Django Unchained is a 2012 American revisionist Western film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino, starring Jamie Foxx, Christoph Waltz, Leonardo DiCaprio, Kerry Washington, and Samuel L. Jackson, with Walton Goggins, Dennis Christopher, James Remar, and Don Johnson in supporting roles. Set in the Old West and Antebellum South, it is a highly stylized tribute to Spaghetti Westerns, in particular the 1966 Italian film Django by Sergio Corbucci, whose star Franco Nero has a cameo appearance.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Quentin Tarantino|
|Written by||Quentin Tarantino|
|Edited by||Fred Raskin|
|Box office||$425.4 million|
Development of Django Unchained began in 2007 when Tarantino was writing a book on Corbucci. By April 2011, Tarantino sent his final draft of the script to The Weinstein Company. Casting began in the summer of 2011, with Michael K. Williams and Will Smith being considered for the role of the title character before Foxx was cast. Principal photography took place from November 2011 to March 2012 in California, Wyoming and Louisiana.
Django Unchained premiered at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City on December 11, 2012, and was released on December 25, 2012, in the United States. The film was nominated for several film industry awards, including five Academy Awards. Waltz won several awards for his performance, among them Best Supporting Actor at the Golden Globes, BAFTAs, and Academy Awards. Tarantino won an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, and a BAFTA award for writing the film's original screenplay. The film grossed over $425 million worldwide in theaters against its $100 million budget, making it Tarantino's highest-grossing theatrical release.
In 1858 Texas, brothers Ace and Dicky Speck drive a group of shackled black slaves on foot. Among them is Django Freeman, sold off and separated from his wife Broomhilda von Shaft, a house slave. The brothers are stopped by Dr. King Schultz, a German dentist-turned-bounty hunter who asks to buy one of the slaves. He questions Django about his knowledge of the Brittle brothers, a trio of outlaws for whom Schultz is carrying a warrant. When the suspicious Ace orders him to leave, Schultz kills him with a fast draw and then kills Dicky's horse, which falls and crushes Dicky's leg. Schultz insists on paying Dicky a fair price for Django before leaving Dicky to the newly-freed slaves, who kill him and follow the North Star to freedom. As Django can identify the Brittle brothers, Schultz offers him his freedom in exchange for help tracking them down.
They track the Brittles to the Tennessee plantation of Spencer "Big Daddy" Bennett and kill them. Bennett musters a large gang to raid their camp in the night; Schultz ambushes them with an explosive, killing most of them while Django kills Bennett. Feeling morally obliged to Django, Schultz agrees to help him find and rescue Broomhilda. Schultz trains Django as his apprentice, and the two become partners. Django soon collects his first bounty, keeping the handbill for good luck.
In 1859, Django and Schultz travel to Mississippi where they learn the identity of Broomhilda's new owner: Calvin J. Candie, the charming but cruel owner of the Candyland plantation, where slaves are forced to fight to the death in brutal wrestling matches called "Mandingo fights". Schultz and Django meet Calvin at his gentleman's club in Greenville, and offer $12,000 for one of his best fighters; however, their ulterior motive is to purchase Broomhilda. Intrigued, Calvin invites them to his ranch at Candyland.
The group encounters Calvin's slave trackers en route: cornering one of Calvin's disfigured Mandingo fighters, D'Artagnan, who tried to escape to avoid fighting again. Angered, Calvin has several attack dogs devour D'Artagnan alive. After finding Broomhilda and telling her of their plan, Schultz offers to buy her while negotiating the initial deal during dinner. Calvin's staunchly loyal house slave, Stephen, becomes suspicious and accurately deduces their plan. He alerts Calvin, who alters the deal at gunpoint so that Broomhilda will be sold for $12,000 instead of the Mandingo fighter. Schultz agrees, and the papers for her freedom are drawn up and signed. Calvin smugly insists that the deal be sealed through a handshake; Schultz, sick of Calvin's cruelty, shoots him through the heart with his concealed derringer, killing him. Schultz is killed by Calvin's bodyguard, who is then killed with his own revolver by Django. A shootout ensues, and Django kills many of Calvin's henchmen before surrendering.
The next morning, Stephen tells Django that Calvin's sister Lara has taken charge, and that he will be sold to a mine and worked to death. En route, Django proves to his escorts that he is a bounty hunter by showing them his first handbill, tells them that the men on the handbill are back at Candyland, and promises them all but $500 of the reward money if they free him and help him kill the wanted men. The escorts release him and give him a revolver, which he immediately uses to kill them before stealing a horse and returning to Candyland with a bag of dynamite. Django kills Calvin's slave trackers, takes Broomhilda's freedom papers from Schultz's corpse, and frees his wife from a nearby cabin.
When Calvin's mourners return from his burial, Django kills Lara and the remaining henchmen, releases the two remaining house slaves, and kneecaps Stephen before igniting the dynamite that he has planted throughout the mansion. Django and Broomhilda watch from a distance as the mansion explodes, killing Stephen, before riding off together.
