) of tractive effort, which was too powerful for the drawbars on the rolling stock. After a few years they were rebuilt as six Pacifics, also unsuccessful, but which saw nearly twenty years of service.[44]

Though no NZR Garratts survived, there are three preserved imported African Garratts in New Zealand. Rhodesia Railways class 15A No.398 of the Flying 15 Trust, Pakakarakiki, class 14A No.509 of Mainline Steam Trust Plimmerton (under restoration), and South African Railways GMAM class No.4083 at Mercer Auckland with the Mainline Steam Trust awaiting restoration. When it first arrived in NZ in the 1990s, it was steamed and ran in their former Parnell Depot yard. See preservation below.

EuropeEdit

Garratts were mainly employed in Great Britain, Russia and Spain, where some five railway companies employed seven classes. These included the 1931 order for Central of Aragon Railway for six 4-6-2+2-6-4 "Double Pacific" Garratts for fast passenger service. In addition a Dutch and a Belgian tramway also operated one or more engines based on and built to the Garratt design.

NetherlandsEdit

In 1931 the Dutch Limburgsche Tramweg Maatschappij (LTM) 'Limburg tramway company' ordered a single standard gauge Garratt, numbered LTM 51, from Henschel (Germany) with builder's number 22063. This design was slightly different in that the coal bunker was located on the boiler frame and both machines only holding the watertanks. More importantly, it was the only Garratt with inside cylinders. The wheel arrangement was C+C (0-6-0+0-6-0). Due to abandonment of the line in 1938 the loc was sold to a metal merchant, who in turn sold it to an engineers' bureau, that sold it in 1941 to Germany. Further whereabouts of this machine are unknown, but it is presumed scrapped.

SpainEdit

Spain had a varied collection of Garratts from most builders; Beyer, Peacock themselves only building a pair of 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) 2-6-2+2-6-2s for Rio Tinto in 1929. The first Garratts in Spain however were four metre gauge 2-6-2+2-6-2s built for the Ferrocarriles Catalanes in 1922 by Sociéte Anonyme St. Leonard of Liége, Belgium. Four more followed in 1925. Also on the metre gauge, the Ferrocarril de la Robla bought two pairs of 2-6-2+2-6-2s, the first from Hanomag of Germany in 1929, the second from Babcock & Wilcox of Bilbao in 1931. The Compania Minera de Sierra Minera also bought a pair of metre gauge 2-6-2+2-6-2s in 1930.

On the broad gauge, the Central of Aragon Railway bought six 2-8-2+2-8-2s from Babcock & Wilcox and six 4-6-2+2-6-4s from Euskalduna of Bilbao, both in 1931. The last Garratts supplied to Spain were ten 2-8-2+2-8-2s for RENFE by Babcock & Wilcox in 1960.

United KingdomEdit

British usage of Garratts was minimal. A single large Garratt (2-8-0+0-8-2, London and North Eastern Railway Class U1 number 2395/9999/69999) was built in 1925 for banking heavy coal trains on the Woodhead route. 33 2-6-0+0-6-2 Garratts were built for the London, Midland and Scottish Railway between 1927 and 1930, although their undersized axle-boxes made them unreliable and they were withdrawn in the mid-1950s.

Four standard gauge Garratt locomotives were supplied by Beyer Peacock for industrial service in the UK. One survived & is preserved at Bressingham Steam Museum. No. 6841 0-4-0+0-4-0T 'William Francis' was built in 1937 for use at Baddesley Colliery.[45]

USSREdit

 
Soviet Ya.01 class 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratt

Beyer, Peacock constructed the largest steam locomotive built in Europe, a 4-8-2+2-8-4 for the USSR, works order number 1176 in 1932. The locomotive had the Russian classification Ya.01 (Я.01). This massive machine was built to the Russian standard 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge and a loading gauge height of 17 feet (5.2 m). It underwent extensive testing and proved to be very able to operate in extremely low temperatures, due to adequate protection of the external plumbing between boiler and engine units. This may have been the lowest temperature operation of a Garratt type. The locomotive was used for a number of years for coal traffic in the Donbass region, but was never replicated. This decision appears to be a combination of unfamiliar maintenance processes and politics.[46][47][48]

