List of national founders

  (Redirected from Founding Fathers)

The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, (i.e., political system form of government, and constitution), of the country. They can also be military leaders of a war of independence that led to the establishment of a sovereign state.

AfricaEdit

 
Amílcar Cabral was a revolutionary and nationalist leader of Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau.
 
Saad Zaghloul was the founder of independent Egypt. "Zaeem al Ummah (Leader of the Nation)"

AlgeriaEdit

Ahmed Ben Bella served as first Prime Minister of Algeria from 1962 to 1963, than as first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

AngolaEdit

Agostinho Neto served as first President of Angola from 1975 to 1979.

BeninEdit

Hubert Maga served as first President of Dahomey from 1960 to 1963.

BotswanaEdit

Seretse Khama served as first President of Botswana from 1966 to 1980.

Burkina FasoEdit

Maurice Yameogo served as first President of Upper Volta from 1960 to 1966.

BurundiEdit

CameroonEdit

Ahmadou Ahidjo served as first President of Cameroon from 1960 to 1982.

Cape VerdeEdit

Amílcar Cabral (var. Amílcar Lopes da Costa Cabral) (1924–1973) was an agricultural engineer, writer, and a nationalist thinker and political leader. He was also one of Africa's foremost anti-colonial leaders. Amílcar Cabral led the nationalist movement of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands and the ensuing war of independence in Guinea-Bissau. He was assassinated on 20 January 1973, several months before Guinea-Bissau's unilateral declaration of independence. He is considered a founder of Cape Verde. Aristides Pereira served as first President of Cape Verde from 1975 to 1991.

Central African RepublicEdit

David Dacko served as first President of Central African Republic from 1960 to 1966.

ChadEdit

Francois Tombalbaye served as first President of Chad from 1960 to 1975.

ComorosEdit

Republic of the CongoEdit

Fulbert Youlou served as first President of the Republic of the Congo from 1960 to 1963.

Democratic Republic of the CongoEdit

Patrice Lumumba, Joseph Kasa-Vubu, Albert Kalonji, Jean Bolikango, Cléophas Kamitatu, and Paul Bolya are all considered "Fathers of Independence" in the Congo.[1]

DjiboutiEdit

Hassan Gouled Aptidon served as first President of Djibouti from 1977 to 1999.

EgyptEdit

There is no agreed founder of Egypt as the area was politically unified around 3000 BC and has since endured multiple changes in terms of government and polities.

The prevailing historical view is that Muhammad Ali (1769–1849) is the Father of Modern Egypt, being the first ruler since the Ottoman conquest in 1517 to permanently divest the Porte of its power in Egypt. While failing to achieve formal independence for Egypt during his lifetime, he was successful in laying the foundation for a modern Egyptian state.[2]

The Founder of Independent Egypt, Saad Zaghloul (1859–1927), was a politician who served in many ministries of the Egyptian government, and was imprisoned by the British government in Malta, but returned to Egypt to participate in the revolution of 1919. Zaghloul then was able to make the Sultan of Egypt (later King) Fuad I convince the British to grant Egypt independence with a friendly British-Egyptian relationship and in 1922, Egypt was proclaimed an independent kingdom, the Kingdom of Egypt with Saad Zaghloul as its prime minister. British military presence in Egypt ended with nationalisation of Suez Canal in 1956.

Equatorial GuineaEdit

Francisco Macias Nguema served as first President of Equatorial Guinea from 1968 to 1979.

EritreaEdit

Isaias Afwerki serves as first President of Eritrea from 1993 to present.

EswatiniEdit

EthiopiaEdit

GabonEdit

Leon M'ba served as first President of Gabon from 1961 to 1967.

The GambiaEdit

Dawda Jawara served as first Prime Minister of the Gambia from 1962 to 1970. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1965.

GuineaEdit

Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Seku Turay) (1922–1984) was a Guinean political leader and President of Guinea from 1958 to his death in 1984. Touré was one of the primary Guinean nationalists involved in the independence of the country from France.

He is with Kwame Nkrumah one of the founders of the African Union, and the Guinean Diallo Telly was the first general secretary of the African Union.

GhanaEdit

Kwame Nkrumah (1909–1972) led the nation to its independence from the United Kingdom in 1957.

Guinea-BissauEdit

Luís Cabral served as first President of Guinea-Bissau from 1973 to 1980.

Ivory CoastEdit

Felix Houphouet-Boigny served as first President of Ivory Coast from 1960 to 1993.

KenyaEdit

Jomo Kenyatta served as the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of the Republic. Oginga Odinga served as the first vice-president.

LesothoEdit

Leabua Jonathan served as Prime Minister of Lesotho from 1965 to 1986.Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1966.

LiberiaEdit

Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1809–1876) was born a free man of black American descent. In 1829 his family moved to Liberia. In 1839, Roberts became Liberia's lieutenant governor and afterwards, its governor (1841–1848). He is known as the father of Liberia and officially declared Liberia's independence in 1847.[3]

LibyaEdit

King Idris Al-sanusi, also known as Idris I of Libya, (1889–1983) was the first and only king of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969, and the Chief of the Senussi Muslim order. Idris as-Senussi proclaimed an independent Emirate of Cyrenaica in 1949. He was also invited to become Emir of Tripolitania, another of the three traditional regions that now constitute modern Libya (the third being Fezzan).[4] By accepting he began the process of uniting Libya under a single monarchy. A constitution was enacted in 1949 and adopted in October 1951. A National Congress elected Idris as King of Libya, and as Idris I he proclaimed the independence of the United Kingdom of Libya as a sovereign state on 24 December 1951.

MadagascarEdit

MalawiEdit

Hastings Banda served as first Prime Minister of Malawi from 1964 to 1966, than as first President from 1966 to 1994.

MaliEdit

Modibo Keita served as first President of Mali from 1960 to 1968.

MauritaniaEdit

Moktar Ould Daddah served as first President of Mauritania from 1960 to 1978.

MauritiusEdit

Seewoosagur Ramgoolam served as first Prime Minister of Mauritius from 1968 to 1982.

MoroccoEdit

MozambiqueEdit

Samora Machel served as first President of Mozambique from 1975 to 1986.

NamibiaEdit

NigerEdit

Hamani Diori served as first President of Niger from 1960 to 1974.

NigeriaEdit

All are considered founders of Nigeria. The troika of Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, and Ahmadu Bello negotiated Nigeria's independence from Britain, aided by such figures as Chief Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti.

RwandaEdit

Gregoire Kayibanda served as first President of Rwanda from 1962 to 1973.

São Tomé and PríncipeEdit

Manuel Pinto da Costa served as first President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1975 to 1991.

