Western Australian Government Railways
Western Australian Government Railways (WAGR) was the operator of railway services in the state of Western Australia between October 1890 and June 2003. Owned by the state government, it was renamed a number of times to reflect extra responsibility for tram and ferry operations that it assumed and later relinquished. Its freight operations were privatised in December 2000 with the remaining passenger operations transferred to the Public Transport Authority in July 2003.
|Formed||1 October 1890|
|Dissolved||30 June 2003|
|Headquarters||Public Transport Centre|
History of operationsEdit
The first WAGR line opened on 26 July 1879 between Geraldton and Northampton. it was followed by the Eastern Railway from Fremantle to Guildford via Perth on 1 March 1881. The WAGR adopted the narrow gauge of 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) in order to reduce construction costs.
Over the next few decades, an extensive network of main lines and branches throughout Western Australia would be built, primarily to service the wheatbelt. Prior to the expanded use of road transport, the network was of vital importance in the state, particularly for the moving of agricultural, forestry and mining products.
The WAGR network was joined to that of the rest of mainland Australia, albeit to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge, a different gauge, in October 1917 with the opening of the Commonwealth Railways' Trans-Australian Railway to Kalgoorlie.
Legislative restrictions were implemented to limit competition from road transport, most notably from the 1930s through to the 1950s, when the Transport Co-ordination Board kept strict control over commercial road traffic through powers vested by the State Transport Co-ordination Act 1933. As road transportation expanded and losses escalated, many lines closed from 1949.
The network peaked in 1937 at 6,600 kilometres. Unusually for such a large network, only one tunnel was required, the Swan View Tunnel. A few isolated lines were operated, such as the Marble Bar line in the Pilbara and the Hopetoun-Ravensthorpe line on the South Coast. With many lines in need of heavy maintenance, rolling stock in need of replacement and heavy losses being incurred, during the 1950s many branches closed with 1,320 kilometres of the network so treated in 1956/57, although 275 kilometres were subsequently reopened on a seasonal basis.
In the late 1960s, the Eastern and Eastern Goldfields lines between Perth and Kalgoorlie was gauge converted to allow through operation of trains from the eastern states along with the Esperance & Menzies lines, with sections through the Avon River and east of Southern Cross built on new alignments. A concerted program of dieselisation saw diesel locomotives replace the last steam locomotives in March 1972.
In the late 20th century, the end of restrictions on competing road transport resulted in the WAGR and its successors moving from being a small customer-oriented system to a predominantly main line bulk carrier operation. This resulted in many smaller communities losing their facilities. However, in the wheatbelt, bulk handling of grain continued despite the changes.
The WAGR was renamed a number of times to reflect extra responsibility for tram and ferry operations that it assumed and later relinquished.
- 1 January 1880 – 30 September 1890: Department of Works & Railways
- 1 October 1890 – 30 June 1914: Western Australian Government Railways (I)
- 1 July 1914 – 30 June 1922: Western Australian Government Railways & Tramways
- 1 July 1922 – 30 June 1930: Western Australian Government Railways, Tramways & Electricity Supply
- 1 July 1930 – 30 June 1946: Western Australian Government Railways, Tramways, Ferries & Electricity Supply
- 1 July 1946 – 21 April 1949: Western Australian Government Railways, Tramways & Ferries
- 22 April 1949 – 16 December 2000: Western Australian Government Railways (II)
- 19 September 1975: WAGR adopted the trading name Westrail
- 17 December 2000: The freight business, Westrail name and a 49-year lease on the network outside of Perth were sold to the Australian Railroad Group. The public entity that continued to operate passenger services was renamed the Western Australian Government Railways Commission (WAGRC).
- 1 July 2003: WAGRC succeeded by Public Transport Authority that today operates services under the Transperth and Transwa brands
Inquiries and CommissionsEdit
A range of committees of inquiry as well as Royal Commissions were conducted on aspects of the railways between 1893 and 1959, however to appreciate the number of commissions that had relevance to railway operations, the coal and wheat industries were linked with the railway operations as well. The following are only a selected group of commissions:
- Report of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the condition and organisation of the railway workshops at Fremantle.