- Jamie Foxx as Django Freeman
- Christoph Waltz as Dr. King Schultz
- Leonardo DiCaprio as "Monsieur" Calvin J. Candie
- Kerry Washington as Broomhilda "Hildi" von Schaft
- Samuel L. Jackson as Stephen
- Don Johnson as Spencer "Big Daddy" Bennett
- Walton Goggins as Billy Crash
- James Remar as Ace Speck and Butch Pooch
- Dennis Christopher as Leonide "Leo" Moguy
- James Russo as Dicky Speck
- David Steen as Mr. Stonecipher
- Tom Wopat as U.S. Marshal Gill Tatum
- Dana Gourrier as Cora
- Nichole Galicia as Sheba
- Laura Cayouette as Lara Lee Candie-Fitzwilly
- Ato Essandoh as D'Artagnan
- Sammi Rotibi as Rodney
- Clay Donahue as Fontenot
- Escalante Lundy as Big Fred
- Miriam F. Glover as Betina
- Quentin Tarantino as Frankie
- Omar J. Dorsey as Chicken Charlie
- Franco Nero as Amerigo Vessepi
Other roles include Russ Tamblyn as Son of a Gunfighter, Amber Tamblyn as Daughter of a Son of a Gunfighter, Don Stroud as Sheriff Bill Sharp, Bruce Dern as Old Man Carrucan, M. C. Gainey as Big John Brittle, Cooper Huckabee as Lil Raj Brittle, Doc Duhame as Ellis Brittle, Jonah Hill as Bag Head #2, a member of a Ku Klux Klan-like group; Lee Horsley as Sheriff Gus (Snowy Snow), Rex Linn as Tennessee Harry, Misty Upham as Minnie, Danièle Watts as Coco and Clay Donahue Fontenot as Luigi. Zoë Bell, Michael Bowen, Robert Carradine, Jake Garber, Ted Neeley, James Parks, and Tom Savini play Candyland trackers, while Michael Parks and John Jarratt, alongside Tarantino himself in a cameo appearance as Frankie, play the LeQuint Dickey Mining Company employees.
In 2007, Tarantino discussed an idea for a type of Spaghetti Western set in the United States' pre-Civil War Deep South. He called this type of film "a Southern", stating that he wanted "to do movies that deal with America's horrible past with slavery and stuff but do them like Spaghetti Westerns, not like big issue movies. I want to do them like they're genre films, but they deal with everything that America has never dealt with because it's ashamed of it, and other countries don't really deal with because they don't feel they have the right to." Tarantino later explained the genesis of the idea: "I was writing a book about Sergio Corbucci when I came up with a way to tell the story. ... I was writing about how his movies have this evil Wild West, a horrible Wild West. It was surreal, it dealt a lot with fascism. So I'm writing this whole piece on this, and I'm thinking: 'I don't really know if Sergio was thinking [this] while he was doing this. But I know I'm thinking it now. And I can do it!' "
Tarantino finished the script on April 26, 2011, and handed in the final draft to The Weinstein Company. In October 2012, frequent Tarantino collaborator RZA said that he and Tarantino had intended to cross over Django Unchained with RZA's Tarantino-presented martial-arts film The Man with the Iron Fists. The crossover would have seen a younger version of the blacksmith character from RZA's film appear as a slave in an auction. However, scheduling conflicts prevented RZA's participation.
One inspiration for the film is Corbucci's 1966 Spaghetti Western Django, whose star Franco Nero has a cameo appearance in Django Unchained. Another inspiration is the 1975 film Mandingo, about a slave trained to fight other slaves. Tarantino included scenes in the snow as a homage to The Great Silence. "Silenzio takes place in the snow. I liked the action in the snow so much, Django Unchained has a big snow section in the middle," Tarantino said in an interview.
The title Django Unchained alludes to the titles of the 1966 Corbucci film Django; Hercules Unchained, the American title for the 1959 Italian epic fantasy film Ercole e la regina di Lidia, about the mythical hero's escape from enslavement to a wicked master; and to Angel Unchained, the 1970 American biker film about a biker exacting revenge on a large group of rednecks.
Among those considered for the title role of Django, Michael K. Williams and Will Smith were mentioned as possibilities, but in the end Jamie Foxx was cast in the role. Smith later said he turned down the role because it "wasn't the lead". Tyrese Gibson sent in an audition tape as the character. Franco Nero, the original Django from the 1966 Italian film, was rumored for the role of Calvin Candie, but instead was given a cameo appearance as a minor character. Nero suggested that he play a mysterious horseman who haunts Django in visions and is revealed in an ending flashback to be Django's father; Tarantino opted not to use the idea. Kevin Costner was in negotiations to join as Ace Woody, a Mandingo trainer and Candie's right-hand man, but Costner dropped out due to scheduling conflicts. Kurt Russell was cast instead but also later left the role. When Kurt Russell dropped out, the role of Ace Woody was not recast; instead, the character was merged with Walton Goggins's character, Billy Crash.