Sierra LeoneEdit

Freetown, Sierra Leone was founded in part by a Black American soldier, Thomas Peters in 1792, after managing to convince British abolitionists to help settle 1,192 Black Americans who fought for the British in return for freedom. Peters, alongside other Black Americans David George and Moses Wilkinson, were influential in the establishment of Freetown, but it was Peters who is remembered today as the true influential leader and founder of Sierra Leone. A street was named for Thomas Peters in Freetown by the Krio Mayor Winstanley Bankole Johnson.[5]

SenegalEdit

The founder of modern Senegal is Leopold Sedar Senghor. He served as first President from 1960 to 1980.

SeychellesEdit

James Mancham served as first President of Seychelles from 1976 to 1977.

Sierra LeoneEdit

Milton Margai served as first Prime Minister of Sierra Leone from 1958 to 1964. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1961.

SomaliaEdit

The Somali Youth League played a major role for Somalia's independence since the 1940s, with two of its members having served as the first two Somali presidents, Aden Adde and Abdirashid Shermarke. There are several murals and monuments dedicated to the SYL's independence movement in Mogadishu.

Republic of South AfricaEdit

Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) was the former President of South Africa, in office from 1994 to 1999. He led the negotiations, together with F. W. de Klerk, to racially integrate and unite the country.

Other anti-apartheid activists include:

South SudanEdit

SudanEdit

TanzaniaEdit

Julius Nyerere was a key figure in the independence of the country, and served as the first President from 1964 to 1985. On the part of Zanzibar the other side of the union there is Sheikh Abeid Aman Karume.

TogoEdit

Sylvanus Olympio served as first President of Togo from 1960 to 1963.

TunisiaEdit

The founder of the modern Tunisia is Habib Bourguiba. He served as first President from 1957 to 1987.

UgandaEdit

ZambiaEdit

  • Kenneth Kaunda (1924–2021) is the prominent icon in the independence and unification of Zambia. He served as first President from 1964 to 1991. However, there are important personalities like Simon Kapwepwe and Harry Nkumbula (1916–18) that fairly deserve recognition. Together, in their different capacities, they led the nation to freedom.

ZimbabweEdit

Abel Muzorewa (1925-2010) was the first black Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia.
Robert Mugabe (1924-2019) was the leader of ZANU-PF, who ruled Zimbabwe from 1980 to 2017.
Others

AsiaEdit

AfghanistanEdit

Ahmad Shah Durrani (1723–1773) unified the Afghan tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747.[6] His mausoleum is next to the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where he is fondly known as Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah the Father).

ArmeniaEdit

AzerbaijanEdit

Mammad Amin Rasulzade (Azerbaijani: Məhəmməd Əmin Axund Hacı Molla Ələkbər oğlu Rəsulzadə, Turkish: Mehmed Emin Resulzâde; (1884–1955) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of Azerbaijan Republic (1918–1920). His expression "Bir kərə yüksələn bayraq, bir daha enməz!" ("The flag once raised will never fall!") became the motto of the independence movement in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.

BahrainEdit

Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa served as first Prime Minister of Bahrain from 1970 to 2020. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1971.

BangladeshEdit

 
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is considered by many as the founding father of Bangladesh

Apart from the founding leaders, the four key members of the Liberation Wartime government vice-president Syed Nazrul Islam, prime minister Tajuddin Ahmad, finance minister Muhammad Mansur Ali and home minister Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman (altogether known as 'Four National Leaders') and the Liberation Wartime armed forces chief Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani are hailed as vital figures in Bangladesh's independence.

BhutanEdit

Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (1594–1651) fled Tibet and unified the fiefdoms of Bhutan. He established the dual system of shared power between secular and Buddhist leadership that continues as a tradition to the present.

BruneiEdit

CambodiaEdit

ChinaEdit

Yellow Thearch
Yu the Great
Qin Shi Huang
Sun Yat-sen
Mao Zedong

The Yellow Thearch is revered as the legendary initiator of Chinese civilization, one of the cradles of civilization.[14]

Yu the Great is conventionally regarded as having inaugurated dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia dynasty, the first orthodox dynasty of China, in circa 2070 BC.[15]

In 221 BC, the State of Qin completed the conquest of the various Chinese kingdoms of the Warring States period and formed the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin dynasty.[16] Its monarch then took the title of Huángdì (皇帝; "Emperor") to reflect his prestigious status vis-à-vis prior rulers, thus becoming Qin Shi Huang.[16]

Sun Yat-sen was the founding father of the Republic of China and served as its first provisional president. He was officially conferred the title of Guófù (國父; "Father of the Nation") by the Nationalist government in AD 1940.[17] Today, he is still officially recognized as such in the Taiwan Area where the Republic of China continues to rule, while the People's Republic of China considers him the Gémìng Xiānxíngzhě (革命先行者; "Forerunner of the Revolution").[18]

Mao Zedong is regarded as the founder of the People's Republic of China,[19] even though the state has yet to officially confer the title "Father of the Nation" upon anyone.[20]

CyprusEdit

East TimorEdit

Mari Alkatiri served as Prime Minister of East Timor from 2002 to 2006.

GeorgiaEdit

Besarion Gugushvili served as first post-Soviet Prime Minister of Georgia from 1991 to 1992.

IndiaEdit

 
Mahatma Gandhi, father of the nation

Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) is considered the father of the nation and one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement.[21][22] He is regarded as the founder of the modern Republic of India. He is featured on the Indian rupee.

IndonesiaEdit

 
Sukarno, Founder of Indonesia

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta are the founders of Indonesia. They both signed the Proclamation of Independence which then read by Sukarno, proclaiming the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands on 17 August 1945. A day later, they were elected respectively as the first President and Vice President of Indonesia. As the Netherlands did not recognize the independence, both of them were prominent figures and were seen as symbol of unity among Indonesian people to fight against Dutch during the National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. In August 1949, Hatta headed a delegation to The Hague for a Round Table Conference which then led to the recognition of Indonesian independence by the Netherlands on 23 December 1949.[23]

 
Mohammad Hatta, Founder of Indonesia

In the early days of its formal independence, Indonesia published a series of stamps that paired several local personage with American founding fathers and former presidents. They are: Sukarno paired with George Washington, for their leadership during the initial stage of independence; Mohammad Hatta paired with Abraham Lincoln, for their democratic ideals; Haji Agus Salim paired with Benjamin Franklin, for their foreign diplomacy; Alexander Andries Maramis paired with Alexander Hamilton, for their contribution in the country financial matters; and Sutan Sjahrir paired with Thomas Jefferson, for their political marvels.