- Chairperson: Charles Harper.
- Royal Commission on City Railway Traffic 1899
- Chairperson: H. W. Venn 30/06/1897
- Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the administration of the locomotive branch of the Western Australian Government Railways
- Chairperson: Richard Speight 23/08/1899
- Royal Commission on charges made against high officials in the service of the Western Australian Government Railways 1906
- Chairperson: Robert F. McMillan
- Royal Commission on railways 1922
- Chairperson: George W. Stead
- Report of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into Australian Standard Garratt Locomotive 1947
- Chairperson: Albert A. Wolff
- Second interim report of the Royal Commission appointed to enquire into (inter-alia) the supply of local coal to the Western Australian government railways
- Chairperson: Alexander J. Gibson
- First interim report of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the Midland Junction Workshops of the Western Australian Government Railways
- Chairperson: Alexander J. Gibson
- Report of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the management, workings and control of the Western Australian Government Railways
- Chairperson: Alexander J. Gibson
- Royal Commission appointed to inquire into administration of the Western Australian Government Railways
- Report on the working of the government railways for quarter ended 30 September 1957
- Report of the Western Australian Government Railways Commission for the year ended 30 June 1959
- Chairperson: Alan G. Smith
The WAGR operated a wide variety of services throughout its history, including the more standard country and suburban passenger and freight workings as well as a limited electrified service, early country railcar services, road bus services and overnight sleeper services to distant destinations.
Although some passenger trains were bestowed nicknames, it wasn't until The Westland was launched in 1938, that a service was officially named. Further trains were named in the 1960s in an effort to increase the prestige of rail travel.
|The Prospector||East Perth||Kalgoorlie||1971||present|
The WAGR operated services from Perth to many destinations throughout the state. In 1935, it operated 63 sleeper services a week. It also operated local passenger, many operating as mixed trains. The last of these ceased in 1973.
While the current Perth urban passenger network operated by Transperth is entirely electrified, between May 1924 and March 1969 the State Electricity Commission operated the only electrified line in Western Australia as part of the WAGR network. The line was 800 metres in length and operated within the confines of the East Perth Power Station. The electric locomotive used on the railway is preserved at the Western Australian Rail Transport Museum in Bassendean, though is currently not on display.
Country diesel railcar servicesEdit
Road bus serviceEdit
Where lines were closed in the 1940s and 1950s, or passenger services discontinued, road bus services were introduced. Most of the services and the same routes continue to the present.
The rail-road services commenced on 24 November 1941 with one vehicle operating a service from Perth to Kojonup via Boddington. By 1949, there were 28 buses. and by 1959, more than fifty. Dual-purpose buses that also carried freight were introduced in 1949. Buses operated included Fodens, articulated trailer buses, AECs, Leyland Lions, Hino RC320Ps and Mercedes-Benz O303s.
In the early 1970s the WAGR Bus service included seasonal six-day Wildflower Study Tours from Perth and along roads to and from Geraldton through the northern wheatbelt. These had first been operated in 1948 by the Midland Railway of Western Australia. Also in the early 1970s, the King Karri Scenicruiser buses ran from Bunbury through Manjimup, Pemberton, Northcliffe and Walpole to Albany at the same time the Albany Progress overnight train was still operating, making it possible to do a round trip by rail from Perth to Albany and bus from Albany to Perth via Bunbury.
In the mid-1970s some services reflected where rail services had either closed or had ceased providing facilities for passengers, the following selection is not the total service at the time.
- Perth-Toodyay-Goomalling-Wubin-Mount Magnet-Meekatharra
Railway road truck servicesEdit
There were also road-freight services, while the restrictions on non-government trucking were still in force, with suburban truck services from Perth to Midland, Fremantle, Kewdale and Gosnells. The country services were extensive having Perth and country rail stations as terminal locations.