North AmericaEdit

No Garratts appeared in North America, although American Locomotive Company became the sole licensee to build Garratts there. Alco was unable to garner sufficient interest from US railroads to produce even a prototype or demonstrator. This reluctance was reportedly based on a concern that tractive effort and factor of adhesion would suffer as the weight of water and fuel over the driving wheels diminished.[4]

United StatesEdit

In 1975, one 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratt NG class No. 50 formerly of the South African Railways was imported and is used on the private 2 ft (610 mm) gauge Hempstead & Northern Railroad in Hempstead, Texas, who also operate another former South African Railways 2-8-2 "Mikado" type No. 18.[citation needed]

South AmericaEdit

ArgentinaEdit

The British-owned 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) gauge Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway operated twelve Garratt 4-8-2+2-8-4 oil-fired locomotives, numbers 4851–4862, built by Beyer, Peacock in 1929. They were used on the Bahía Blanca North Western section, particularly on the Toay line), on the main Bahía Blanca North Western line to General Pico, and between Tres Arroyos and Bahía Blanca. They were withdrawn in the 1950s due to the rapid decline in freight traffic caused by the increasing competition from road transport.[49]

Other British-owned railway companies in Argentina operated Garratt locomotives built by Beyer, Peacock:

The Southern Fuegian Railway at Ushuaia uses two 500 mm (19 34 in) gauge Garratts to haul tourist trains.

BoliviaEdit

Three meter gauge 4-8-2+2-8-4 were delivered to the Antofagasta and Bolivia Railway in 1929, followed by six more in 1950.[50]

BrazilEdit

In Brazil, post-1927 the São Paulo Railway operated broad-gauge 4-6-2+2-6-4] Garratts that ran passenger trains at 70 m.p.h.[51]

ColombiaEdit

In Colombia, one 914 mm (3 ft) gauge 4-6-2+2-6-4 Garratt was purchased by the FC Pacifico in 1924 and two more by the La Dorada in 1937.[52]

PeruEdit

Four 2-8-2+2-8-2 standard gauge Garratts were delivered to the Central Railway of Peru from 1929 to 1931. (Donald Binns, The Central Railway of Peru and The Cerro de Pasco Railway, 1996)

War locomotivesEdit

During World War II, several Garratt designs were built to meet the wartime needs of narrow-gauge railways in Africa, Asia and Australia.[8][page needed]

Six 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratts were built for the 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge Sierra Leone Government Railway in 1942, to a design first supplied to that railway in 1926. Five of the older Garratts were converted to a 2-8-0+0-8-2 wheel arrangement to increase their tractive effort.[citation needed]

Seventy Garratts were constructed by Beyer, Peacock for the War Department, to three standard designs. A 2-8-2+2-8-2 based on the South African Railways GE class was constructed on 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge for West Africa and Rhodesia, while a heavier class of 4-8-2+2-8-4 was constructed for East African Railways. A lighter metre-gauge 4-8-2+2-8-4 was constructed for India, Burma, and East Africa. This design was particularly successful, and was the basis for several post-war classes.[8][page needed]

The Australian Standard Garratt (ASG) was designed in 1942, for use on 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge railways, in the critical period of World War II following the Japanese bombing of Darwin in 1942, and aerial attacks on other northern Australian centres.[53] It was a 4-8-2+2-8-4 locomotive, designed in Australia and constructed by a number of Australian railway workshops. Several design problems with the class emerged, and use of the locomotive encountered resistance from the drivers' union, especially in Queensland.[54] Most were withdrawn at the end of the war,[8][page needed] although a number continued to operate successfully in Tasmania.[55]

