Esslingen is a Landkreis (district) in the centre of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from north clockwise) Rems-Murr, Göppingen, Reutlingen, Böblingen and the district-free city Stuttgart.
|Capital||Esslingen am Neckar|
|• Total||641.49 km2 (247.68 sq mi)|
(31 December 2017)
|• Density||830/km2 (2,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Vehicle registration||ES, NT|
Until 15 October 1964 the district's name was written officially as Landkreis Eßlingen.
The district dates back to the Oberamt Esslingen, which was created when the previously free imperial city of Esslingen am Neckar became part of Württemberg in 1803. It was changed several times in the course of history. Since 1810 it belonged to the Landvogtei Rothenberg and from 1818 until it was dissolved in 1924 to the Neckarkreis. In 1934 the Oberamt was renamed Kreis Eßlingen and the now termed Landkreis Eßlingen was enlarged by several municipalities of the dissolved Oberamt Stuttgart and the Kreise Schorndorf, Kirchheim unter Teck and Göppingen on 1 October 1938.
After several changes over the next century, it was converted into a district in 1938. Additionally, with the territorial Partition act on 24th April 1938, it was enlarged by adding several municipalities from the neighboring Amtsoberamt Stuttgart, Oberamt Schorndorf, Oberamt Kirchheim and Göppingen.
On 16 October 1964 the state government allowed the change from the previous spelling to the current Landkreis Esslingen.
In 1973, the district was merged with the district Nürtingen (without Grafenberg). In 1975, two municipalities (Leinfelden and Musberg) from the district Böblingen were added to give the district today's borders.
Since the completion of the municipality reform the Landkreis Esslingen yet consists of 44 municipalities, amongst them 13 towns and among those, in turn, six Major district towns (Esslingen am Neckar, Filderstadt, Kirchheim unter Teck, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Nürtingen and Ostfildern). The districts largest town is Esslingen am Neckar, the smallest municipality Altdorf near Nürtingen. In 1980 German right-wing extremists of the Deutsche Aktionsgruppen committed a bomb attack on the administrative district office and the district administrators house.
The district is cut into two halves by the river Neckar. The west part is part of the Filder plain, while the east is part of the mountains of the Swabian Alb (Schwäbische Alb) and the Schurwald (part of the Swabian-Franconian mountain range).
At Plochingen the Fils flows into the Neckar river which leaves the district near Esslingen-Mettingen heading towards Stuttgart. With 229 m above sea level the water level of the Neckar near Mettingen represents the districts lowest Point. The highest point is located 830 m above SL in the Brucker Hölzle near Bissingen-Ochsenwang.
The Landkreis Esslingen borders in clockwise direction starting in the North the Landkreise (districts) Rems-Murr-Kreis, Göppingen, Reutlingen and Böblingen as well as the Stadtkreis (urban district) Stuttgart.
The Landkreis Esslingen owns the following natural reserves. According to the reserves statistic of the Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden Württemberg (LUBW) 2320,57 hectare of the districts area is under nature protection (3,62 %).
