New South Wales AD60 class locomotive

The AD60 class were Beyer-Garratt patent articulated four-cylinder, simple, non-condensing, coal-fired superheated, 4-8-4+4-8-4 heavy goods steam locomotives built by Beyer, Peacock and Company for the New South Wales Government Railways in Australia.

New South Wales AD60 class
Arhs 6012 cowan.jpg
6012 at the top of Cowan Bank
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
BuilderBeyer, Peacock and Company
Manchester
Serial number7473–7497, 7528–7549
Build date1952–1954, 1956
Total produced42 (plus 5 as spares)
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte4-8-4+4-8-4
Gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Driver dia.4 ft 7 in (1,397 mm)
Length108 ft 7 in (33.096 m)
Adhesive weight282,000 lb (128,000 kg)
later 317,000 lb (144,000 kg)
Loco weight562,000 lb (255,000 kg)
later 582,000 lb (264,000 kg)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity14 long tons
(14.2 tonnes; 15.7 short tons)
later
18 long tons
(18.3 tonnes; 20.2 short tons)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
65 sq ft (6.0 m2)
Boiler pressure200 psi (1.38 MPa)
Heating surface3,030 sq ft (281 m2)
Superheater:
 • Heating area750 sq ft (70 m2)
CylindersFour
Cylinder size19.25 in × 26 in
(489 mm × 660 mm)
later
19.875 in × 26 in
(505 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Performance figures
Tractive effort59,560 lbf (264.9 kN)
later 63,490 lbf (282.4 kN)
Factor of adh.4.73 or 4.99
Career
OperatorsNew South Wales Government Railways
ClassAD60
Number in class42
Numbers6001–6042
First runJuly 1952
Last runMarch 1973 (in service)
Preserved6029, 6039, 6040, 6042
Disposition4 preserved, 38 scrapped

DesignEdit

 
AD60 Class Fittings and Controls
 
AD60 Beyer-Garratt Boiler

The AD60 Class 4-8-4+4-8-4 Beyer-Garratt patent consists of a boiler carried on a separate frame in the centre of the locomotive and supported by the frames of the two engines, one at each end. The locomotive thus consists of three parts: a water tank, a fixed chassis supporting a boiler and a rear engine unit carrying a coal bunker and water tank. The standard gauge coupled axle loading of 16 long tons (16.3 t; 17.9 short tons) and able to negotiate 6-chain (120 m) curves.

The design incorporated the most modern technology to minimise maintenance and repairs, including:

IntroductionEdit

This was the only type of Garratt locomotive to operate on the New South Wales Government Railways. Designed to a light axle load of only 16 long tons (16.3 t; 17.9 short tons), they were intended for hauling feeder branch-line services to the main lines where heavier main-line locomotives could continue with the load.[1][2][3]

In 1949 twenty-five were initially ordered from Beyer, Peacock and Company, followed by a further twenty-five. Following a change of policy in favour of diesel traction, negotiations were entered into, in order to cancel the last part of the order. Forty-two complete locomotives were delivered, together with spare parts equating to approximately five further locomotives. The five sets of parts did not include engine unit frames. The cancellation contract stipulated that the NSWGR could not assemble the spare parts into complete locomotives without paying substantial royalties to Beyer-Peacock. The last three locomotives were cancelled completely and the assembly positions at the Gorton Works of Beyer-Peacock were sold to the South African Railways.

The locomotives were delivered in their five major component pieces: Front engine, rear engine, boiler-cab, rear bunker and front water tank. These five sub assemblies were built into a complete locomotive in NSW.

Locomotive 6002 was the first to enter service in July 1952 with the last, 6040 delivered on 2 January 1957.[1][3] The locomotives were the most powerful to operate in Australia but behind the D57 in terms of tractive effort.[4]

ImprovementsEdit

Early trials established that the 14-long-ton (14.2 t; 15.7-short-ton) bunker was insufficient to allow the locomotives to operate from Enfield to Goulburn resulting in the bunkers being enlarged to carry 18 long tons (18 t; 20 short tons). Ventilation of the cabs caused considerable concern. Consequently, the class was banned from working through single-line tunnels, this ban also being in response to the difficulty crews would have climbing out in the event of failure within such tunnels. Amongst attempts to improve cab ventilation, 6011 was experimentally fitted in September 1952 with a large tube along the front bunker and boiler to funnel air from the front of the locomotive into the cab. It was unsuccessful and was removed in 1955. Some improvement was obtained by running the locomotives bunker first.[3]

Owing to the length and noise of the locomotive, crews found difficulty in hearing warning detonators. To rectify the situation, tubes were fitted to convey the sound from the leading wheels to the cab. This mechanism can still be seen today on 6040 at the NSW Rail Museum.[3]