PreservationEdit

 
Preserved South African Railways class GL Beyer-Garratt locomotive no 2352 at the Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester, 2010

About 250 Garratts may exist today. However, many are dumped in varying states of disrepair in remoter parts of the world, and the number that may be likely to survive has been estimated as fewer than 100.[7] As of 2019, about 15 operating Garratt locomotives can be found in Europe, Africa, Argentina, the US and Australia.[56]

The first Garratt locomotive, the K class of the North-East Dundas Tramway, has been preserved. After the line closed in 1929 the locomotives were put up for sale. K1 was purchased by Beyer, Peacock in 1947 for their museum. The preserved locomotive has parts from both original engines. When Beyer, Peacock ceased trading, the locomotive was sold to the Ffestiniog Railway, who initially proposed to cut it down to meet their loading gauge. For a number of years it was on loan to the National Railway Museum and was exhibited in York. In 1995 it was removed from York to commence restoration in Birmingham. It was returned to Wales in 2000 where restoration was continued at the Ffestiniog Railway workshops at Boston Lodge. It was fitted with a new boiler and restored to full running order on the Welsh Highland Railway by September 2008. The Welsh Highland Railway owns several former South African SAR NGG 16 Class Garratts, and operates both the first (K1) and last (NG/G16 143) Garratts constructed by Beyer, Peacock.[57][citation needed]. The K1 ten year boiler ticket expired in 2014. Even though the locomotive had worked infrequently, a full boiler overhaul was required to meet UK regulations. The FR/WHR declined to fund this activity sighting lack of revenue generating opportunities for the locomotive and the need to maintain their core fleet of NG/G16 locomotives. Finally, in 2019 it was decided to move the locomotive to the Statfold Barn Railway in Central England on a ten year loan with two boiler overhauls in the agreement. The first boiler overhaul was quickly completed along with other work at a cost of 60,000 GBP and the locomotive seen in steam at Statfold in February 2020.

In Spain, a 2-8-2+2-8-2 number 282F-0421, nicknamed "Garrafeta", occasionally ran in the Lleida area but no longer. An enormous 4-6-2+2-6-4, number 462F-0401, is under slow cosmetic restoration. Both locomotives are managed by ARMF, a non-profit organisation which also holds the only main line repair workshop for historical railway vehicles on broad gauge network.[58]

A single Hanomag-built narrow gauge example exists in the USA located in Hempstead Texas. It has been made operational again since November 2015.

Several Australian Garratts have been restored to operating condition. G 42, formerly used on the narrow gauge lines of the Victorian Railways, works regularly on the Puffing Billy Railway in the Dandenong Ranges outside Melbourne. The Puffing Billy Railway is also rebuilding ex SAR NG/G16 129 which entered service in late 2019. The Queensland Railways removed 1009, its sole remaining 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratt, from an open-air museum and fully restored it to working order. It was out of service by December 2007, awaiting a new boiler. NSWGR AD60 6029 was restored to operating condition in Canberra. As of 2018, 6029 is privately owned and is stored at Thirlmere, NSW. It is occasionally used by the NSW Rail Museum on mainline excursions.

In Kenya, East African Railways 59 class 5918 was maintained in operating condition from 2001 to 2011. Likewise in Zimbabwe 20th class 730 and 740 were held in operating condition until 2004. They have not run since 2004 when 730 was briefly used on Bulawayo commuter services. None are likely to operate again without external funding for major repairs as the only work available for them are excursion trains for foreign tourists and rail enthusiasts.

Unfortunately no New Zealand Railways NZR G class Garratts survived, but three more modern Southern African Garratts have been imported for restoration in New Zealand, with No.509's boiler certified and restoration nearing completion as of 2018.

In December 2007, Zimbabwe class 14A Garratt number 509, overhauled in Bulawayo was offloaded in New Zealand for operational preservation by the Mainline Steam trust.[59][citation needed] In early 2011 Zimbabwe 15th class 398 was also delivered to New Zealand for restoration to operating condition by Steam Inc.

