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The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, (i.e., political system form of government, and constitution), of the country. They can also be military leaders of a war of independence that led to the existence of the country.



Amílcar Cabral was a revolutionary and nationalist leader of Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau.
Saad Zaghloul was the founder of independent Egypt. "Zaeem al Ummah (Leader of the Nation)"

  Cape VerdeEdit

Amílcar Cabral (var. Amílcar Lopes da Costa Cabral) (12 September 1924 – 20 January 1973) was an agricultural engineer, writer, and a nationalist thinker and political leader. He was also one of Africa's foremost anti-colonial leaders. Amílcar Cabral led the nationalist movement of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands and the ensuing war of independence in Guinea-Bissau. He was assassinated on 20 January 1973, several months before Guinea-Bissau's unilateral declaration of independence. He is considered a founder of Cape Verde.

  Democratic Republic of the CongoEdit

Patrice Lumumba, Joseph Kasa-Vubu, Albert Kalonji, Jean Bolikango, Cléophas Kamitatu, and Paul Bolya are all considered "Fathers of Independence" in the Congo.[1]


The Founder of Independent Egypt Saad Zaghloul (1859–August 23, 1927) was a politician who served in many ministries of the Egyptian government, and was imprisoned by the British in Malta, but returned to Egypt to complete the revolution in 1919. Zaghloul then was able to make the Sultan of Egypt (later King) Fuad I convince the British to give Egypt independence with a friendly British-Egyptian relationship and in 1922, Egypt was proclaimed an independent Kingdom, the Kingdom of Egypt with Saad Zaghloul as its Prime Minister.


Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Seku Turay) (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was a Guinean political leader and President of Guinea from 1958 to his death in 1984. Touré was one of the primary Guinean nationalists involved in the independence of the country from France.

He is with Kwame Kuruma one of the founders of the African Union, and the Guinean Diallo Telly was the first general secretary of the African Union.


Kwame Nkrumah (1909–1972) led the nation to its independence from the United Kingdom in 1957.


Jomo Kenyatta served as the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of the Republic.


Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1809–1876) was born a free man of Black American descent. In 1829 his family moved to Liberia. In 1839, Roberts became Liberia's lieutenant governor and afterwards, its governor (1841–1848). He is known as the father of Liberia and officially declared Liberia's independence in 1847.[2]


King Idris Al-sanusi, also known as Idris I of Libya, (12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983) was the first and only king of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969, and the Chief of the Senussi Muslim order. Idris as-Senussi proclaimed an independent Emirate of Cyrenaica in 1949. He was also invited to become Emir of Tripolitania, another of the three traditional regions that now constitute modern Libya (the third being Fezzan).[3] By accepting he began the process of uniting Libya under a single monarchy. A constitution was enacted in 1949 and adopted in October 1951. A National Congress elected Idris as King of Libya, and as Idris I he proclaimed the independence of the United Kingdom of Libya as a sovereign state on 24 December 1951.



are considered founders of Nigeria. The troika of Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, and Ahmadu Bello negotiated Nigeria's independence from Britain, aided by such figures as Chieftess Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti.

  Sierra LeoneEdit

Freetown, Sierra Leone was founded in part by an African American slave called Thomas Peters in 1792 who convinced British abolitionists to help settle 1,192 Black Americans who fought for the British in return for freedom. Peters alongside other Black Americans David George and Moses Wilkinson were influential in the establishment of Freetown, but it was Peters who is remembered today as the true influential leader and founder of Sierra Leone. A street was named for Thomas Peters in Freetown by the Krio Mayor Winstanley Bankole Johnson.[4]

  South AfricaEdit

Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) was the former President of South Africa, in office from 1994 to 1999. He led the negotiations, together with F. W. de Klerk, to racially integrate and unite the country.


Mwalimu Nyerere

Julius Nyerere Key figure in the independence of the country and first President. On the part of Zanzibar the other side of the union there is Sheikh Abeid Aman Karume


The founder of the modern Tunisia is Habib Bourguiba.





Ahmad Shah Durrani (1723–1773) unified the Afghan tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747.[5] His mausoleum is next to the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where he is fondly known as Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah the Father).