Until 1951, most steam locomotives were painted black. From that date, locomotives used on passenger services were painted green. The early diesel locomotives were painted green, with a red stripe later added. In the late 1960s, a grey and light blue livery was introduced. The latter was resurrected by South Spur Rail Services in the early 2000s.
Carriages were painted Indian red, before a larch green and cream livery was introduced in October 1951. When launched in 1964, The Midlander stock was painted in a maroon and ivory livery. When the Westrail brand was introduced in 1975, an orange and blue livery was introduced for locomotives. In the late 1990s, this was superseded by a yellow and blue livery.
The WAGR operated a large number of unique steam, diesel and electric locomotive classes. Most of the steam locomotives were built in the United Kingdom, with the WAGR's Midland Railway Workshops building some from 1915. The early diesels were mainly built by Beyer, Peacock and Company in England, Clyde Engineering in Sydney, and English Electric in Brisbane. Later diesels were assembled in Perth.
Chief Mechanical EngineerEdit
Chief Mechanical Engineer was the highest posting at the Midland Railway Workshops, which in turn managed (through construction, repair and design) all aspects of railway maintenance and equipment. The post was established in 1900 and abandoned in 1989.
Lines and operational centresEdit
Legacy and preservationEdit
A number of former WAGR locomotives and rolling stock types, as well as many examples of WAGR architecture and railway infrastructure have been preserved, with the Hotham Valley Railway and Rail Heritage WA holding extensive collections. Some items are preserved interstate, notably by the Pichi Richi Railway. With the deregulation of the Australian rail market in the 1990s, former WAGR rolling stock has operated in other states, with L class locomotives having operated in the eastern states for ATN Access, Aurizon and Pacific National.
- Gunzburg, Adrian (1984). A History of WAGR Steam Locomotives. Perth: Australian Railway Historical Society. pp. 13, 115, 142. ISBN 0-9599690-3-9.
- Higham, Geoffrey (2007). Marble Bar to Mandurah: A history of passenger rail services in Western Australia. Bassendean: Rail Heritage WA. pp. 10, 35, 44, 46, 57, 58, 111, 118, 119. ISBN 978-0-9803922-0-3.
- Affleck, Fred (1978). On Track: The making of Westrail 1950 - 1976. Perth: Western Australian Railways Commission. pp. 8, 9, 37, 144. ISBN 0-7244-7560-5.
- State Transport Co-ordination Act 1933 Government of Western Australia
- Bayley, William (1974). Tunnels on Australian Railways. Bulli: Austrail Publications. pp. 37–38. ISBN 0-909597-16-2.
- "AU WA A580 - Department of Works and Railways". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "AU WA A33 - Western Australian Government Railways ". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "AU WA A581 - Western Australian Government Railways and Tramways". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "AU WA A582 - Western Australian Government Railways, Tramways and Electricity Supply". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "AU WA A583 - Western Australian Government Railways, Tramways, Ferries and Electricity Supply". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "AU WA A584 - Western Australian Government Railways, Tramways and Ferries". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "AU WA A585 - Western Australian Government Railways ". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- Our History 1951 to 1975 Public Transport Authority
- Our History Brookfield Rail
- "AU WA A1194 - Western Australian Government Railways Commission". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- Annual Report for year ended 30 June 2001 Western Australian Government Railways Commission
- "AU WA A1192 - Public Transport Authority". State Records Office of WA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- Annual Report for year ended 30 June 2003 Western Australian Government Railways Commission
- Zalums, E. (Elmar); Stafford, H. (Helen) (1980), A bibliography of Western Australian royal commissions, select committees of parliament and boards of inquiry, 1870-1979, E. Zalums & H. Stafford, ISBN 978-0-9594506-0-6