As of December 2020 there is only one place in the World where one can with reasonable confidence view a Garratt in daily operating service. Ushuaia, Argentina whilst Dinas in North Wales offers the sight of daily operation for about 10 months of the year.[citation needed]

In September 2018, South Eastern Zone of Indian Railways made a successful trial run of a Beyer-Garratt numbered 811 from Kharagpur. A heritage service is planned and scheduled to start from the upcoming festival season.[60]

In fictionEdit

In the movie Big World! Big Adventures! of the television program, Thomas & Friends, an EAR 59 class Garratt, named Kwaku, was introduced.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Union Garratt did not enjoy the success of the standard Garratt. It was soon evident that mechanical stokers could function across the connection between a Garratt's boiler and engine unit, making the rationale for the Union Garratt redundant. A weakness was the Union Garratts' extended boiler frames and the position of the bunker and hind water tank on those frames; the South African Railways U and GH classes had much heavier axle-loadings than Garratts of comparable size, weight and power, and wear on the hind pivot was severe. The Union Garratt, like the Golwé and Modified Fairlie, was not perpetuated on anything like the scale of the Garratt, and no known examples survive.
  2. ^ The locomotives, designated as the KM class, comprise no. 2, built in 1994 and rebuilt in 2001 at Ushuaia, and no. 6, incoporating improved design features, built in 2006 at Durban, South Africa. As of 2020, a third Garratt was under construction.[7][14]
  3. ^ The term Garratt alone was used after 1907, when Herbert Garratt was granted his patent and subsequently Beyer, Peacock & Co. had sole rights of manufacture in Britain. After the patents ran out in 1928, the company began to use the name Beyer-Garratt to distinguish their locomotives.[18]
  4. ^ The order was placed with Beyer, Peacock and Co., but since the firm was in the process of closing down, it subcontracted the order to the Hunslet Engine Company. Hunslet's South African subsidiary, Hunslet-Taylor, in Germiston, built the locomotives using boilers manufactured by their parent company.[8][page needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Durrant 1969, p. 13.
  2. ^ Nock, O.S (1971). Railways in the Years of Pre-Eminence 1905-19. Blandford Press. p. 127.
  3. ^ Tuplin, W.A. (1971). British Steam since 1900. Pan Books. p. 73. ISBN 0-330-02721-2.
  4. ^ a b c Fawcett, B. "Contortionist of the high iron”, Trains magazine, June 1955
  5. ^ a b Glancey 2012, p. 271
  6. ^ a b c Hollingsworth & Cook 1987
  7. ^ a b c d Dickinson, Rob (17 December 2019). "True articulated steam locomotives part 2". The international steam pages. Internationalsteam.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Durrant 1981
  9. ^ Murdoch, Geoff (1988). Tasmania's Hagans: the North East Dundas Tramway: Articulated J Class. Geoff Murdoch. pp. 11–13. ISBN 0646334425.
  10. ^ "The Garratt Locomotive". ashet.org. Australia.
  11. ^ Belbin, B.; Browning, J; McKillop, B. (February 2007). K1 Steams Again. Light Rails. 193. p. 4.
  12. ^ Turner, Jim (1997). Australian Steam Locomotives 1896-1958. Kenthurst: Kangaroo Press. p. 50. ISBN 086417778X.
  13. ^ Durrant 1981, p. 46
  14. ^ Smith, Les (7 March 2020). "February 2020 upate on Garratt's - Worldwide". groups.io. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  15. ^ Rolt, L.T.C. (1964). A Hunslet hundred. Dawlish: David & Charles. p. 66., quoted by Tom Rolt from Edgar Alcock regarding his time at Beyer Peacock.
  16. ^ Hughes 1994, p. 37
  17. ^ Atkins (1999), p. 104.