Mammad Amin Rasulzade is the founder of Azerbaijan.[citation needed] Mehemmed Emin Resulzade (Azerbaijani: Məhəmməd Əmin Axund Hacı Molla Ələkbər oğlu Rəsulzadə, Turkish: Mehmed Emin Resulzâde; 31 January 1884, Novkhana, near Baku — 6 March 1955, Ankara) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of Azerbaijan Republic (1918–1920). His expression "Bir kərə yüksələn bayraq, bir daha enməz!" ("The flag once raised will never fall!") has become the motto of the independence movement in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.


Apart from founding leaders, the key members of Liberation Wartime government vice-president Syed Nazrul Islam, prime minister Tajuddin Ahmad, finance minister Muhammad Mansur Ali and home minister A H M Qamaruzzaman (altogether known as 'Four National Leaders') and the Liberation Wartime armed forces chief M. A. G. Osmani are hailed as vital figures in Bangladesh's independence.


Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (1594–1651) fled Tibet and unified the fiefdoms of Bhutan. He established the dual system of shared power between secular and Buddhist leadership that continues as a tradition to the present.

  People's Republic of ChinaEdit

Sun Yat-sen is known as the "Forerunner of the Democratic Revolution" (革命先行者) in the People's Republic of China. [11] Huangdi is revered as the legendary founder and initiator of Chinese civilization.

  Republic of ChinaEdit

Sun Yat-sen, founding father of the Republic of China.

Sun Yat-sen is revered as the founding father ("Father of the Nation"–國父) of the Republic of China.


King Pharnavaz I of Iberia (302–237 BC) was the first king of the united Georgian kingdom of Iberia. Bagrat III is considered as the first king of united Georgian Kingdom. Zviad Gamsakhurdia is the first president and founder of modern republic of Georgia.


Founding father of modern India - Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (left) and father of India - Mohandas K. Gandhi (right)


  • Emperor Ashoka, 3rd century BC emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who united much of the Indian subcontinent under his rule forming the largest Indian empire till date.


Other prominent Indian independence activists include Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru who served as the 1st Prime Minister of India (1947–64), Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel who served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India and Home Minister of India, C. Rajagopalachari who served as the last Governor-General of India, J. B. Kripalani and Abul Kalam Azad both of whom served as the President of the Indian National Congress.


Sukarno, Founder of Indonesia

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta are the founders of Indonesia. They both signed the Proclamation of Independence which then read by Sukarno, proclaiming the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands on 17 August 1945. A day later, they were elected respectively as the first President and Vice President of Indonesia. As the Netherlands did not recognize the independence, both of them were prominent figures and were seen as symbol of unity among Indonesian people to fight against Dutch during the National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. In August 1949, Hatta headed a delegation to the Hague for a Round Table Conference which then led to the recognition of Indonesian independence by the Netherlands on 23 December 1949.[13]


Cyrus the Great (600 BC–530 BC) was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty an empire without precedent—a first world-empire of historical importance.[14]


Theodor Herzl is considered the founder of the Zionist movement and thus indirectly a founder of Israel. David Ben-Gurion was the founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.


Alikhan Bokeikhanov, leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement.

There is no law in the country which officially recognizes a single individual as the "Father of the Nation". Either title may be associated with any of the following prominent historical persons, owing to their impact on the country during their respective times:

Alikhan Bukeikhanov (March 5, 1866 – September 27, 1937) was a Kazakh statesman, politician, publicist, teacher, writer and environmental scientist. He was leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement. He sided with the westernizers in the Kazakh political scene who were promoting the idea of the Western culture into the Kazakh steppe. In 1920, after the establishment of Soviet hegemony, Bukeikhanov joined the Bolshevik party and returned to scientific life. His earlier political activities caused the authorities to view him with suspicion, leading to arrests in 1926 and 1928. In 1926, Bukeikhanov was arrested on the charge of counter-revolutionary activity and put into Butyrka prison in Moscow. But due to the lack of evidence in the criminal case against him, he was released from prison. In 1930, the authorities banished him to Moscow, where he was arrested a final time in 1937 and executed.