Iran (Persia)Edit

Cyrus the Great (600–530 BC) was the founder of the First Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. Many Iranians gather at his tomb in Pasargadae annually on the Cyrus the Great Day and Nowruz, the Persian New Year. Prior to the 1979 Revolution the 2,500th year of Foundation of Imperial State of Iran took place. It consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place on 12–16 October 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Imperial State of Iran and First Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great.[24][25] The intent of the celebration was to demonstrate Iran's old civilization and history to showcase its contemporary advancements under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.[26][27]

Reza Shah is considered "the father of modern Iran" as he introduced many reforms and was the first Iranian head of state to ask foreign countries to refer to Iran by its endonym.[28][29]Ruhollah Khomeini is considered the founder of the modern Islamic State of Iran.[30]

IsraelEdit

Theodor Herzl is considered the founder of Israel's founding ideology known as Zionism. David Ben-Gurion was the first Prime Minister of Israel, and considered an important figure in the creation of the state of Israel.

JapanEdit

Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇, Jinmu-tennō) (traditional reign 660–585 BC) was the first Emperor of Japan,[31] according to the traditional order of succession.[32] The Japanese national holiday National Foundation Day (建国記念の日, Kenkoku Kinen no Hi) is celebrated annually on 11 February in commemoration of the founding of the nation of Japan and the ascension of Emperor Jimmu to the imperial throne.[33]

JordanEdit

Abdullah bin Al-Hussain was the founder and ruler of the Jordanian realm from 11 April 1921 until his assassination on the 20th of July 1951. He was the Emir of Transjordan, a British protectorate, until 25 May 1946,[34][35] after which he was the king of an independent Jordan. He was a 38th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad, as he belongs to the Hashemite family.

KazakhstanEdit

 
Alikhan Bokeikhanov, leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement.

There is no law in the country which officially recognizes a single individual as the "Father of the Nation". Either title may be associated with any of the following prominent historical persons, owing to their impact on the country during their respective times.

Alikhan Bukeikhanov (1866–1937) was a Kazakh statesman, politician, publicist, teacher, writer and environmental scientist. He was leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement. He sided with the westernizers in the Kazakh political scene who were promoting the idea of the Western culture into the Kazakh steppe. In 1920, after the establishment of Soviet hegemony, Bukeikhanov joined the Bolshevik party and returned to scientific life. His earlier political activities caused the authorities to view him with suspicion, leading to arrests in 1926 and 1928. In 1926, Bukeikhanov was arrested on the charge of counter-revolutionary activity and put into Butyrka prison in Moscow. But due to the lack of evidence in the criminal case against him, he was released from prison. In 1930, the authorities banished him to Moscow, where he was arrested a final time in 1937 and executed.

Dinmukhamed Kunayev (1912–1993) was a Kazakh Soviet communist politician. He became first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan again in 1964 when Khrushchev was ousted and replaced by Brezhnev. He kept his position for twenty-two more years. He was an alternate member of the Politburo from 1967, and a full member from 1971 to 1987. During Kunayev's long rule, Kazakhs occupied prominent positions in the bureaucracy, economy and educational institutions. A Brezhnev loyalist, he was removed from office under pressure from Mikhail Gorbachev, who accused him of corruption. On 16 December 1986 the Politburo replaced him with Gennady Kolbin, who had never lived in the Kazakh SSR before. This provoked street riots in Almaty, which were the first signs of ethnic strife during Gorbachev's tenure. In modern Kazakhstan, this revolt is called Jeltoqsan, meaning December in Kazakh.

Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected the nation's first president following its independence from the Soviet Union in December 1991. In 2010 Parliament of Kazakhstan named him Елбасы (Elbasy) which means "Leader of the Nation".

North KoreaEdit

Kim Il-sung was the founder of North Korea. He ruled from 1948 to 1994.

South KoreaEdit

Syngman Rhee served as first President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960.

KuwaitEdit

KyrgyzstanEdit

Askar Akayev served as first post-Soviet President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 to 2005.

LaosEdit

LebanonEdit

Bechara El Khoury and Riad El Solh served as the first president and the first Prime Minister respectively of Lebanon after the French mandate in 1943.

MalaysiaEdit

Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903–1990) usually known as "the Tunku" (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955, and the country's first Prime Minister from independence in 1957. He remained Prime Minister after Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore joined in 1963 to form Malaysia.

MaldivesEdit

MongoliaEdit

 
Genghis Khan posthumous portrait

Genghis Khan (c. 1162–1227), who by uniting the nomadic tribes founded the Mongol Empire, is generally regarded as the father of modern-day Mongolia.[citation needed] Although downcast during the communist-era, Genghis Khan's reputation surged after the democratic revolution in 1990.

MyanmarEdit

Anawrahta is considered to be founder of ancient Burmese Kingdom of Pagan.

General Aung San is the founder of modern Burma (also known as Myanmar). Although he did not live to see the country's independence, he is credited in forming the basic structure of the independence movement and government. Aung San started his political career in 1930 as the editor of Rangoon University's newspaper – where he accused one of the colonial administrators in Burma of misconduct. In late 1940 he went to Japanese controlled Taiwan and Xiamen to receive military training, and he led the Burmese National Army, spearheading the Japanese invasion of Burma. Later, he switched sides to the Allies, and helped in the Burma Campaign. After the war, he was appointed to the government of a returning British administration, and was able to negotiate Burma's independence. He helped organized the Panglong Agreement in February 1947, achieving independence for all Burmese territories. However, on Saturday, 19 July 1947, Aung San, along with his cabinet ministers, was assassinated at the secretariat building in Rangoon.

U Nu served as first Prime Minister of Myanmar from 1948 to 1956.

General Ne Win was one of the founders of Tatmadaw. On 1962, 15 years after the independence, he led a military coup that brought him to power. Ne Win established the Burmese Way to Socialism which ruled Burma for 26 years.

NepalEdit

Prithvi Narayan Shah was largely responsible for the unification of Nepal, and is considered to be the founder of Nepal. His vision of ruling over a unified Nepal is said to have started when atop a hill near Nepa Valley (Present day Kathmandu), he decided he would like to rule over it. His strategic plan was very successful and his successors continued to build on his progress.[36] Prithvi Narayan Shah's descendants continued to rule over Nepal for a total of 240 years before the 2006 democracy movement in Nepal toppled the constitutional power exercised by King Gyanendra, before abolishing the monarchy in 2008.

OmanEdit

PakistanEdit

Pakistan's founder is Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who is hailed as Quaid-e-Azam or "Great Leader" and Baba-e-Qaum or Father of Nation. He founded not only the Islamic Republic of Pakistan but is credited for creating an entirely new nation state. Other prominent founders include the poet Muhammad Iqbal or spiritual Father, believed to be the first person to propagate the idea of a state for India's Muslims, Fatima Jinnah (Mother of nation) and members of Pakistan's first Cabinet such as Liaquat Ali Khan, A. K. Fazlul Huq, Abdul Rab Nishtar, Malik Feroze Khan Noon, Khwaja Nazimuddin and I. I. Chundrigar. Some historians credit the Muslim reformist Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as a founder of Pakistan because he provided the Two-Nation Theory which played a central role in the perception of Pakistan and its Muslim nationalist ideology largely based on Iqbal's philosophy and views.