Jonah Hill was offered the role of Scotty Harmony, a gambler who loses Broomhilda to Candie in a poker game, but turned it down due to scheduling conflicts with The Watch. Sacha Baron Cohen was also offered the role, but declined in order to appear in Les Misérables. Neither Scotty nor the poker game appear in the final cut of the film. Hill later appeared in the film in a different role. Joseph Gordon-Levitt said that he "would have loved, loved to have" been in the film but would be unable to appear because of a prior commitment to direct his first film, Don Jon.
In a January 2013 interview with Vanity Fair, costume designer Sharen Davis said much of the film's wardrobe was inspired by spaghetti westerns and other works of art. For Django's wardrobe, Davis and Tarantino watched the television series Bonanza and referred to it frequently. The pair even hired the hatmaker who designed the hat worn by the Bonanza character Little Joe, played by Michael Landon. Davis described Django's look as a "rock-n-roll take on the character". Django's sunglasses were inspired by Charles Bronson's character in The White Buffalo (1977). Davis used Thomas Gainsborough's 1770 oil painting The Blue Boy as a reference for Django's valet outfit.
In the final scene, Broomhilda wears a dress similar to that of Ida Galli's character in Blood for a Silver Dollar (1965). Davis said the idea of Calvin Candie's costume came partly from Rhett Butler, and that Don Johnson's signature Miami Vice look inspired Big Daddy's cream-colored linen suit in the film. King Schultz's faux chinchilla coat was inspired by Telly Savalas in Kojak. Davis also revealed that many of her costume ideas did not make the final cut of the film, leaving some unexplained characters such as Zoë Bell's tracker, who was intended to drop her bandana to reveal an absent jaw.
Principal photography for Django Unchained started in California in November 2011 continuing in Wyoming in February 2012 and at the National Historic Landmark Evergreen Plantation in Wallace, Louisiana, outside of New Orleans, in March 2012. The film was shot in the anamorphic format on 35 mm film. Although originally scripted, a sub-plot centering on Zoë Bell's masked tracker was cut, and remained unfilmed, due to time constraints. After 130 shooting days, the film wrapped up principal photography in July 2012.
Django Unchained was the first Tarantino film not edited by Sally Menke, who died in 2010. Editing duties were instead handled by Fred Raskin, who had worked as an assistant editor on Tarantino's Kill Bill. Raskin was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Editing but lost to William Goldenberg for his work on Argo.
The film features both original and existing music tracks. Tracks composed specifically for the film include "100 Black Coffins" by Rick Ross and produced by and featuring Jamie Foxx, "Who Did That To You?" by John Legend, "Ancora Qui" by Ennio Morricone and Elisa, and "Freedom" by Anthony Hamilton and Elayna Boynton. The theme, "Django", was also the theme song of the 1966 film. Musician Frank Ocean wrote an original song for the film's soundtrack, but it was rejected by Tarantino, who explained that "Ocean wrote a fantastic ballad that was truly lovely and poetic in every way, there just wasn't a scene for it." Frank Ocean later published the song, entitled "Wiseman", on his Tumblr blog. The film also features a few famous pieces of western classical music, including Beethoven's "Für Elise" and "Dies Irae" from Verdi's Requiem. Tarantino has stated that he avoids using full scores of original music: "I just don't like the idea of giving that much power to anybody on one of my movies." The film's soundtrack album was released on December 18, 2012. Ennio Morricone made statements criticizing Tarantino's use of his music in Django Unchained and stated that he would "never work" with the director after this film, but later agreed to compose an original film score for Tarantino's The Hateful Eight in 2015. In a scholarly essay on the film's music, Hollis Robbins notes that the vast majority of film music borrowings come from films made between 1966 and 1974 and argues that the political and musical resonances of these allusions situate Django Unchained squarely in the Vietnam and Watergate era, during the rise and decline of Black Power cinema. Jim Croce's hit "I Got a Name" was featured in the soundtrack.
The first teaser poster was inspired by a fan-art poster by Italian artist Federico Mancosu. His artwork was published in May 2011, a few days after the synopsis and the official title were released to the public. In August 2011, at Tarantino's request, the production companies bought the concept artwork from Mancosu to use for promotional purposes as well as on the crew passes and clothing for staff during filming.
Django Unchained was released on December 25, 2012, in the United States by The Weinstein Company and released on January 18, 2013, by Sony Pictures Releasing in the United Kingdom. The film was screened for the first time at the Directors Guild of America on December 1, 2012, with additional screening events having been held for critics leading up to the film's wide release. The premiere of Django Unchained was delayed by one week following the shooting at an elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut, on December 14, 2012.
The film was released on March 22, 2013, by Sony Pictures in India. In March 2013, Django Unchained was announced to be the first Tarantino film approved for official distribution in China's strictly controlled film market. Lily Kuo, writing for Quartz, wrote that "the film depicts one of America's darker periods, when slavery was legal, which Chinese officials like to use to push back against criticism from the United States". The film was released in China on May 12, 2013.