When it became apparent that the Garratts would see more service on main lines than on the lighter branch lines, it was decided to increase the tractive effort of a number of the class by enlarging the cylinder diameter and by altering the weight distribution by removing liners from the bogies. This increased the axleload on each of the driving wheels by approximately 2 long tons (2.0 t; 2.2 short tons) with 30 locomotives treated. To distinguish these improvements the double plus sign ++ was painted after the number and they were nicknamed Super Garratts. These 30 were also fitted with dual controls for bunker first running and denoted DC. To accommodate them, 105-foot (32 m) turntables were installed at Broadmeadow, Enfield and Werris Creek depots.[3]

In September 1968, the highest numbered member of the class, 6042, was to be shopped at Cardiff Locomotive Workshops for overhaul. At the same time, 6010 was nearing completion in the same works. As pressure was increasing upon the works staff to expediate steam locomotive overhauls, the decision was taken to switch numbers between the two, which gave the impression that 6042 had received an overhaul in one day. Photographs were taken of the two locomotives together and the former 6042 (now 6010) was stored. Unfortunately, an erroneous source has perpetuated a myth that a new locomotive was completed from spare parts from the 5 broken-down engines (6043-47). Photographs and a chapter of the late Ron Preston's (the then Cardiff Works manager) text "Essays in Steam" demonstrate the latter to be false. [5]

OperationEdit

The class initially entered service on the Main North and Main South and later Main Western line as far as Dubbo and Parkes. Because of their light axle load they were cleared to operate on the Crookwell, Captains Flat, Temora, Narrandera and Bourke lines.[1]

Typical workings in the mid 1960s would consist of bulk export coal and general goods movements :

Typical Class AD60 Traffic
Route Traffic Down
(tons)
Up
(tons)
Notes
Glenlee to Rozelle Export Coal 1500
Gosford to Broadmeadow Export Coal 1500 double headed AD60's
Gosford to Broadmeadow General Freight 685 single 1100 assisted
Broadmeadow to Muswellbrook General Freight 775 1150
Newstan/Awaba Colliery to Wangi PS Export Coal 1075 1500T assisted
Enfield to Goulburn General Freight 900 1500
From Botany Oil Refineries Petroleum 1000
Goulburn to Captains Flat Mineral 600 600
Junee Goods 600 600
Cootamundra to Stockinbingal Goods 1000 1500
Up to Lithgow assisting until electrification in 1957
Parkes to Goobang Junction Goods 1000 1400 16T axle loading locos only
Dubbo to Merrygeen Goods 1100 1000 16T axle loading locos only
Parkes to Bogan Gate/Tottenham Goods 1000 1400 16T axle loading locos only
Portland to Pipers Flat Cement 700
Pipers Flat to Wallerawang Cement 1400
Dubbo to Werris Creek Goods 1100
Lithgow to Bathurst Goods 850 900
Orange to Parkes Goods 600
Bathurst westward Goods 850 900 dependent on grade
W44 Broken Hill concentrates 575 600 double headed AD60's
Molong to Orange Goods 600 600 double headed AD60's

Demise & preservationEdit

6012 was the first of the class to be withdrawn in 1955. The next few to be withdrawn suffered accident damage in major collisions in 1961 (6003 Geurie) and 1963 (6028 Glenlee - rebuilt and returned to service by 1965). Dieselisation accounted for the other 39 of the class from 1965. The last withdrawn was 6042 which operated the final New South Wales Government Railways steam service on 22 February 1973. Shortly after, it was chosen to work the ceremonial "Last Steam Train" from Newcastle to Broadmeadow on 2 March 1973, where it was ceremonially through a celebratory banner by the-then NSW Transport Minister, the Honourable Milton Morris.

Preserved AD60 Class Locomotives
No. Year Current Organisation Location Status Ref
6029 1954 Privately Owned Thirlmere Operational
6039 1956 Dorrigo Steam Railway & Museum Dorrigo Stored Dorrigo Webpage
6040 1957 Transport Heritage NSW Thirlmere Static Exhibit NSW Locomotive, Steam 6040
6042 1956 Dorrigo Steam Railway & Museum Forbes Stored [6]

Dorrigo Webpage

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Oberg, Leon (1984). Locomotives of Australia 1850's - 1980's. Frenchs Forest: Reed Books. pp. 204–206. ISBN 0 730100 05 7.
  2. ^ Oberg, Leon (2007), Locomotives of Australia, 1854 to 2007 (4th ed.), Rosenberg Publishing, pp. 261–263, ISBN 978-1-877058-54-7
  3. ^ a b c d e Grunbach, Alex (1989). A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives. Sydney: Australian Railway Historical Society, NSW Division. pp. 241–247. ISBN 0 909650 27 6.
  4. ^ Powerhouse Museum. "Sectioned Beyer Garratt locomotive model 6001". Powerhouse Museum, Australia. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  5. ^ Preston, R.G., (1995) A Tale of Two Garratts, Essays in Steam, Eveleigh Press, Sydney
  6. ^ "Forbes Vintage Village Auction" Railway Digest January 1987 page 27

Further readingEdit

  • Gilbertson, CB (April 2003). "Remembering the 60 Class". Australian Railway History Bulletin. pp. 123–135.

External linksEdit

  Media related to New South Wales AD60 class locomotives at Wikimedia Commons