PalestineEdit

Palestinian political leader Yasser Arafat has been considered by some commentators as being the "founding father" of Palestine.[37][38] Born in 1929 in Cairo, Egypt, Arafat soon became a supporter of Arab nationalism and anti-Zionism; in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood against the newly independent State of Israel.[39] From 1969 until 2004, he served as the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a Palestinian nationalist organization which engaged in a numerous guerilla conflicts with the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the second half of the 20th century.[40] Beginning from 1983 onwards, Arafat based himself in Tunisia and switched to a tactic of negotiating with the Israeli government, acknowledging Israel's right to exist in a UN resolution and supporting a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Arafat engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO, including the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit.[41] In 1994, he returned to Palestine and promoted self-government for the Palestinian territories, receiving the Nobel Peace Prize the same year. Among Palestinians, Arafat is viewed as a martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people.[42]

PhilippinesEdit

There is no law in the Philippines which officially recognizes any single individual as the "Father of the Nation". Either title may be associated with any of the following prominent historical persons, owing to their impact on the country during their respective times: José Rizal (1861–1896) was a Filipino nationalist during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after an anti-colonial revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines, and is implied by Philippine law to be one of the national heroes. He was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere, and El Filibusterismo, and a number of poems and essays. Andrés Bonifacio (1863–1897) De facto President and a leader during the Philippine Revolution in 1896, which saw armed resistance against the Spanish Empire. Emilio Aguinaldo (1869–1964) Leader of the latter part of the Philippine Revolution and first president of the Philippines through the 1899 Malolos Congress, which oversaw the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution. Manuel Roxas served as first President of independent Philippines from 1946 to 1948.

QatarEdit

Saudi ArabiaEdit

King Abdulaziz Al Saud, also known as Ibn Saud, is the founding father of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He served as first King from 1932 to 1953.

SingaporeEdit

Lee Kuan Yew (1923–2015), often referred to as the "Father of Singapore" or by the initials "LKY", was the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore, governing for three decades. He is also widely recognised as the founder of modern Singapore.

South KoreaEdit

 
Syngman Rhee, founding father of South Korea.

Syngman Rhee was the first president and founding father of South Korea at the time of the establishment of the country in 1948.

Sri LankaEdit

 
Official Photographic Portrait of Don Stephen Senanayaka (1884–1952)

Prince Vijaya is considered to be the first King of Sri Lanka with King Dutugemunu honored as the first king to unify Sri Lanka. D. S. Senanayake (1883–1952) is widely known as the modern (post independence) father of the nation. William Gopallawa (1896–1981) was the first Constitutional President while J. R. Jayewardene (1906–1996) was the first Executive President.

SyriaEdit

TajikistanEdit

ThailandEdit

TurkeyEdit

 
Atatürk, the founding father of the Republic of Turkey

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. Following the First World War, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. The Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti) in 1923.[43] He subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of transforming the old multinational Ottoman state into a new secular republic.[44]

TurkmenistanEdit

Saparmurat Niyazov served as first post-Soviet President of Turkmenistan from 1990 to 2006.

United Arab EmiratesEdit

Initially independent emirates part of the Trucial states, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan established the United Arab Emirates by joining the seven independent emirates into a federation.

UzbekistanEdit

Islam Karimov served as first post-Soviet President of Uzbekistan from 1991 to 2016.

YemenEdit

Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din ruled as first independent King of Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen from 1918 to 1948.

EuropeEdit

AlbaniaEdit

 
Skanderbeg, the ruler of Albania from 1443 to 1468
 
Qemali, founder of the Republic of Albania

AndorraEdit

AustriaEdit

BelarusEdit

Vyacheslav Kebich served as first post-Soviet Prime Minister of Belarus from 1991 to 1994.

BelgiumEdit

Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit

BulgariaEdit

  • Mythical rulers of Bulgaria are dating back as far as 3rd millennium BC.

Medieval:

Modern:

CroatiaEdit

CyprusEdit

Makarios III was the first President of Cyprus and is often called the Father of the Nation.[54]

Czech RepublicEdit

DenmarkEdit

 
Niels Ebbesen (1308 – 21 November 1340)
  • Dan (king) (or Halfdan) is the name of the legendary earliest king of the Danes and Denmark, mentioned in medieval Scandinavian texts. He is said to be the progenitor of the nation and the Danish Royal House according to Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum.
  • Gorm the Old, the first recorded ruler of Denmark, reigning from c.  936 to his death c.  958. The current Queen Margrethe II of Denmark can trace her heritage back to Gorm the Old. He is called the founder of the kingdom of Denmark, though at the time he did not control the whole country, only Jutland.
  • Harald Bluetooth was the son of Gorm the old and the first to unite Denmark into a single country by uniting the tribes. Harald ruled as king of Denmark from c. 958 – c. 986. He was baptized and the first Christian king of Denmark and helped Christianize the Danes, which is proclaimed on the Jelling stone.
  • Niels Ebbesen was a Danish squire and national hero who liberated Denmark, which had been patented away to German barons and landlords. He is known for his killing of Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg in 1340, and in doing so returning control of Jutland and Funen back to the Danish king.

EstoniaEdit

Edgar Savisaar served as first post-Soviet Prime Minister of Estonia from 1991 to 1992.

FinlandEdit

Pehr Evind Svinhufvud served as first Prime Minister of Finland from 1917 to 1918.

FranceEdit

GeorgiaEdit

GermanyEdit

Before the national unification of Germany in 1871, German nationalists sought out multiple legendary founders of the German nation, such as Arminius, Charlemagne and – as championed by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Richard WagnerHenry the Fowler. Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898), the "Iron Chancellor", engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany in 1871. Modern, democratic Germany was decisively shaped by the "Fathers of the Basic Law" in the 1948 Constitutional Convention at Herrenchiemsee, and by the first German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer. For reunified Germany, the slogan "Wir sind das Volk!" ("We are the people!") became symbolic, thus making all Germans founders of modern Germany.

GreeceEdit

AncientEdit

ModernEdit

HungaryEdit

According to Anonymus the fejedelem who made the Magyars settle into the Carpathian Basin in 896 AD was Árpád. His dynasty reigned over the Hungarian Kingdom from the ninth century until 1301. In Hungary Stephen I of Hungary is commonly regarded as the founder of the nation. He was Hungary's first king and united the Magyar people into the Kingdom of Hungary. Amongst others, Lajos Kossuth is supposed to be the Pater Patriae. He is known as the leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 against the Habsburgs, and therefore founder of the modern Hungarian Republic.