- Alter Neckar: 21,3 ha; Esslingen am Neckar and Altbach
- Am Rank (Röhmsee): 13 ha; Unterensingen
- Denkendorfer Erlachsee: 4,4 ha; Denkendorf
- Eichhalde: 85 ha; Bissingen an der Teck
- Erkenbergwasen: 15,7 ha; Neidlingen
- Grienwiesen (Schülesee): 11,5 ha; Unterensingen
- Häslachwald: 53,6 ha (thereoff 8,6 ha in the district Esslingen); City Ostfildern - area Kemnat
- Jusi/Auf dem Berg: 48,9 ha; Kohlberg and Kappishäusern
- Krähenhäule: 5,3 ha; Esslingen am Neckar
- Kurzer Wasen/Roter Wasen: 29,1 ha; Weilheim an der Teck
- Limburg: 161,5 ha; Weilheim an der Teck
- Musberger Eichberg: 14,4 ha; Leinfelden-Echterdingen
- Nägelestal: 20,0 ha; Kirchheim unter Teck
- Neckarwasen: 13,3 ha; Köngen and Wendlingen am Neckar
- Neuffener Heide: 16,9 ha; Neuffen
- Neuffener Hörnle-Jusenberg: 48,0 ha; Neuffen
- Oberes Lenninger Tal including side valleys: 593 ha; municipality Lenningen - areas Gutenberg and Oberlenningen
- Randecker Maar including Zipfelbachschlucht: 110,0 ha; Ochsenwang and Hepsisau
- Schaichtal: 467,8 ha; Aich, Grötzingen and Neuenhaus, Altenriet and Schlaitdorf, Waldenbuch (Landkreis Böblingen), Walddorf and Häslach (Landkreis Reutlingen) and Dettenhausen (Landkreis Tübingen)
- Schönrain: 7,1 ha; Neckartenzlingen
- Schopflocher Moor (Torfgrube): 50,4 ha; municipality Lenningen - Schopfloch and Ochsenwang
- Siebenmühlental: 98,5 ha; 52,6 ha on the Areas of Filderstadt and Leinfelden-Echterdingen in the Landkreis Esslingen and 45,8 ha on the area of Steinenbronn and Waldenbuch in the Landkreis Böblingen
- Stettener Bach: 49,6 ha; Esslingen am Neckar and Schanbach
- Teck: 386,0 ha; Bissingen an der Teck, Dettingen unter Teck, Unterlenningen and Owen
- Tobeltal including Mittagsfels and Wielandstein: 151,4 ha; municipality Lenningen, area Oberlenningen
- Unter dem Burz: 26,9 ha; Neidlingen
- Wernauer Baggerseen: 32,1 ha; Köngen, Wendlingen am Neckar and Wernau (Neckar)
- Wernauer Lehmgrube: 5,5 ha; Wernau (Neckar)
- Wiestal mit Rauber: 136,5 ha; Jesingen, Holzmaden and Ohmden
The numbers of inhabitants are census results (¹) or official updates of the Statistischen Landesamts Baden-Württemberg (only main residence). The demographic development before 1973 includes the sums of the inhabitants of those municipalities which nowadays belong to the district Esslingen but prior belonged to other administrative units (Oberämtern, Landkreisen).
With almost 525,000 inhabitants the district Esslingen stands in 6th place in Germany, slightly behind the district Ludwigsburg which pushed him back from the 5th Position in the first quarter of 2007.
The district is administered by the Kreistag (district council) and the Landrat (District Administrator).
Kreistag (district council)Edit
The Kreistag is elected every 5 years by the districts eligible voters. The election on 25. Mai 2014 led to following provisional results. The official result was published by the statistical state Office towards the end of 2014.
|Parties and free voters||%2014||seats 2014||%2009||seats 2009||%2004||seats 2004||%1999||seats 1999||%1994||seats 1994||%1989||seats 1989|
|FW||Freie Wähler im Landkreis Esslingen||28,87||30||27,3||29||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|CDU||Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands||23,85||23||23,8||25||30,4||31||31,1||31||25,1||26||25,1||34|
|SPD||Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands||21,03||19||21,5||20||22,3||21||23,9||21||25,5||24||25,5||32|
|GRÜNE||Bündnis 90/Die Grünen||15,3||14||14,5||14||12,7||12||9,4||9||12,8||12||10,7||14|
|FDP||Freie Demokratische Partei||4,78||5||7,1||7||4,9||5||3,1||3||3,9||4||4,9||5|
|L.E.Bürger||Liste engagierter Bürger||0,42||-||–||–||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|UFB||Unabhängige Freie Bürger||–||–||0,8||1||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|turnout||49,71 %||52,8 %||53,8 %||54,3 %||68,2 %|
- WG: free voters, as the results from 1989 until 2004 are not dividable into individual free voter groups.