  18. ^ "Beyer Peacock & Co Ltd". Science Museum Group. Science Museum Group. 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  19. ^ a b Hamilton, Gavin N., The Garratt Locomotive - Garratt Locomotives produced by Beyer, Peacock, retrieved 10 November 2012 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  20. ^ Hamilton, Gavin N., The Garratt Locomotive - Garratt Locomotives from Other Builders, retrieved 10 November 2012 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  21. ^ "The End of the World Train - Tierra del Fuego National Park - Engineer Porta". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012.
  22. ^ Ziel & Eagleson 1973.
  23. ^ "National Railways of Zimbabwe". International Railway Journal. 1 May 2004.
  24. ^ "Mugabe forced back to steam age". The Times. 1 October 2005.
  25. ^ a b South Africa – Last Stronghold of Steam. Johannesburg: African Government. 1978. ISBN 0-949934-24-0.
  26. ^ Paxton & Bourne 1985, pp. 8–9
  27. ^ Ziel & Eagleson 1973, p. 150.
  28. ^ Hughes 1992, p. 48
  29. ^ a b Hughes 1996, p. 11
  30. ^ Hughes 1996, pp. 84–85
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Beyer Peacock Locomotive Order List, Garratt Locomotives, Customer List V1" (PDF). BeyerPeacock.co.uk. 8 April 2002. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  32. ^ Hughes 1996, p. 57
  33. ^ Hughes, H.C. (November 1966). "Garratts in Arakan". Railway Magazine. Vol. 112 no. 787. pp. 624–625.
  34. ^ Hughes 1996, p. 92
  35. ^ Hughes 1996, p. 33
  36. ^ Whiting, Alan (1988), Engine of destruction : The Australian Standard Garratt scandal, A. Whiting, ISBN 978-0-7316-1466-0
  37. ^ Butrims, Robert; Australian Railway Historical Society. Victorian Division; Geelong Steam Preservation Society (1975), Australia's Garratt, Geelong Steam Preservation Society in conjunction with Australian Railway Historical Society, Victorian Division, ISBN 978-0-9598322-0-4
  38. ^ Oberg 1975, p. 200.
  39. ^ Oberg 1975, p. 191.
  40. ^ Those QR Beyer, Garratts which gave Very Little Trouble Knowles, John, Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, January, 1998, pp.13–20
  41. ^ a b "Locomotive 4049". National Railway Museum. National Railway Museum, Port Adelaide. 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  42. ^ Cooper & Goss 1996.
  43. ^ Cooper & Goss 1996, p. 19.
  44. ^ Stewart 1970, pp. 98–104.
  45. ^ Preserved British Steam Locomotives
  46. ^ Bell 1935.
  47. ^ Le Fleming & Price 1960.
  48. ^ Rakov 1995.
  49. ^ Purdom 1977.
  50. ^ Turner & Ellis 1992.
  51. ^ Hollingsworth & Cook 1987, pp. 144–145
  52. ^ Gustavo Arias de Grieff, La Mula de Hierro, 1986
  53. ^ Butlin, S.J. (1961). Australia in the War of 1939–1945: Vol 111, War Economy 1939–1942. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
  54. ^ "Australian Standard Garratt". qrig.org. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  55. ^ "G 33: Last of the Australian Standard Garratts". Australian Steam. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  56. ^ Hamilton, Gavin N., The Garratt Locomotive - Surviving Garratt Locomotives, retrieved 10 November 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  57. ^ Belbin & McKillop. pp.6–7
  58. ^ "ARMF - Restauració - Fitxa Tècnica -Locomotora Vapor CdeA 101 (Garratt grande / Garratt Pacífic)" [ARMF - Restoration - Technical Specification - Vapor Locomotive CdeA 101 (Garratt grande / Garratt Pacífico)].
  59. ^ RailwaysAfrica 2008/1 p 34
  60. ^ "90-year-old steam loco chugs out on trial run". Times of India. 23 September 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.

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External linksEdit