Dinmukhamed Kunayev (January 12, 1912 – August 22, 1993) was a Kazakh Soviet communist politician. He became first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan again in 1964 when Khrushchev was ousted and replaced by Brezhnev. He kept his position for twenty-two more years. He was an alternate member of the Politburo from 1967, and a full member from 1971 to 1987. During Kunayev's long rule, Kazakhs occupied prominent positions in the bureaucracy, economy and educational institutions. A Brezhnev loyalist, he was removed from office under pressure from Mikhail Gorbachev, who accused him of corruption. On 16 December 1986 the Politburo replaced him with Gennady Kolbin, who had never lived in the Kazakh SSR before. This provoked street riots in Almaty, which were the first signs of ethnic strife during Gorbachev's tenure. In modern Kazakhstan, this revolt is called Jeltoqsan, meaning December in Kazakh.

Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected the nation's first president following its independence from the Soviet Union in December 1991. In 2010 Parliament of Kazakhstan named him Елбасы (Elbasy) which means "Leader of the Nation".


Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇, Jinmu-tennō) (traditional reign 18 February 660 BC–9 April 585 BC) was the first Emperor of Japan,[15] according to the traditional order of succession.[16] The Japanese national holiday National Foundation Day (建国記念の日, Kenkoku Kinen no Hi) is celebrated annually on February 11 in commemoration of the founding of the nation of Japan and the ascension of Emperor Jimmu to the imperial throne.[17]

  North KoreaEdit

Kim Il-sung was the first leader of North Korea at the time of the establishment of the country in 1948.

  South KoreaEdit

Before 1945, North Korea and South Korea were both one country, sharing the same history.

Hwanung (환웅/桓雄) and his son Dangun Wanggeom (단군왕검/檀君王儉), legendary founders of Gojoseon, the first kingdom of Korea as a whole. Hwanung was descended to Baekdu Mountain. Baekdu Mountain is today part of North Korea

However, Gaecheonjeol is not celebrated and recognized at all, unlike South Korea.


Tunku Abdul Rahman (8 February 1903 – 6 December 1990) usually known as "the Tunku" (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955, and the country's first Prime Minister from independence in 1957. He remained Prime Minister after Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore joined in 1963 to form Malaysia.


Genghis Khan posthumous portrait

Modu Chanyu, (c. 234 BC–174 BC), founded the first Mongolian Xiongnu state.

Genghis Khan (c. 1162–1227), who by uniting the nomadic tribes founded the Mongol Empire, is generally regarded as the father of modern-day Mongolia. Although downcast during the communist-era, Genghis Khan's reputation surged after the democratic revolution in 1990. Modern Mongolia is often called "Genghis's Mongolia".


Anawrahta is considered to be founder of ancient Burmese Kingdom of Pagan. General Aung San is the founder of modern Burma (also known as Myanmar). Although he did not live to see the country's independence, he is credited in forming the basic structure of the independence movement and government. Aung San started his political career in 1930 as the editor of Rangoon University's Newspaper – where he accused one of the British administrators of misconduct. In late 1940 he went to Japanese controlled Taiwan and Xiamen to receive military training, and he led the Burmese National Army, spearheading the Japanese invasion of Burma. Later, he switched sides to the Allies, and helped in the Burma Campaign. After the war, he was appointed to the government of a returning British Administration, and was able to negotiate Burma's independence. He helped organized the Panglong Agreement in February 1947, achieving independence for all Burmese territories. However, on Saturday, 19 July 1947, Aung San, along with his cabinet ministers, was assassinated at the secretariat building in Rangoon.


Prithvi Narayan Shah was largely responsible for the unification of Nepal, and is considered to be the founder of Nepal. His vision of ruling over a unified Nepal is said to have started when atop a hill near Nepa Valley (Present day Kathmandu), he decided he would like to rule over it. His strategic plan was very successful and his successors continued to build on his progress. Prithvi Narayan Shah's descendents continued to rule over Nepal for a total of 240 years before the 2006 democracy movement in Nepal toppled the constitutional power exercised by King Gyanendra, before abolishing the monarchy in 2008.