After a total of 143 days, the film ended its American theatrical run on May 16, 2013 with a gross of $162,805,434 in North America. It grossed $262,562,804 in foreign countries including $51,597,323 of Germany, $37,297,979 of France, and $24,893,462 of the United Kingdom, making a worldwide total gross of $425,368,238. As of 2013, Django Unchained became Tarantino's highest-grossing film, surpassing his 2009 film Inglourious Basterds, which grossed $321.4 million worldwide.
The film was released on DVD, Blu-ray, and Digital Download on April 16, 2013. In the United States, the film has grossed $31,939,733 from DVD sales and $30,286,838 from Blu-ray sales, making a total of $62,226,571.
Critical and scholarly responseEdit
On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 87% based on 262 reviews and an average rating of 8/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Bold, bloody, and stylistically daring, Django Unchained is another incendiary masterpiece from Quentin Tarantino." Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score to reviews from mainstream critics, gives the film a score of 81 out of 100 based on 42 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim".
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four stars out of four and said: "The film offers one sensational sequence after another, all set around these two intriguing characters who seem opposites but share pragmatic, financial and personal issues." Ebert also added, "had I not been prevented from seeing it sooner because of an injury, this would have been on my year's best films list." Peter Bradshaw, film critic for The Guardian, awarded the film five stars, writing: "I can only say Django delivers, wholesale, that particular narcotic and delirious pleasure that Tarantino still knows how to confect in the cinema, something to do with the manipulation of surfaces. It's as unwholesome, deplorable and delicious as a forbidden cigarette." Writing in The New York Times, critic A. O. Scott compared Django to Tarantino's earlier Inglourious Basterds: "Like Inglourious Basterds, Django Unchained is crazily entertaining, brazenly irresponsible and also ethically serious in a way that is entirely consistent with its playfulness." Designating the film a Times "critics" pick, Scott said Django is "a troubling and important movie about slavery and racism." Filmmaker Michael Moore praised Django, tweeting that the movie "is one of the best film satires ever. A rare American movie on slavery and the origins of our sick racist history."
To the contrary, Owen Gleiberman, film critic for the Entertainment Weekly, wrote: "Django isn't nearly the film that Inglourious was. It's less clever, and it doesn't have enough major characters – or enough of Tarantino's trademark structural ingenuity – to earn its two-hour-and-45-minute running time." In his review for the Indy Week, David Fellerath wrote: "Django Unchained shows signs that Tarantino did little research beyond repeated viewings of Sergio Corbucci's 1966 spaghetti Western Django and a blaxploitation from 1975 called Boss Nigger, written by and starring Fred Williamson." New Yorker's Anthony Lane was "disturbed by their [Tarantino's fans'] yelps of triumphant laughter, at the screening I attended, as a white woman was blown away by Django's guns."
An entire issue of the academic journal Safundi was devoted to Django Unchained: "Django Unchained and the Global Western," featuring scholars who contextualize Tarantino's film as a classic "western". Dana Phillips writes: "Tarantino's film is immensely entertaining, not despite but because it is so very audacious—even, at times, downright lurid, thanks to its treatment of slavery, race relations, and that staple of the Western, violence. No doubt these are matters that another director would have handled more delicately, and with less stylistic excess, than Tarantino, who has never been bashful. Another director also would have been less willing to proclaim his film the first in a new genre, the 'Southern'."
Top ten listsEdit
Django Unchained was listed on many critics' top ten lists.
- 1st – Amy Nicholson, Movieline
- 1st – Chase Whale, Twitch Film
- 2nd – Mick LaSalle, San Francisco Chronicle
- 2nd – Drew McWeeny, Hitfix
- 2nd – Michelle Orange, The Village Voice
- 2nd – Nathan Rabin, The A.V. Club
- 2nd – Betsy Sharkey, Los Angeles Times (tied with Lincoln)
- 3rd – Richard Jameson, MSN Movies
- 3rd – Alan Scherstuhl, The Village Voice
- 4th – Mark Mohan, The Oregonian
- 4th – Joe Neumaier, New York Daily News
- 4th – James Rocchi, MSN Movies
- 4th – Kristopher Tapley, HitFix
- 4th – Drew Taylor & Caryn James, Indiewire
- 5th - The Huffington Post
- 5th – David Ehrlich, Movies.com
- 5th – Scott Foundas, The Village Voice
- 5th – Wesley Morris, The Boston Globe
- 6th – James Berardinelli, Reelviews
- 6th – Lisa Kennedy, Denver Post
- 6th – Kat Murphy, MSN Movies
- 6th – Richard Roeper, Chicago Sun-Times
- 6th – Mike Scott, The Times-Picayune
- 7th – Drew Hunt, Chicago Reader
- 7th – A.O. Scott, The New York Times
- 8th – Ty Burr, The Boston Globe
- 9th – Todd McCarthy, The Hollywood Reporter
- 10th – Karina Longworth, The Village Voice
- 10th – Joshua Rothkopf, Time Out New York
- 10th – Marlow Stern, The Daily Beast
- 10th – Peter Travers, Rolling Stone
- Top 10 (ranked alphabetically) – Claudia Puig, USA Today
- Top 10 (ranked alphabetically) – Joe Williams, St. Louis Post-Dispatch
- Top 10 (ranked alphabetically) – Stephanie Zacharek, Film.com
Portrayal and descriptions of African-Americans and slaveryEdit
Some commentators have felt that the film's heavy usage of the word "nigger" is inappropriate, affecting them to an even greater extent than the depicted violence against the slaves. Other reviewers have defended the usage of the language in the historic context of race and slavery in the United States.