Landrat (district Administrator)Edit
The Kreistag elects the Landrat for a period of 8 years. The Landrat is the legal representative of the district as well as head of the Kreistag and its committees, but is not eligible to vote in those bodies. He leads the Landratsamt (courthouse) and is public servant of the district.
Among his responsibilities belongs the preparation of the district councils and ist committees sessions. He convokes the sessions, leads them and administers the decisions made there. His Proxy is the Erste Landesbeamte.
- 1933–1938: Ernst Mäulen
- 1938–1945: Hans Häcker
- 1945–1946: Fritz Landenberger
- 1946–1966: Georg Geist
- 1966–1972: Richard Schall
- 1973–2000: Hans Peter Braun
- seit 2000: Heinz Eininger
Coat of armsEdit
|The coat of arms shows the imperial eagle taken from the coat of arms of the city of Esslingen. The checkered diamonds in the bottom are the symbol of the Dukes of Teck, and the horn on the breast of the eagle is the symbol of the Counts of Urach. Both symbols were taken from the coat of arms of the district of Nürtingen, as the two families played a major role in the history of the area.|
Economy and InfrastructureEdit
In the "Zukunftsatlas 2016" the district Esslingen ranked 22nd out of 402 districts, municipal associations and district free cities in Germany and therefore belongs to the regions with "very high opportunities for the future".
The most labour-intensive sectors in the district Esslingen are according to the states statistical office:
- car manufacturing: 14,500 employees
- health, veterinary and social services: 13,100 employees
- Mechanical Engineering: 23,300 employees
- services close to companies: 14,100 employees
Stuttgart Airport lays on the eastern border of the city Leinfelden-Echterdingen. The runways are situated mostly on grounds belonging to Filderstadt-Bernhausen.
Since 1845 the eventual Württembergische Staatsbahn runs from Stuttgart to the district City Esslingen, since 1846 as far as Plochingen and 1847 as Filsbahn towards the crossing of the Swabian Albs in the direction of Geislinger Steige–Ulm.
In 1859 the Neckar-Alb-Bahn was attached starting in Plochingen towards Nürtingen–Reutlingen an. From this railway the Teckbahn of the Kirchheimer Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft branched off in Wendlingen (back then Unterbohingen) in 1864 and extended as far as Oberlenningen by the Staatsbahn in 1899. Another meanwhile defunct local branch line was the railway line Kirchheim (Teck) Süd–Weilheim (Teck, opened in 1908.
Over the course of 100 years a diverse public transport network developed on Filder plains at the southern border of Stuttgart, the Filderbahn-Gesellschaft. In Leinfelden-Echterdingen the S-Bahn (S2 and S3) to Stuttgart Airport put into operation between 1989 and 1993 uses partly the alignment of the line Vaihingen–Echterdingen put in use by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in 1920, from which in 1928 in Leinfelden a line branched off heading to Waldenbuch. The S2 line was extended from the Airport to Filderstadt-Bernhausen in the autumn of 2001.
In Echterdingen they linked to the line Möhringen–Neuhausen, built by the Filderbahn-Gesellschaft in metre gauge in 1897 and changed to Standard gauge in 1902. The part Möhringen–Echterdingen was replaced by a connection Möhringen–Leinfelden, which was built as an electric cross-country railway in meter gauge in 1928 and had been – parallel to the standard gauge line to Neuhausen – extended up to Echterdingen Ort. Since 1990 a standard gauge light rail called Stadtbahn (Line U5) runs only up to Leinfelden Bahnhof instead from where the S-Bahn carries on.
In Esslingen the tram Straßenbahn Esslingen am Neckar was inaugurated in 1912, which from 1919 on provided a link to the tram network of the Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen (SSB). It was replaced in 1944 through the trolleybus Esslingen am Neckar. In 1926 the interurban tram Esslingen–Nellingen–Denkendorf (END) was added, which did run up to the Filder until 1978 as well. Unlike the Filderbahn lines not from the west but rather from the northern side. Since 1929 it had a branch line from Nellingen towards Neuhausen.