Pakistan's founder is Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who is hailed as Quaid-e-Azam or "Great Leader" and Baba-e-Qaum or Father of Nation. Other prominent founders include the poet Allama Iqbal or spiritual Father, believed to be the first person to propagate the idea of a state for India's Muslims, Fatima Jinnah (Mother of nation) and members of Pakistan's first Cabinet such as Liaquat Ali Khan - Shaheed-e-Millat, Abdul Rab Nishtar, Malik Feroze Khan Noon, Khwaja Nazimuddin and I. I. Chundrigar. Some historians credit the Muslim reformist Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as a founder of Pakistan


There is no law in the country which officially recognizes a single individual as the "Father of the Nation". Either title may be associated with any of the following prominent historical persons, owing to their impact on the country during their respective times: José Rizal (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896) was a Filipino nationalist during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after an anti-colonial revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines, and is implied by Philippine law to be one of the national heroes. He was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere, and El Filibusterismo, and a number of poems and essays. Andrés Bonifacio (November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897) De facto President and a leader during the Philippine Revolution in 1896, which saw armed resistance against the Spanish Empire. Emilio Aguinaldo (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) Leader of the latter part of the Philippine Revolution and first president of the Philippines through the 1899 Malolos Congress, which oversaw the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution.


Lee Kuan Yew (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015) often referred to as the Father of Singapore or by the initials LKY, he was the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore, governing for three decades. He is also widely recognised as the founder of modern Singapore.

  Sri LankaEdit

Official Photographic Portrait of Don Stephen Senanayaka (1884–1952)

Prince Vijaya is considered to be the first King of Sri Lanka with King Dutugemunu honored as the first king to unify Sri Lanka. D. S. Senanayake (20 October 1883 – 22 March 1952) is widely known as the modern (post independence) father of the nation. Sirimavo Bandaranaike (17 April 1916 – 10 October 2000) was the first female Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and the modern world's first female head of government. William Gopallawa (17 September 1896 – 31 January 1981) was the first Constitutional President while J. R. Jayewardene (17 September 1906 – 1 November 1996) was the first Executive President. Chandrika Kumaratunga (29 June 1945–Present) was the first female Executive President of the country.


By the end of the 14th century, most of Anatolia was controlled by various Anatolian beyliks due to the collapse of the Seljuq dynasty in the area. The Seljuq dynasty had established both the Seljuk Empire, which was founded by Tughril and the Sultanate of Rum, with the first one being responsible for the Turkification of Anatolia. Osman I unified the beyliks under one banner, proclaiming the Ottoman Empire.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. Following the First World War, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. The Turkish War of Independence (1919–22), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti) in 1923.[18] He subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of transforming the old Ottoman-Turkish state into a new secular republic.[19]


Kinh Dương Vương and descendants of the Hồng Bàng dynasty (reigned between 2879–258 BC) are revered as the founders of the first Vietnamese state and civilization. Its commemoration, also known as Giỗ Tổ Hùng Vương, is an official public holiday in Vietnam, which is celebrated on the 10th day of the 3rd lunar month.

Ho Chi Minh is the first President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the founder of the Communist Party of Vietnam. He proclaimed the independence of Vietnam from Japanese and French on September 2, 1945. He later led Vietnam through wars against French and American.



  • Skanderbeg was a prominent historical figure in the history of Albania and of the Albanian people. He successfully fought against the Ottoman Empire during its apex (the time of Sultans Murad II and Mehmed II) and maintained independence for 25 years (1443–68) until his death. He is the national hero of the Albanians.
  • Ismail Qemali was a distinguished leader of the Albanian national movement at the beginning of the 20th century, founder of the modern Albanian state in 1912, and its first head of state and government.

  Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit

Alija Izetbegović, the war-time president of Bosnia, is deemed the national founder of modern Bosniaks.[20]


Kubrat was the ruler of Old Great Bulgaria in 632. His son Asparukh migrated to the Balkans and established the First Bulgarian Empire in 681. Modern day Bulgaria is a direct successor of this state. Asparukh's brother Kotrag migrated north and founded Volga Bulgaria. Mythical rulers of Bulgaria exist before them, dating back as far as 3rd millennium BC.


  • Franjo Tuđman, first President of the Republic of Croatia 1990–99.[21] Self-proclaimed "Father of the Nation".[22]

  Czech RepublicEdit

Václav Klaus is a Czech prominent politician, later President, which agreed on dissolution of Czechoslovakia with the Slovaks. Václav Havel was the First President of the Czech Republic (1993–2003). Founder of modern Czech statehood is considered the First President of Czechoslovakia Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1918–1935). The Kingdom of Bohemia was formally established in 1198 by Přemysl Ottokar I, patron Saint is Saint Wenceslaus, which murder is celebrated as Statehood Day.