Filmmaker Spike Lee, in an interview with Vibe, said he would not see the film, explaining "All I'm going to say is that it's disrespectful to my ancestors. That's just me ... I'm not speaking on behalf of anybody else." Lee later wrote, "American slavery was not a Sergio Leone Spaghetti Western. It was a Holocaust. My ancestors are slaves stolen from Africa. I will honor them." Louis Farrakhan, the leader of the Nation of Islam, interpreted the movie as "preparation for race war".
Actor and activist Jesse Williams has contrasted accuracy of the racist language used in the film with what he sees as the film's lack of accuracy about the general lives of slaves, too often portrayed as "well-dressed Negresses in flowing gowns, frolicking on swings and enjoying leisurely strolls through the grounds, as if the setting is Versailles, mixed in with occasional acts of barbarism against slaves ... That authenticity card that Tarantino uses to buy all those 'niggers' has an awfully selective memory." He also criticizes the lack of solidarity between slave characters, and their general lack of a will to escape from slavery, with Django as the notable exception.
Wesley Morris of The Boston Globe compared Samuel L. Jackson's Stephen character to black Republicans like Clarence Thomas or Herman Cain. Samuel L. Jackson said that he believed his character to have "the same moral compass as Clarence Thomas does". Jackson defended heavy use of the word "nigger": "Saying Tarantino said 'nigger' too many times is like complaining they said 'kyke' [sic] too many times in a movie about Nazis." The review by Jesse Williams notes, however, that these antisemitic terms were not used nearly as frequently in Tarantino's film about Nazis, Inglourious Basterds, suggesting the Jewish community would not have accepted it.
Marc Lamont Hill, a professor at Columbia University, compared the fugitive ex–Los Angeles police officer Christopher Dorner to a real-life Django, saying "It's almost like watching 'Django Unchained' in real life. It's kind of exciting." Writing in the Los Angeles Times, journalist Erin Aubry Kaplan noted the difference between Tarantino's Jackie Brown and Django Unchained: "It is an institution whose horrors need no exaggerating, yet Django does exactly that, either to enlighten or entertain. A white director slinging around the n-word in a homage to '70s blaxploitation à la Jackie Brown is one thing, but the same director turning the savageness of slavery into pulp fiction is quite another."
While hosting NBC's Saturday Night Live, Jamie Foxx joked about being excited "to kill all the white people in the movie". Conservative columnist Jeff Kuhner wrote a reaction to the SNL skit for The Washington Times, saying: "Anti-white bigotry has become embedded in our postmodern culture. Take Django Unchained. The movie boils down to one central theme: the white man as devil—a moral scourge who must be eradicated like a lethal virus."
Samuel L. Jackson told Vogue Man that "Django Unchained was a harder and more detailed exploration of what the slavery experience was than 12 Years a Slave, but director Steve McQueen is an artist and since he’s respected for making supposedly art films, it’s held in higher esteem than Django, because that was basically a blaxploitation movie."
Use of violenceEdit
Some reviews criticized the film for being too violent. The originally planned premiere of Django was postponed following the Sandy Hook school shooting on December 14, 2012. Thomas Frank criticized the film's use of violence as follows:
Not surprisingly, Quentin Tarantino has lately become the focus for this sort of criticism (about the relationship between the movies and acts of violence). The fact that Django Unchained arrived in theaters right around the time of the Sandy Hook massacre didn't help. Yet he has refused to give an inch in discussing the link between movie violence and real life. Obviously I don't think one has to do with the other. Movies are about make-believe. It's about imagination. Part of the thing is trying to create a realistic experience, but we are faking it. Is it possible that anyone in our cynical world credits a self-serving sophistry like this? Of course an industry under fire will claim that its hands are clean, just as the NRA has done – and of course a favorite son, be it Tarantino or LaPierre, can be counted on to make the claim louder than anyone else. But do they really believe that imaginative expression is without consequence?
The Independent said the movie was part of "the new sadism in cinema" and added, "There is something disconcerting about sitting in a crowded cinema as an audience guffaws at the latest garroting or falls about in hysterics as someone is beheaded or has a limb lopped off".