Regarding the railways only two smaller sections have been defunct:
- 1955: Leinfelden–Musberg–Waldenbuch (Siebenmühlentalbahn, 11,7 km)
- 1982: Kirchheim Süd–Holzmaden–Weilheim (7,7 km)
In the year 2000 the SSB opened the light rail Stuttgart–Nellingen.
Responsible for the public transport is the Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund Stuttgart (VVS).
From west to east the Bundesautobahn 8, Stuttgart–Ulm, is running through the district area. The most important Bundesstraßen are the B 10 Stuttgart–Ulm, the B 27 Stuttgart–Tübingen, the B 312 Flughafen–Reutlingen and the B 313 Plochingen–Reutlingen.
The district Esslingen is Provider of the following vocational schools: Friedrich-Ebert-Schule (industrial school) Esslingen, John-F.-Kennedy-Schule (commercial school) Esslingen, Käthe-Kollwitz-Schule (domestic Management school) Esslingen, Max-Eyth-Schule (industrial school) Kirchheim unter Teck, Jakob-Friedrich-Schöllkopf-Schule (commercial school) Kirchheim unter Teck, Philipp-Matthäus-Hahn-Schule (industrial school) Nürtingen, Otto-Umfrid-Schule (industrial school) Nürtingen, Albert-Schäffle-Schule (commercial school) Nürtingen and Fritz-Ruoff-Schule (domestic Management and agricultural school) Nürtingen, moreover the Rohräcker schools Esslingen (School for mentally disabled, physically disabled and speech impaired pupils and correspondingly with School kindergarten and also School for sick pupils with longer lasting Hospital treatment) and the Bodelschwinghschule for mentally impaired Nürtingenwith school kindergarten. In Dettingen unter Teck another school for mentally and speech impaired school with school kindergarten was constructed.
Additionally the district is shareholder of the medius KLINIKEN gGmbH. This association is carrier of the Paracelsus-hospital Ruit in Ostfildern-Ruit and the Hospital Kirchheim-Nürtingen with ist two sites Kirchheim unter Teck and Nürtingen. Both are academic teaching hospitals for the University of Tübingen.
Towns and villagesEdit
Vereinbarte Verwaltungsgemeinschaften / Gemeindeverwaltungsverbände (municipal administration unions):
- Vereinbarte Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of the town Kirchheim unter Teck together with the municipalities e Dettingen unter Teandund Notzingen
- Gemeindeverwaltungsverband Lenningen with office in Lenningen; Members: Municipalities of Lenningen and Erkenbrechtsweiler as well as the town Owen
- Gemeindeverwaltungsverband Neckartenzlingen with office in Neckartenzlingen; Members: Altdorf, Altenriet, Bempflingen, Neckartailfingen, Neckartenzlingen and Schlaitdorf
- Vereinbarte Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of the town Neuffen with the municipalities Beuren and Kohlberg
- Vereinbarte Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of the town Nürtingen with the municipalities Frickenhausen, Großbettlingen, Oberboihingen, Unterensingen and Wolfschlugen
- Gemeindeverwaltungsverband Plochingen with office in Plochingen; Members: Town Plochingen and the municipalities Altbach and Deizisau
- Gemeindeverwaltungsverband Reichenbach an der Fils with office in Reichenbach an der Fils; Members: Baltmannsweiler, Hochdorf, Lichtenwald and Reichenbach an der Fils
- Vereinbarte Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of the town Weilheim an der Teck with the municipalities Bissingen an der Teck, Holzmaden, Neidlingen and Ohmden
- Gemeindeverwaltungsverband Wendlingen am Neckar with Office in Wendlingen am Neckar; Members: Town Wendlingen am Neckar and municipality Köngen
- "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2017". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 2018.