Clovis I united all the frankish tribes in Gaul and gave them a common catholic religion.

Napoleon founded the French Empire. Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, later known as Napoleon III is the first French President, elected 1848. Charles de Gaulle is a hero of the French resistance to Germany during World War II, and the first president of the Fifth French Republic.


Before the national unification of Germany in 1871, German nationalists sought out multiple legendary founders of the German nation, such as Arminius, Charlemagne and - as championed by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Richard Wagner - Henry the Fowler. Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898), the "Iron Chancellor", engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany in 1871. Modern, democratic Germany was decisively shaped by the "Fathers of the Basic Law" in the 1948 Constitutional Convention at Herrenchiemsee, and by the first German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer. For reunified Germany, the slogan "Wir sind das Volk!" ("We are the people!") became symbolic, thus making all Germans founders of modern Germany.





According to Anonymus the fejedelem who made the Magyars settle into the Carpathian Basin in 896 A.D. was Árpád. His dynasty reigned over the Hungarian Kingdom from the ninth century until 1301. In Hungary Stephen I of Hungary is commonly regarded as the founder of the nation. He was Hungary's first king and united the Magyar people into the Kingdom of Hungary. Amongst others, Lajos Kossuth is supposed to be the Pater Patriae. He is known as the leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 against the Habsburgs, and therefore founder of the modern Hungarian Republic.


The Irish Free State was established after the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), in which Éamon de Valera, Cathal Brugha and Michael Collins were key leaders. However, they became antagonists in the Irish Civil War (1922–23), in which Collins and Brugha were killed and de Valera defeated. For decades, the inheritors of the opposing factions bypassed these sensitivities to honour the earlier leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916, in particular the seven signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic: Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, Éamonn Ceannt, Tom Clarke, Seán Mac Diarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, and Joseph Plunkett.


Before 1861Edit

Modern ItalyEdit


As well respected statesmen in Macedonia are considered Metodija Andonov-Čento (first president of SR Macedonia), Nikola Karev (president of Kruševo Republic) and Kiro Gligorov (first president of independent Macedonia). However, often, as "fathers" of the nation are considered Gotse Delchev, Krste Misirkov, Georgi Pulevski and Dimitrija Čupovski and other prominent authors and revolutionaries.[citation needed]



Prince William I of Orange (1533–1584) or William the Silent, is known as the father of the Netherlands. He led the Dutch in their Revolt against Spain for their independence. Today he is often called Vader des Vaderlands which in English means, Father of the Fatherland.[25]


King Harald Fairhair, who unified Norway and ruled c. 872–930, is often considered the founder of the nation.

Usually the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll in 1814, consisting of 112 men from most of the country, in Norway often referred to as Eidsvoll Men or the Fathers of the Constitution.[26]

Einar Henry Gerhardsen (born 10. May 1897 in Asker as Einar Henry Olsen, dead 19. September 1987) was a Norwegian politician who represented the Labor Party. He was Norway's prime minister from 1945 to 1951, from 1955 to 1963 and from 1963 to 1965. In Norway, Gerhardsen is known as "landsfaderen" – "the father of the country", and he is referred to as one of the main architects behind the Norwegian welfare state that emerged after World War II.


Mieszko I (ca. 920/45–25 May 992), the first historical ruler of Poland, Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state. He was a Duke of the Polans from about 960 until his death. Mieszko I's marriage in 965 to the Přemyslid princess Dobrawa and his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity. According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader and charismatic ruler. He successfully used diplomacy, concluding an alliance with Bohemia first, and then with Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost, even entering into agreements with former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country of greatly expanded territory, with a well-established position in Europe. Mieszko I also appeared as "Dagome" in a papal document from about 1085, called "Dagome iudex", which mentions a gift or dedication of Mieszko's land to the Pope (the act took place almost a hundred years earlier).



  • Decebalus and Trajan are considered to be the fathers of the Romanian people, as Roman veterans were settled on the present-day territory of Romania following Trajan's Dacian Wars.[citation needed]
  • Michael the Brave was the first Romanian prince to rule over the traditional Romanian provinces (Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania) in a personal union, albeit briefly.
  • Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the first leader of the modern Romanian state. He presided over Wallachia and Moldavia in a personal union, which later became permanent even though he was forced to abdicate.