Adam Serwer from Mother Jones said, "Django, like many Tarantino films, also has been criticized as cartoonishly violent, but it is only so when Django is killing slave owners and overseers. The violence against slaves is always appropriately terrifying. This, if nothing else, puts Django in the running for Tarantino's best film, the first one in which he discovers violence as horror rather than just spectacle. When Schultz turns his head away from a slave being torn apart by dogs, Django explains to Calvin Candie—the plantation owner played by Leo DiCaprio—that Schultz just isn't used to Americans."
Although Tarantino has said about Mandingo fighting, "I was always aware those things existed", there is no definitive historical evidence that slave owners ever staged gladiator-like fights to the death between male slaves like the fight depicted in the movie. Historian Edna Greene Medford notes that there are only undocumented rumors that such fights took place. David Blight, the director of Yale's center for the study of slavery, said it was not a matter of moral or ethical reservations that prevented slave owners from pitting slaves against each other in combat, but rather economic self-interest: slave owners would not have wanted to put their substantial financial investments at risk in gladiatorial battles.
Writing in The New Yorker, William Jelani Cobb observed that Tarantino's occasional historical elasticity sometimes worked to the film's advantage. "There are moments," Cobb wrote, "where this convex history works brilliantly, like when Tarantino depicts the Ku Klux Klan a decade prior to its actual formation in order to thoroughly ridicule its members' veiled racism." However, Tarantino upholds that the masked marauders depicted in the film were not the KKK, but a group known as "The Regulators". They were depicted as spiritual forebears of the later post-civil war KKK and not as the actual KKK.
On the matter of historical accuracy, Christopher Caldwell wrote in the Financial Times: "Of course, we must not mistake a feature film for a public television documentary", pointing out that the film should be treated as entertainment, not as a historical account of the time period it is set in. "Django uses slavery the way a pornographic film might use a nurses' convention: as a pretext for what is really meant to entertain us. What is really meant to entertain us in Django is violence." Richard Brody, however, wrote in The New Yorker that Tarantino's "vision of slavery's monstrosity is historically accurate.... Tarantino rightly depicts slavery as no mere administrative ownership but a grievous and monstrous infliction of cruelty."
Django Unchained garnered several awards and nominations. The American Film Institute named it one of their Top Ten Movies of the Year in December 2012. The film received five Golden Globe Award nominations, including Best Picture, and Best Director and Best Screenplay for Tarantino. Tarantino won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Christoph Waltz received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, and the BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor, his second time receiving all three awards, having previously won for his role in Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds. The NAACP Image Awards gave the film four nominations, while the National Board of Review named DiCaprio their Best Supporting Actor. Django Unchained earned a nomination for Best Theatrical Motion Picture from the Producers Guild of America.
Comic book adaptationEdit
In other mediaEdit
Tarantino has said in an interview that he has 90 minutes of unused material and considered re-editing Django Unchained into a four-hour, four-night cable miniseries. Tarantino said that breaking the story into four parts would be more satisfying to audiences than a four-hour movie: "...it wouldn't be an endurance test. It would be a mini-series. And people love those."
The story which became the director's follow-up film The Hateful Eight was first attempted as a paperback novel sequel to Django Unchained titled Django in White Hell. Tarantino decided, however, that the character's established morals did not fit the tone of the developing story so he began re-writing it as an original screenplay with no connection to the earlier film. He has expressed a desire to write a series of Django sequel novels.
In the 2014 film A Million Ways to Die in the West, Django is seen shooting the proprietor of a racially charged shooting game, saying "people die at the fair". Despite his appearance, the film has no serious connection with Tarantino film and is used mostly for parody and humor.
Alleged copyright infringementEdit
In December 2015, a $100 million lawsuit was filed against Tarantino by filmmakers Oscar Colvin Jr. and Torrance J. Colvin, who claimed that the script for Django Unchained bears extensive similarities to their film, titled Freedom. The lawsuit was filed in a federal court in Washington, DC. On January 24, 2017, the lawsuit was dismissed.
- "Django Unchained". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
- "DJANGO UNCHAINED (18)". British Board of Film Classification. December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Django Unchained (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Hiscock, John (April 27, 2007). "Quentin Tarantino: I'm proud of my flop". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- Franich, Darren (July 14, 2012). "'Django Unchained' Comic-Con panel: Tarantino talks links to other movies, Don Johnson talks Foghorn Leghorn". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Child, Ben (May 5, 2011). "Tarantino's Django Unchained script: The word is out". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- Lyttleton, Oliver (October 22, 2012). "RZA Would Have Played His Character From 'The Man with the Iron Fists' In 'Django Unchained'". IndieWIRE. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- Child, Ben (June 7, 2012). "Django Unchained trailer: will Tarantino be a slave to the dialogue?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- Bradshaw, Peter (December 12, 2012). "Django Unchained – first look review". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Edwards, Gavin (December 30, 2012). "Quentin Tarantino: my inspiration for Django Unchained". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- Zach Baron (December 21, 2012). "Cinemetrics: Quentin Tarantino's History Lesson: The hilarious but painfully dark truths of 'Django Unchained'". Grantland.com.