IcelandEdit

Jón Sigurðsson was the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement.[58] He was the first president of restored Althingi as legislative brance in 1875.

IrelandEdit

The Irish Free State was established after the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), in which Éamon de Valera, Cathal Brugha and Michael Collins were key leaders. However, they became antagonists in the Irish Civil War (1922–23), in which Collins and Brugha were killed and de Valera defeated. For decades, the inheritors of the opposing factions bypassed these sensitivities to honour the earlier leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916, in particular the seven signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic: Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, Éamonn Ceannt, Tom Clarke, Seán Mac Diarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, and Joseph Plunkett.

ItalyEdit

AncientEdit

Modern ItalyEdit

KosovoEdit

It is likely that the Kosovans regard Ibrahim Rugova as a key figure, since he was the one that brought an independence movement of Kosovo from the fall of Yugoslavia. Additionally, Rugova ruled Kosovo from the 1992 till 2006 as president of the nation, and ever since has been regarded as the National Hero of Kosovo, and led to further independence in 2008 from Serbia to which now 97 nations have recognised Kosovo as of September 2021.

LatviaEdit

Most Latvians regard Kārlis Ulmanis, a key figure in the Latvian war of independence and four-times Prime Minister of Latvia, as being the founding father of modern Latvia.

LiechtensteinEdit

LithuaniaEdit

The first and the only king (1251–1263) of Lithuania, Mindaugas, is seen as the founder of the Lithuanian state, as is commemorated on Statehood Day on 6 July.[60] Dr. Jonas Basanavičius, activist and proponent of the Lithuanian National Revival in the turn of the 19th century into the 20th, who participated in every major event leading to the independence of Lithuania, member of the Council of Lithuania which on 16 February 1918 declared Lithuania an independent state, is universally considered the "Patriarch of the Nation".[61]

LuxembourgEdit

Sigfried, Count of the Ardennes

MaltaEdit

MonacoEdit

MontenegroEdit

NetherlandsEdit

Prince William I of Orange (1533–1584) or William the Silent, is known as the father of the Netherlands. He led the Dutch in their Revolt against Spain for their independence. Today he is often called Vader des Vaderlands which in English means, Father of the Fatherland.[62]

North MacedoniaEdit

Kiro Gligorov (first president of independent Macedonia).[63]

NorwayEdit

King Harald Fairhair, who unified Norway and ruled c. 872–930, is often considered the founder of the nation.

Usually the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll in 1814, consisting of 112 men from most of the country, in Norway often referred to as Eidsvoll Men or the Fathers of the Constitution.[64]

  • Einar Henry Gerhardsen (1897–1987) was a Norwegian politician who represented the Labor Party. He was Norway's prime minister from 1945 to 1951, from 1955 to 1963 and from 1963 to 1965. In Norway, Gerhardsen is known as "landsfaderen" – "the father of the country", and he is referred to as one of the main architects behind the Norwegian welfare state that emerged after World War II.

PolandEdit

Legendary:

Kingdom of Poland and Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów:

  • Mieszko I (c. 920/45–992), the first historical ruler of Poland, Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state. He was a Duke of the Polans from about 960 until his death. Mieszko I's marriage in 965 to the Přemyslid princess Dobrawa and his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity. According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader and charismatic ruler. He successfully used diplomacy, concluding an alliance with Bohemia first, and then with Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost, even entering into agreements with former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country of greatly expanded territory, with a well-established position in Europe. Mieszko I also appeared as "Dagome" in a papal document from about 1085, called "Dagome iudex", which mentions a gift or dedication of Mieszko's land to the Pope (the act took place almost a hundred years earlier).
  • Bolesław I Chrobry (967–1025), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025. He was the son of Mieszko I of Poland by his wife, Dobrawa of Bohemia. He supported the missionary views of Adalbert, Bishop of Prague, and Bruno of Querfurt. The martyrdom of Adalbert in 997 and his imminent canonization were used to consolidate Poland's autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire. This perhaps happened most clearly during the Congress of Gniezno (11 March 1000), which resulted in the establishment of a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno. This See was independent of the German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which had tried to claim jurisdiction over the Polish church. Following the Congress of Gniezno, bishoprics were also established in Kraków, Wrocław and Kołobrzeg, and Bolesław formally repudiated paying tribute to the Holy Roman Empire. In the summer of 1018, in one of his expeditions, Bolesław I captured Kiev, where he installed his son-in-law Sviatopolk I as ruler. According to legend, Bolesław chipped his sword when striking Kiev's Golden Gate. Later, in honor of this legend, a sword called Szczerbiec ("Jagged Sword") would become the coronation sword of Poland's kings. Bolesław I was a remarkable politician, strategist, and statesman. He not only turned Poland into a country comparable to older western monarchies, but he raised it to the front rank of European states. Bolesław conducted successful military campaigns in the west, south and east. He consolidated Polish lands and conquered territories outside the borders of modern-day Poland, including Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen, Lusatia, and Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs. Finally, as the culmination of his reign, in 1025 he had himself crowned King of Poland. He was the first Polish ruler to receive the title of rex (Latin: "king").
 
Gen. Józef Piłsudski (first on the left) Ignacy Jan Paderewski (next to Piłsudski in the a civil coat) and Stanisław Wojciechowski (behind Paderewski), future second President of Poland, during the opening ceremony of the Legislative Sejm, 9 February 1919.

Fathers of Polish Independence:

PortugalEdit

RomaniaEdit

  • Burebista is considered the great king who unified all the Dacian tribes. He is also known for creating a powerful empire that stretched from west to the Adriatic Sea and Southern Germany, from east to the Black Sea, from north to Southern Poland and from south to Greek Macedonia and Eastern Thrace. He is considered by many Romanians as a national hero. The Dacian Kingdom under Burebista was the greatest territorial extent in Romania's history.
  • Decebalus and Trajan are considered to be the fathers of the Romanian people, as Roman veterans were settled on the present-day territory of Romania following Trajan's Dacian Wars.[citation needed]
  • Basarab I the Founder (c. 1270-1351/1352) was the great voivode of Wallachia. Basarab either came into power between 1304 and 1324 by dethroning or peacefully succeeding the legendary founder of Wallachia, Radu Negru, or in 1310 by succeeding his father, Thocomerius. In 1330 he defeated Charles I of Hungary at the battle of Posada, and the first independent Romanian state was consequently founded. He founded the Basarab dynasty and his descendants ruled Wallachia for more than three centuries. From the middle of the 14th century, some foreign chronicles used derivations of his name: "Basarab", when referring to Wallachia.
  • Michael the Brave (1558–1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593–1601), Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600). He is considered one of Romania's greatest national heroes. Since the 19th century, Michael the Brave has been regarded as a symbol of the unity of all Romanians, as his reign marked the first time all states mainly inhabited by Romanians were under the same ruler.
  • Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the first leader of the modern Romanian state. He presided over Wallachia and Moldavia in a personal union, which later became permanent even though he was forced to abdicate.
  • Carol I was the first King of Romania that obtained the independence of the country.
  • Ion C. Brătianu established the foundation of the modern Romanian State.
  • Mihail Kogălniceanu established the foundation of the modern Romanian State.
  • Ferdinand I was King of Romania when the country gained Transylvania and Bessarabia.