  Russian FederationEdit

Boris Yeltsin was the first president of the Russian Federation.

  San MarinoEdit

Saint Marinus was the founder of the world's oldest surviving republic, San Marino, in 301. Tradition holds that he was a stonemason by trade who came from the island of Rab on the other side of the Adriatic Sea (modern Croatia), fleeing persecution for his Christian beliefs in the Diocletianic Persecution.


The honorific Father of the Fatherland (Отац Отаџбине) has been given to Saint Sava,[32] Karađorđe,[33] and Miloš Obrenović, the latter having been given it by the National Assembly during his lifetime.[34]


Vladimír Mečiar was the main proponent of the Slovak independence in the year 1993. He has served as prime minister until 1998, when he narrowly lost the election.

Many Slovaks see Great Moravia as their ancestors, which would make Mojmír I a founder.


France Bučar is a Slovenian politician, legal expert and author. Between 1990 and 1992, he served as the first chairman of the freely elected Slovenian Parliament. He was the one to formally declare the independence of Slovenia on 25 June 1991. He is considered one of the founders of Slovenian democracy and independence. He is also considered, together with Peter Jambrek, as the main author of the current Slovenian constitution. Jože Pučnik was president of DEMOS and one of the main persons in the Slovenian fight for independence. The largest Slovenian airport is named Letališče Jožeta Pučnika (Jože Pučnik airport). Lojze Peterle was first prime minister of Slovenia and Milan Kučan was the first president.


Catholic Monarchs in the 15th century were responsible for the unification of Spain, both coming from the noble House of Trastámara. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558) was the first monarch of the Spanish Empire.


While Sweden had existed as a monarchy of sorts long before his time, Birger Jarl, father of and regent for Valdemar, King of Sweden, can be said to have established Sweden as a nation. Birger was Jarl in the years 1248–66.

Gustav I of Sweden, who secured Sweden's independence from Denmark in 1523, is often considered a father of the nation.


Both the anonymous Eidgenossen who drew up the Federal Charter of 1291, or the liberal statesmen who helped found the modern Swiss Confederation in 1848 can be considered the founders of Switzerland. Among the latter, those who became the first members of the Swiss Federal Council were perhaps the most notable: Ulrich Ochsenbein, Jakob Stämpfli, Jonas Furrer, Josef Munzinger, Henri Druey, Friedrich Frey-Herosé, Wilhelm Matthias Naeff and Stefano Franscini.[citation needed]


Mykhailo Hrushevsky was the President the Central Council of Ukraine People's Republic.
Leonid Kravchuk is the First President of Ukraine elected in 1991.

  United KingdomEdit

As the UK formed over many years, its founders did not live at the same time as each other. They include: Humphrey Wingfield, Speaker of the English House of Commons in 1535, at the time of England's union with Wales; John Smith and James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater, Speakers of the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, when the Acts of Union united Scotland and England; Henry Addington and John FitzGibbon, leaders of the British and Irish parliaments at the time of the Acts of Union 1801, uniting Great Britain and Ireland; and Prime Minister David Lloyd George and Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill, who both signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which allowed most of Ireland to leave the U.K. and become the Irish Free State.

Northern Ireland had already been established in May 1921, having been created in the Government of Ireland Act in December 1920. This Act was guided through the British House of Commons by Sir Hamar Greenwood, M.P., the Chief Secretary for Ireland at the time. Northern Ireland had been created at the insistence of both Captain Sir James Craig and Sir Edward Carson, the Ulster Unionist leaders.



Simon Bolivar (1783–1830) and Antonio José de Sucre (1795–1830) are considered to be the founders of Bolivia.


Pedro I, founder and first Emperor of Brazil

Pedro Álvares Cabral (1467 or 1468–1520) commander of the first Portuguese fleet to arrive in South America. José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1763–1838), known as "Patriarch of Independence", is considered the maximum leader of the Independence movement because of his intellectual mentorship and political prominence, and Pedro I of Brazil (1798–1834), son of the King João VI of Portugal, the symbol of the "center of force and union", according to the Bonifácio strategy.