- http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/intranet/libpages.nsf/589198976847966848256e5a0008666d/576f693668722e924825774300287922?OpenDocument List of Royal Commissions
- Appointed:17/05/1893. Report:05/10/1893 in Western Australian Government Gazette No. 25, 18 May 1893, p.540
- WAGG No. 36, 2 July 1897, p. 1279 / WAGG No. 58, 5 Nov 1897, p. 2349 Tabled Paper 2/1899 3rd/4th 1899 - Vol I
- Western Australia. Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Administration of the Locomotive Branch of the Western Australian Government Railways; Speight, Richard, 1839-1901; Western Australia. Parliament (1899), Report of the Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Administration of the Locomotive Branch of the Western Australian Government Railways, Government Printer, retrieved 8 October 2016CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- 15/09/1906 04/10/1906 WAGG No. 63, 28 September 1906, p. 2935 Tabled Paper A6/1906 6th/2nd 1906 - Vol II
- Stead, George W; Western Australia (1922), Royal Commission on Railways, Govt. Printer, retrieved 7 October 2016
- "Garratt Report Likely Soon". The Daily News. LXIV (22, 177). Western Australia. 8 May 1946. p. 5 (CITY FINAL). Retrieved 8 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- Royal Commission Appointed to Enquire into (Inter Alia) the Supply of Local Coal to the Western Australian Government Railways; Gibson, Alexander J (1948), Second interim report of the Royal Commission Appointed to Enquire into (Inter Alia) the Supply of Local Coal to the Western Australian Government Railways, Govt. Pr, retrieved 7 October 2016
- Western Australia. Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Midland Junction Railway Workshops; Gibson, Alex J (1947), First interim report of the Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Midland Junction Workshops of the Western Australian Government Railways, Govt. Printer], retrieved 7 October 2016
- Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Management, workings and control of the Western Australian Government Railways; Gibson, Alexander J; Du Plessis, D. H. C (1947), Report of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the Western Australian Government Railways, Govt. Pr, retrieved 7 October 2016
- Royal Commission on the Western Australian Government Railways; Smith, A. G (1959), Interim report no. 9 of the Royal Commission on the Western Australian Government Railways, retrieved 8 October 2016 - there were 10 separate reports over two years
- Gunzburg, Adrian (1989). The Midland Railway Company Locomotives of Western Australia. Surrey Hills: Light Railway Research Society of Australia. p. 7. ISBN 0-9093402-77.
- Don Finlayson (Ed.) (1986), "Steam Around Perth", Australian Railway Historical Society W.A. Division (Inc), Lamb Print, West Perth., ISBN 0-9599690-4-7 p14
- State Electricity Commission Electric Locomotive Rail Heritage WA
- Gray, Bill; May, Andrew (2006). A History of WAGR Passenger Carriages. Perth: Bill Gray. pp. 171–177. ISBN 0-646-45902-3.
- Royal Commission into the Management, Workings & Control of the Western Australian Government Railways Government of Western Australia December 1947 page 92
- WAGR buses shift 360,000 in a year The Sunday Times 28 August 1949 page 3
- Fleet Summary Perth Bus Info
- WAGR Timetable booklet 1969, p.81
- Rail and Road in Western Australia 1971–1972 p.27
- Rail and Road in Western Australia, edition 1971–1972, p.38 - timetable on p.39
- WAGR 1976 Rail Timetable booklet
- WAGR Timetable booklet 1969, p.59 - with at least 19 separate services at that date
- Media South Spur Rail Services
- Bertola, P.; Oliver, B. [Eds.] (2006). The Workshops: A History of the Midland Government Railway Workshops. Perth: University of Western Australia Press.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Equipment / Trains Hotham Valley Railway
- Bassendean Museum Exhibits Rail Heritage WA
- Western Australian Government Railways W class locomotives Pichi Richi Railway
- "Newsletter Changes". WAGR News Letter: 3. December 1973.
- "Why Movement?". Movement: 1. February 1974.
- "Catalogue entry". WAGR News Letter – via National Library of Australia.
- "Catalogue entry". Movement – via National Library of Australia.
- WAGR Publicity Section, Perth. Pamphlets and information sheets produced in the early 1960s.