RussiaEdit

San MarinoEdit

Saint Marinus was the founder of the world's oldest surviving republic, San Marino, in 301. Tradition holds that he was a stonemason by trade who came from the island of Rab on the other side of the Adriatic Sea (modern Croatia), fleeing persecution for his Christian beliefs in the Diocletianic Persecution.

SerbiaEdit

The honorific Father of the Fatherland (Отац Отаџбине) has been given to Saint Sava,[70] Karađorđe,[71] and Miloš Obrenović, the latter having been given it by the National Assembly during his lifetime.[72]

SlovakiaEdit

Many Slovaks see Great Moravia as their ancestors, which would make Mojmír I a founder.

SloveniaEdit

France Bučar is a Slovenian politician, legal expert and author. Between 1990 and 1992, he served as the first chairman of the freely elected Slovenian Parliament. He was the one to formally declare the independence of Slovenia on 25 June 1991. He is considered one of the founders of Slovenian democracy and independence. He is also considered, together with Peter Jambrek, as the main author of the current Slovenian constitution. Jože Pučnik was president of DEMOS and one of the main persons in the Slovenian fight for independence. The largest Slovenian airport is named Letališče Jožeta Pučnika (Jože Pučnik airport). Lojze Peterle was first prime minister of Slovenia and Milan Kučan was the first president.

SpainEdit

 
The Catholic Monarchs of Spain

The Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, unified Spain in the 15th century. Both came from the noble House of Trastámara. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the first to inherit the dynastic union and the first Habsburg monarch. His successor, Philip II of Spain, established a capital in Madrid. The first Bourbon King of Spain was Philip V of Spain, who is also responsible for the de jure unification of the country.

SwedenEdit

While Sweden had existed as a monarchy of sorts long before his time, Birger Jarl, father of and regent for Valdemar, King of Sweden, can be said to have established Sweden as a nation. Birger was Jarl in the years 1248–66.

Gustav I of Sweden, who secured Sweden's independence from Denmark in 1523, is often considered a father of the nation.

SwitzerlandEdit

Both the anonymous Eidgenossen who drew up the Federal Charter of 1291, or the liberal statesmen who helped found the modern Swiss Confederation in 1848 can be considered the founders of Switzerland. Among the latter, those who became the first members of the Swiss Federal Council were perhaps the most notable: Ulrich Ochsenbein, Jakob Stämpfli, Jonas Furrer, Josef Munzinger, Henri Druey, Friedrich Frey-Herosé, Wilhelm Matthias Naeff and Stefano Franscini.[citation needed]

UkraineEdit

Mykhailo Hrushevsky was the President the Central Council of Ukraine People's Republic.

Leonid Kravchuk is the First President of Ukraine elected in 1991.

United KingdomEdit

As the UK formed over many years, its founders did not live at the same time as each other. They include: King James VI & I primarily ascent to the English throne whilst sitting as the Scottish monarch. Humphrey Wingfield, Speaker of the English House of Commons in 1535, at the time of England's union with Wales; John Smith and James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater, Speakers of the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, when the Acts of Union united Scotland and England; Henry Addington and John FitzGibbon, leaders of the British and Irish parliaments at the time of the Acts of Union 1801, uniting Great Britain and Ireland; and Prime Minister David Lloyd George and Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill, who both signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which allowed most of Ireland to leave the UK and become the Irish Free State.

Northern Ireland had already been established in May 1921, having been created in the Government of Ireland Act in December 1920. This Act was guided through the British House of Commons by Sir Hamar Greenwood, MP, the Chief Secretary for Ireland at the time. Northern Ireland had been created at the insistence of both Captain Sir James Craig and Sir Edward Carson, the Ulster Unionist leaders.

Vatican CityEdit

AmericasEdit

Antigua and BarbudaEdit

Vere Bird served as first Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 1981 to 1994.

ArgentinaEdit

Manuel Belgrano and José de San Martín were important figures in early Argentina.

BahamasEdit

Lynden Pindling is considered the "Father of the Nation". He served as first Prime Minister of the Bahamas from 1967 to 1992. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1973.

BarbadosEdit

Errol Barrow served as first Prime Minister of Barbados from 1966 to 1976.

BelizeEdit

George Cadle Price (1919–2011) is considered to be the Father of the Nation of Belize.[73][74] He served as head of government of British Honduras, later Belize from 1961 to 1984. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1981.

BoliviaEdit

Simon Bolivar (1783–1830) and Antonio José de Sucre (1795–1830) are considered to be the founders of Bolivia.

BrazilEdit

 
Pedro I, founder and first Emperor of Brazil

Pedro Álvares Cabral (1467/68–1520) commander of the first Portuguese fleet to arrive in South America. José Bonifácio de Andrada (1763–1838), known as "Patriarch of Independence", is considered the maximum leader of the Independence movement because of his intellectual mentorship and political prominence, and Pedro I of Brazil (1798–1834), son of the King João VI of Portugal, the symbol of the "center of force and union", according to the Bonifácio strategy.

CanadaEdit

 
Canadian Fathers of Confederation

The name "Fathers of Confederation" is given to those who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864, and the London Conference of 1866, to establish the Canadian Confederation. There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation.[75] Queen Victoria, who supported and encouraged this process, is known as the Mother of Confederation. She was the first Monarch under the 1867 Constitution and personally chose Ottawa as Canada's capital city. The political leaders who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation."[76]

Caribbean CommunityEdit

Errol Barrow (Barbados: 1920–1987); Forbes Burnham (Guyana: 1923–1985); Michael Manley (Jamaica: 1924–1997); and Eric Williams (Trinidad and Tobago: 1911–1981) were the leaders who brought forth regional integration among the Caribbean Community.[77]

ChileEdit

 
Posthumous (1854) portrait of the Founding Fathers of the Chilean Republic. From left to right: José Miguel Carrera, Bernardo O'Higgins, José de San Martín, Diego Portales.

Bernardo O'Higgins (1778–1842) and José Miguel Carrera (1785–1821) are usually considered the founders of Chile.