Canadian Fathers of Confederation

The name "Fathers of Confederation" is given to those who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864, and the London Conference of 1866, to establish the Canadian Confederation. There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation.[35] Queen Victoria, who supported and encouraged this process, is known as the Mother of Confederation. She was the first Monarch under the 1867 Constitution and personally chose Ottawa as Canada's capital city. The political leaders who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation."[36]


Bernardo O'Higgins (1778–1842) and José Miguel Carrera (1785–1821) are usually considered the founders of Chile.


Simón Bolívar, was founder of Gran Colombia, which also included Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Francisco de Paula Santander wrote the first constitution of Colombia. Antonio Nariño ("Precursor of the Independence") and Camilo Torres were the most relevant statesmen of the First Republic.

  Costa RicaEdit

Juan Mora Fernández, first Head of State of Costa Rica.[37] José María Castro Madriz, First President of the Republic and proclaimed "Founder of the Republic" by Congress[38] Juan Rafael Mora Porras, President during Costa Rica's campaign against William Walker, proclaimed "Hero and Liberator" by Congress.


José Martí is a Cuban national hero.

  Dominican RepublicEdit

Juan Pablo Duarte (1813–1876), Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (1817–1861) and Matías Ramón Mella (1816–1864) are considered the Fathers of the Country. Duarte is featured on the $1 coin; Sanchez on the $5 coin and on the now discontinued $5 bill; Mella on the $10 coin and on the also discontinued $10 bill.[39]


Toussaint L'Ouverture (20 May 1743 – 8 April 1803) and Jean-Jacques Dessalines (20 September 1758 – 17 October 1806) were revolutionary and early political leaders of Haiti. Henri Christophe and Alexandre Pétion were also important figures of early Haiti.


Alexander Bustamante and Norman Washington Manley are considered[by whom?] to be the founders of Jamaica. Alexander Bustamante is credited for his role as an influential union leader and as founder of the Jamaican Labour Party. Bustamante served as the then colony's first Chief Minister from 1953 to 1955 and later went on to lead Jamaica to independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, becoming the country's first Prime Minister. Norman Washington Manley is particularly noted for his role in securing universal suffrage for the country's population in 1944 along with founding the People's National Party. Manley also served as Chief Minister of Jamaica from 1955 to 1962.


According to the decrees of the Congress of the Union of Mexico issued in 1822 and 1823,[40] the Mexican founders are Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753–1811), Ignacio Allende (1769–1811), Juan Aldama (1774–1811), Mariano Abasolo (1783–1816), José María Morelos (1765–1815), Mariano Matamoros (1770–1814), Leonardo Bravo (1764–1812), Miguel Bravo (unknown-1814), Hermenegildo Galeana (1762–1814), Mariano Jiménez (1781–1811), Xavier Mina (1789–1817), Pedro Moreno (1775–1817), and Víctor Rosales (1776–1817).

Nine of the thirteen founders are buried in the Monument to the Independence in Mexico City.[41]


José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar led Peru to independence and forged the country.[42]

  South AmericaEdit

José de San Martín,[43] Simón Bolívar,[44] Antonio José de Sucre, Francisco de Paula Santander,[45] Francisco de Miranda[46] have been referred to as the founding fathers of the region comprising modern day Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Panama.


José Artigas is considered to be the founder of Uruguay.

  United StatesEdit

George Washington, chief among the founders of the United States

Within the large group known as "the Founding Fathers", there are two key subsets, the Signers (who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776) and the Framers (who were delegates to the Federal Convention and took part in framing or drafting the proposed Constitution of the United States). Some historians have suggested a revised definition of the "Founding Fathers", including a significantly broader group of not only the Signers and the Framers but also all those who, whether as politicians or jurists or statesmen or soldiers or diplomats or ordinary citizens, took part in winning US independence and creating the United States of America.[47] Eminent American historian Richard B. Morris, in his 1973 book Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries, identified the following seven figures as the key founders: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.


Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) is considered to be the founder not only of Venezuela, but of many of the region's countries as the Gran Colombia, which also included Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia and Bolivia.[citation needed] José Antonio Páez led the separation of Venezuela from the Gran Colombia and formed the modern statehood of the country.



Sir Henry Parkes (1815–1896) is often regarded as the "Father of Federation" in Australia. During the late 19th century, he was the strongest proponent for a federation of Australian territories. However, he died before Australia federated, and was never able to see his plan come to fruition.[48] Various other "founders" of Australia have also been unofficially recognised: Captain Arthur Phillip, the first governor of New South Wales and founder of the first British colony; and Sir Edmund Barton, the first Australian Prime Minister.