- Pack, Howery (December 26, 2012). "''In honor of "Django Unchained," a look at a dozen Spaghetti Westerns worth your time''". Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- Dwyer, Sean (June 22, 2011). "Will Smith Out, Jamie Foxx in for Django Unchained". FilmJunk.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Eisenberg, Eric (November 16, 2011). "Michael K. Williams Can't Do Django Unchained, Has A Role in Snitch with the Rock". Cinema Blend. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Will Smith on why he rejected Django". 3 News NZ. March 26, 2013.
- Jagernauth, Kevin (February 3, 2014). "Watch: Tyrese Gibson's 6-Minute Audition Tape For The Role Of Django In Quentin Tarantino's 'Django Unchained'". The Playlist. IndieWire. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Laster, Ryan (May 6, 2011). "Quentin Tarantino wants Will Smith for lead in DJANGO UNCHAINED". If It's Movies. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Lyman, Eric J. (January 1, 2013). "Original 'Django' Franco Nero on His Iconic Character and the Film's Legacy (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Franklin, Garth (July 18, 2011). "Kevin Costner Joins Tarantino's "Unchained"". Dark Horizons. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Enk, Brian (September 15, 2011). "Kevin Costner Frees Himself From 'Django Unchained'". NextMovie.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Yamato, Jen (September 30, 2011). "Kurt Russell to Replace Kevin Costner in Tarantino's Django Unchained". Movieline.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Child, Ben (May 11, 2012). "Sacha Baron Cohen and Kurt Russell leave Django Unchained". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- Rich, Katey (May 10, 2012). "Walton Goggins Will Absorb Kurt Russell's Role in Django Unchained". CinemaBlend.com. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- The Deadline Team (December 27, 2012). "OSCARS Q&A: Sacha Baron Cohen". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Virtel, Louis (November 10, 2011). "Jonah Hill was Offered a Part in Tarantino's Django Unchained, But..." Movieline.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Holmes, Matt (November 11, 2011). "Jonah Hill Turned Down Quentin Tarantino's DJANGO UNCHAINED". What Colture!. Obsessed with Film LTD. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Goldberg, Matt (June 15, 2012). "Jonah Hill Joins Django Unchained". Collider.com. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
- O'Connell, Sean. "Joseph Gordon-Levitt Exits 'Django Unchained,' Opts To Direct His Own Film Instead". ScreenCrush.com. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- Hanel, Marnie (January 4, 2013). "From Sketch to Still: The Spaghetti-Western Wit of Sharen Davis's Django Unchained Costumes". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Sandle, Tim (January 27, 2012). "Django Unchained: new Tarantino movie begins shooting". DigitalJournal.com. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- "Tarantino wraps up Wyoming filming for new movie". The Washington Times. Associated Press. February 15, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- Christine (February 25, 2012). "Quentin Tarantino's 'Django Unchained' begins filming at the Evergreen Plantation in Louisiana on Monday". OnLocationsVacations.com. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
- Nicoletti, Karen (February 24, 2012). "Oscar Chat: A Conversation With Best Cinematography Nominees Jeff Cronenweth and Robert Richardson". Movieline.com. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- Fox, Jesse David (January 28, 2012). "Zoe Bell Explains What Was Up With Her Masked Character From Django Unchained". Vulture. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Thompson, Anne (July 25, 2012). "Tarantino Officially Wraps 'Django Unchained,' Hits the Editing Room". IndieWire. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Chitwood, Adam (November 16, 2011). "Quentin Tarantino May Have Found His Editor and Director of Photography for Django Unchained". Collider.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "'Django Unchained' Soundtrack Details". Film Music Reporter. November 28, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- "Quentin Tarantino discusses the music of 'Django Unchained'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Quentin Tarantino reveals why Frank Ocean was scrapped from 'Django Unchained' soundtrack". NME. December 1, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Milian, Mark (August 22, 2009). "Quentin Tarantino's method behind 'Inglourious Basterds' soundtrack mix-tape". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Mayrand, Alain (October 29, 2009). "Tarantino on Composers". WordPress. Getting the Score. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- "Italian Composer Ennio Morricone: I'll Never Work With Tarantino Again". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- “Django Unchained: Repurposing Western Film Music.” Safundi: the Journal of South African and American Studies 16:3 (August 2015): 280-290.
- "Django Unchained Poster by Federico Mancosu". FedericoMancosu.com. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- Reynolds, Simon (June 6, 2012). "'Django Unchained' trailer to premiere tonight". Digital Spy. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Chitwood, Adam (June 6, 2012). "First Trailer for Quentin Tarantino's Django Unchained". Collider.com. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Breznican, Anthony (December 2, 2012). "First Oscars: Academy hopefuls turn out at honorary Governors Awards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Child, Ben (December 18, 2012). "Django Unchained premiere cancelled after Connecticut shooting". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "Rashid Irani's review: Django Unchained". Yahoo News. March 22, 2013.
- McClintock, Pamela (March 13, 2013). "'Django Unchained' Set for China Release". The Hollywood Reporter.