ColombiaEdit

Simón Bolívar, was founder of Gran Colombia, which also included Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Francisco de Paula Santander wrote the first constitution of Colombia. Antonio Nariño ("Precursor of the Independence") and Camilo Torres were the most relevant statesmen of the First Republic.

Costa RicaEdit

Juan Mora Fernández, first Head of State of Costa Rica.[78] José María Castro Madriz, First President of the Republic and proclaimed "Founder of the Republic" by Congress[79] Juan Rafael Mora Porras, President during Costa Rica's campaign against William Walker, proclaimed "Hero and Liberator" by Congress.

CubaEdit

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is considered the Cuban Founding Father. In 1868 he freed his slaves and declared the independence of Cuba, which began the Ten Years' War (1868–1878).

José Martí is a Cuban national hero.

Modern day Cuba was shaped by Fidel Castro with help from Che Guevara during the Cuban Revolution.

DominicaEdit

Patrick John served as first Prime Minister of Dominica from 1978 to 1979.

Dominican RepublicEdit

Juan Pablo Duarte (1813–1876), Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (1817–1861) and Matías Ramón Mella (1816–1864) are considered the Fathers of the Country. Duarte is featured on the $1 coin and on the now discontinued $1 bill; Sanchez on the $5 coin and on the also discontinued $5 bill; Mella on the $10 coin and on the also discontinued $10 bill.[80]

EcuadorEdit

El SalvadorEdit

GrenadaEdit

Eric Gairy served as head of government of Grenada from 1967 to 1979. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1974.

GuatemalaEdit

GuyanaEdit

HaitiEdit

 
Toussaint L'Ouverture

Toussaint Louverture (1743–1803) and Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806) were revolutionary and early political leaders of Haiti. Henri Christophe and Alexandre Pétion were also important figures of early Haiti.

HondurasEdit

Jose Cecilio del Valle and Francisco Morazan are considered the founders of the Honduran nation.

JamaicaEdit

Norman Manley is particularly noted for his role in securing universal suffrage for the country's population in 1944 along with founding the People's National Party. Manley also served as Chief Minister of Jamaica from 1955 to 1962. Alexander Bustamante was an influential union leader and as founder of the Jamaican Labour Party. Bustamante served as the then colony's first Chief Minister from 1953 to 1955 and later went on to lead Jamaica to independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, becoming the country's first Prime Minister.

MexicoEdit

According to the decrees of the Congress of the Union of Mexico issued in 1822 and 1823,[81] the Mexican founders are Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753–1811), Ignacio Allende (1769–1811), Juan Aldama (1774–1811), Mariano Abasolo (1783–1816), José María Morelos (1765–1815), Mariano Matamoros (1770–1814), Leonardo Bravo (1764–1812), Miguel Bravo (unknown–1814), Hermenegildo Galeana (1762–1814), Mariano Jiménez (1781–1811), Xavier Mina (1789–1817), Pedro Moreno (1775–1817), and Víctor Rosales (1776–1817).

Nine of the thirteen founders are buried in the Monument to Independence in Mexico City.[82]

NicaraguaEdit

PanamaEdit

ParaguayEdit

PeruEdit

José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar led Peru to independence and forged the country.[83]

Pachacuti, the 9th Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco, is the founder of the Inca Empire.

Saint Kitts and NevisEdit

Saint LuciaEdit

Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesEdit

South AmericaEdit

José de San Martín,[84] Simón Bolívar,[85] Antonio José de Sucre, Francisco de Paula Santander,[86] Francisco de Miranda[87] have been referred to as the founding fathers of the region comprising modern day Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Panama.

SurinameEdit

Johan Ferrier served as first President of Suriname from 1975 to 1980.

Trinidad and TobagoEdit

Eric Williams served as first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago from 1962 to 1981.

UruguayEdit

José Gervasio Artigas is considered to be the founder of Uruguay. He was a staunch democrat and federalist, opposed to monarchism and centralism.

United StatesEdit

 
George Washington, chief among the founders of the United States, called "the Father of his country" (Pater Patriae).

Within the large group known as "the Founding Fathers", there are two key subsets, the Signers (who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776) and the Framers (who were delegates to the Federal Convention and took part in framing or drafting the proposed Constitution of the United States). Some historians have suggested a revised definition of the "Founding Fathers", including a significantly broader group of not only the Signers and the Framers but also all those who, whether as politicians, jurists, statesmen, soldiers, diplomats, and ordinary citizens took part in winning U.S. independence and creating the United States of America.[88] Eminent American historian Richard B. Morris, in his 1973 book Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries, identified the following seven figures as the key founders: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.

VenezuelaEdit

Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) is considered to be the founder not only of Venezuela, but of many of the region's countries as the Gran Colombia, which also included Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia and Bolivia.[citation needed] José Antonio Páez led the separation of Venezuela from the Gran Colombia and formed the modern statehood of the country. Scholars credit president Rómulo Betancourt as the founding father of modern democratic Venezuela.

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

Henry Parkes is often regarded as the "Father of Federation" in Australia. During the late 19th century, he was the strongest proponent for a federation of Australian territories. However, he died before Australia federated, and was never able to see his plan come to fruition.[89] Various other "founders" of Australia have also been unofficially recognised: Captain Arthur Phillip, the first governor of New South Wales and founder of the first British colony in Australia; and Sir Edmund Barton, the first Australian Prime Minister.

Andrew Inglis Clark is another founding father of Australia. He largely wrote the Australian Constitution in addition to developing the Hare-Clark system of voting and pushing for universal adult suffrage and other progressive ideals that would become law early in Australia's history.

Alfred Deakin also stands out as a significant Founding Father as he attended all the Federation Conferences, he gave up 10 years of senior political appointments to travel the country promoting federation and was Australia's first Attorney General. He was instrumental in securing Edmond Barton as the first Prime Minister while Deakin went on to be Australia's 2nd, 5th and 7th Prime Minister. Deakin was responsible for establishing the High Court, Australian Navy, and many other important acts of parliament. Sir Robert Menzies is on record for saying he was Australia's greatest Prime Ministers.[90]

John Dunmore Lang. Although passing away over two decades before federation, John Dunmore Lang was a strong advocate of a federation of the Australian colonies as an democratic republic, independent from the British Empire.[91][92]

Federated States of MicronesiaEdit

Chief Justice Andon Amaraich is regarded as "one of the founding fathers of the Federated States of Micronesia".[93][94]

FijiEdit

Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara is widely viewed as the "Founding Father" of an independent Fiji.[95][96][97][98][99]

KiribatiEdit

Marshall IslandsEdit

NauruEdit

New ZealandEdit

The indigenous Māori consider Kupe, a mythologised figure who led the first Polynesian migration to New Zealand from Hawaiki in the 10th century, to be a founding figure and the common ancestor of all Māori. In the 19th century, Scottish businessman James Busby drafted the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand and co-authored the Treaty of Waitangi with Royal Navy officer William Hobson, which is considered by some to be the founding document of the nation of New Zealand. The Treaty of Waitangi was not however the basis for either the British annexation of New Zealand, or the development of representative government in the colony.