Andrew Inglis Clark is another founding father of Australia. He largely wrote the Australian Constitution in addition to developing the Hare-Clark system of voting and pushing for universal adult suffrage and other progressive ideals that would become law early in Australia's history.

  Federated States of MicronesiaEdit

Chief Justice Andon Amaraich is regarded as "one of the founding fathers of the Federated States of Micronesia".[49][50]


Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara is widely viewed as the "Founding Father" of an independent Fiji.[51][52][53][54][55]

  New ZealandEdit

James Busby drafted the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand and co-authored with William Hobson the Treaty of Waitangi, which is considered by some to be the founding document of the nation of New Zealand. The Treaty of Waitangi was not however the basis for either the British annexation of New Zealand, or the development of representative government in the colony.

  Papua New GuineaEdit

Grand Chief Sir Michael Somare is viewed as the "Founding Father" of Papua New Guinea.[56][57][58][59] The leading figure during the country's transition to independence from Australia, he was Papua New Guinea's first Prime Minister.


George Tupou I founded the modern Kingdom of Tonga

King George Tupou I, who united his country and established the contemporary Kingdom of Tonga, has been described as Tonga's "founding father".[60][61]

Former states and other territoriesEdit


Although the first known ruler of Bohemia was Bořivoj I, Duke of Bohemia, the real unifier of various Slavic tribes in Bohemia and creator of nation was Duke Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor is regarded as the "Father of the Homeland" in the Czech Republic, because during his time the Kingdom of Bohemia experienced the greatest prosperity. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937) is widely revered as the Liberator President who played the chief role in the 1918 melding of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Ruthenia into the Czechoslovak Republic, and who served as President of the Republic from 1918 to 1935.

  Republic of ChinaEdit

  • Sun Yat-sen is revered as the founding father ("Father of the Country"–國父) of the Republic of China.
  • Huangdi (reigned between 2698 and 2598 BC) is revered as the legendary founder and initiator of Chinese civilization.



It was King Athelstan (893/895–939 AD) who united the several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England around the year 927, when he became King of the English as opposed to his previous title, King of the West Saxons. However, his fame is often overshadowed by his predecessor and grandfather Alfred the Great (871-899 AD), who set in motion the unification of the English kingdoms and could also claim to be the nation's founder.


For ancient Korea, Hwanung (환웅/桓雄) and his son Dangun Wanggeom (단군왕검/檀君王儉) are legendary founders of Gojoseon, the first kingdom of Korea. The founding date is usually calculated as 3 October 2333 BC; 3 October is a South Korean national holiday known as Gaecheonjeol (개천절/開天節, "Festival of the Opening of Heaven").

  Russian EmpireEdit


The fictionalising medieval poem The Wallace (c. 1477) celebrated William Wallace (died 1305) as one of the founder-heroes of Scotland's struggle to preserve/re-establish independence from Plantagenet England.[65]

  Soviet UnionEdit

  • Vladimir Lenin - Officially one among many equal founders of the country, Lenin was, de facto, the paramount leader, founder of the Soviet Union and the CPSU, the party that ruled it via one-party rule as well as the founding father of the modern Russian state. He died soon after the country's founding and retained a special status of secular apotheosis for the rest of the country's history.


  • Magnus Maximus (ca. 335–28 August 388). According to Welsh tradition, Magnus Maximus (Welsh: Macsen-Wledig) was a Roman General who was proclaimed Emperor of Rome by his soldiers in Britain in 383. As such, he was the first "Romano-Britain" ruler of Britain and Rome itself. His mytho-heroic founding of Wales is celebrated in the modern Welsh anthem Yma o Hyd by Dafydd Iwan.
  • Hywel Dda (c.880–950) was responsible for the codification of traditional Welsh Law, which, according to historian John Davies, "was a powerful symbol of [Welsh] unity and identity, as powerful, indeed, as their language".[66]
  • Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (r. 1039–63) was the first Welsh king to rule over the entire territory of Wales, from about 1057 until his death in 1063.[67]

  Kingdom of YugoslaviaEdit

  Socialist Federal Republic of YugoslaviaEdit



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