PalauEdit

Papua New GuineaEdit

Grand Chief Sir Michael Somare is viewed as the "Founding Father" of Papua New Guinea.[100][101][102][103] The leading figure during the country's transition to independence from Australia, he was Papua New Guinea's first Prime Minister.

SamoaEdit

Solomon IslandsEdit

TongaEdit

 
George Tupou I founded the modern Kingdom of Tonga

King George Tupou I, who united his country and established the contemporary Kingdom of Tonga, has been described as Tonga's "founding father".[104][105]

TuvaluEdit

VanuatuEdit

Former states and other territoriesEdit

Arabian PeninsulaEdit

Before the Islamic prophet Muhammad completed his migration to Yathrib (present day Medina), the Arabian peninsula was divided by tribalism. Spread out and distant, region to region. After the migration in 622 AD, Muhammad began to spread the word of Islam to the other Arab tribes outside of Mecca. Through this preaching and military expeditions, he accumulated a large army of loyal followers and returned to Mecca to conquer it in the name of Islam in 629 AD. At the time of his death in 632 AD, the region was bounded into one polity under the flag of Islam. After his death, the 4 Caliphs of the Rashidun Caliphate expanded the territory which led to victories against the Byzantine and Persian empires.

BohemiaEdit

Although the first known ruler of Bohemia was Bořivoj I, Duke of Bohemia, the real unifier of various Slavic tribes in Bohemia and creator of nation was Duke Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor is regarded as the "Father of the Homeland" in the Czech Republic, because during his time the Kingdom of Bohemia experienced the greatest prosperity. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937) is widely revered as the Liberator President who played the chief role in the 1918 melding of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Ruthenia into the Czechoslovak Republic, and who served as President of the Republic from 1918 to 1935.

CzechoslovakiaEdit

Kingdom of EnglandEdit

It was King Athelstan (893/895–939) who united the several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England around the year 927, when he became King of the English as opposed to his previous title, King of the West Saxons. However, his fame is often overshadowed by his predecessor and grandfather Alfred the Great (871–899), who set in motion the unification of the English kingdoms and could also claim to be the nation's founder.

Ancient KoreaEdit

For ancient Korea, Hwanung (환웅/桓雄) and his son Dangun Wanggeom (단군왕검/檀君王儉) were the legendary founders of Gojoseon, the first kingdom of Korea. The founding date is usually calculated as 3 October 2333 BC; 3 October is a South Korean national holiday known as Gaecheonjeol (개천절/開天節, "Festival of the Opening of Heaven"). However, in North Korea, Gaecheonjeol is not celebrated and recognized at all, unlike South Korea.

Ottoman EmpireEdit

 
Osman I, the founding father of the Turkish Empire

By the end of the 14th century, most of Anatolia was controlled by various Anatolian beyliks due to the collapse of the Seljuk dynasty in the area. The Seljuk dynasty had established both the Seljuk Empire, which was founded by Tughril and the Sultanate of Rum, with the first one being responsible for the Turkification of Anatolia. Osman I unified the beyliks under one banner, proclaiming the Ottoman Empire.

Russian EmpireEdit

Kingdom of ScotlandEdit

The fictionalising medieval poem The Wallace (c. 1477) celebrated William Wallace (died 1305) as one of the founder-heroes of Scotland's struggle to preserve/re-establish independence from Plantagenet England.[109]

Serbia and MontenegroEdit

Soviet UnionEdit

  • Vladimir Lenin – Officially one among many equal founders of the country, Lenin was, de facto, the paramount leader, founder of the Soviet Union and the CPSU, the party that ruled it via one-party rule as well as the founding father of the modern Russian state. He died soon after the country's founding and retained a special status of secular apotheosis for the rest of the country's history.

Republic of TexasEdit

WalesEdit

Kingdom of YugoslaviaEdit

Socialist Federal Republic of YugoslaviaEdit

Union of South AfricaEdit

  • Louis Botha was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa.
  • Jan van Riebeeck was treated as a South African founding father by the South African government during the apartheid era, being featured on statues and the country's currency (although the likeness was erroneous and was actually that of another man).[112][113]

ZaireEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Congo Celebrates 50th Anniversary of Independence". Congo Planet. Congo News Agency. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
  2. ^ The 'Father of Modern Egypt' school includes: Henry Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammad ‘Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965); Arthur Goldschmidt, Jr., Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988); Albert Haurani, A History of the Arab Peoples (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002); Jean Lacouture and Simonne Lacouture, Egypt in Transition, trans. Francis Scarfe (New York: Criterion Books, 1958); P.J. Vatikiotis, The History of Modern Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991). The following internet sources, while not necessarily scholarly, show how widespread this interpretation is. "History," The Egyptian Presidency, 2008, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (accessed 29 October 2008); Metz, Helen, Chapin. "Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1805–48," Egypt: a Country Study, 1990, http://countrystudies.us/egypt/ (accessed 29 October 2008); "Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1805–48: The Father of Modern Egypt," Travel to Egypt – Egypt Travel Guide, 2007, http://www.travel-to-egypt.net/muhammad-ali.html (accessed 29 October 2008); "Muhammad Ali of Egypt," Answer.com, 2008, http://www.answers.com/topic/muhammad-ali (accessed 29 October 2008).
  3. ^ Joseph Roberts, Liberia's first President! Archived 23 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine The African American Registry
  4. ^ Diller, Daniel; Moore, John (1995). The Middle East. Congressional Quarterly. p. 308.
  5. ^ Université Laval, University of Toronto/. "Biography – Peters, Thomas – Volume IV (1771–1800) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". biographi.ca.
  6. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov.
  7. ^ Hovannisian, Richard (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918–1919. University of California Press. p. 147. ISBN 9780520018051. Aram pasha, as he was known to friend and foe alike, had been a veritable founder of the Armenian republic.
  8. ^ Libaridian, Gerard J. (1991). Armenia at the crossroads: democracy and nationhood in the post-Soviet era: essays, interviews, and speeches by the leaders of the national democratic movement in Armenia. Watertown, Massachusetts: Blue Crane Nooks. p. 19. ISBN 9780962871511. Aram Manukian (1879–1919), a leading member of the Dashnaktustiune, organized the defense of Van in 1915 and Yerevan in 1918. He is considered the founder of the Republic of Armenia in 1918.
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