- "Why China is letting 'Django Unchained' slip through its censorship regime". Quartz. March 13, 2013.
- "'Django Unchained' Has a (New) Release Date in China". BOXOFFICE Media, LLC. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Django Unchained - Box Office". The Numbers. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "'Django Unchained' Becomes Quentin Tarantino's Highest-Grossing Movie". Deadline Hollywood. January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Sampson, Michael. "'Django Unchained' DVD Release Date Announced". ScreenCrush.com.
- "Django Unchained - Video Sales". The Numbers. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Django Unchained". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "Django Unchained". Metacritic. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- Ebert, Roger (January 7, 2013). "Faster, Quentin! Thrill! Thrill!". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Scott, A. O. (December 24, 2012). "The Black, The White and the Angry". The New York Times. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "'Django Unchained' was more than a role for Kerry Washington". DecaPost.com. December 31, 2012. Archived from the original on April 8, 2013.
- Gleiberman, Owen (December 25, 2012). "Django Unchained". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- Fellerath, David (December 26, 2012). "Django Unchained". Indy Week. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- Anthony Lane (January 7, 2013). "'Les Misérables,' 'Django Unchained,' and 'Amour'". The New Yorker.
- Phillips, Dana. "Introduction: Django Unchained and the Global Western". Safundi 16.3 (2015): 253–255.
- "Surviving 'Django'". BuzzFeed. January 5, 2012.
- McCarthy, Todd (December 11, 2012). "Django Unchained: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter.
- "Django Unchained and Race: Here's What Drudge Doesn't Tell You". The Village Voice. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Spike Lee slams Django Unchained:'I'm not Gonna See It'". Vibe. December 21, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Blumsom, Amy (24 November 2015). "Tarantino will never work with 'that son of a b____' Spike Lee again". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Farrakhan on 'Django Unchained': 'It's Preparation for Race War'". Fox Nation. January 11, 2013.
- Williams, Jesse (February 21, 2013). "Django, in chains". CNN. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Morris, Wesley (December 25, 2012). "Tarantino blows up the spaghetti western in 'Django Unchained'". Boston Globe.
- Ryzik, Melena (December 19, 2012). "Supporting Actor Category Is Thick With Hopefuls". The New York Times.
- "Samuel L Jackson hits out at Kamau Bell over Django Unchained criticism". Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Columbia professor: Dorner like real-life 'Django Unchained'". The Washington Times. February 13, 2013.
- Kaplan, Erin Aubry (December 28, 2012). "'Django' an unsettling experience for many blacks". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "Jamie Foxx Jokes About Killing 'All The White People'". Fox Nation. December 10, 2012.
- "KUHNER: Jamie Foxx and the rise of black bigotry". The Washington Times. December 13, 2012.
- "Samuel L Jackson cover story". MATT POMROY. 2018-04-04. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
- Dershowitz, Jessica (December 25, 2012). ""Django Unchained": Critics weigh in on Quentin Tarantino film". CBS News. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Battersby, Matilda (December 17, 2012). "'Give me a break' – Tarantino tires of defending ultra-violent films after Sandy Hook massacre". The Independent. London.
- Frank, Thomas (March 2013) "Blood Sport." Harper's Magazine; page 6-7.
- McNabb, Geoffrey (January 11, 2013). "Django Unchained and the 'new sadism' in cinema". The Independent. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- Serwer, Adam (January 7, 2013). "In Defense of Django". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- Rodriguez, Rene (December 26, 2012). "Tarantino talks 'Django Unchained'". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on February 23, 2013.
- "Was There Really "Mandingo Fighting," Like in Django Unchained?". Slate. December 24, 2012.
- "'Django' Unexplained: Was Mandingo Fighting a Real Thing? - NextMovie". NextMovie. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Daniel Bernardi, The Persistence of Whiteness: Race and Contemporary ...- 2013 "For the purposes of breeding chattel, he must also buy a "Mandingo" buck, a male slave. In the film, a "Mandingo" represents the finest stock of slaves deemed most suitable for fighting and breeding."[page needed]
- Cobb, Jelani (January 2, 2013). "Tarantino Unchained". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Holslin, Peter (July 14, 2012). "Quentin Tarantino and Cast Reveal 'Django' Details at Comic-Con". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Moore, Nolan (July 7, 2015). "Q: Is "Django Unchained" historically accurate and does it matter?". Screenprism. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- "Tarantino's crusade to ennoble violence". Financial Times. January 5, 2013.
- Brody, Richard (December 28, 2012). "The Riddle of Tarantino". The New Yorker.
- "American Film Institute Announces AFI Awards 2012 Official Selections". The Sacramento Bee. December 10, 2012. Archived from the original on December 23, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Reynolds, Simon (December 13, 2012). "Golden Globes nominations 2013: Movies list in full". Digital Spy. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Heller, Corinne (January 13, 2013). "Golden Globe Awards: Christoph Waltz of 'Django Unchained' wins Supporting Actor – Drama". OnTheRedCarpet.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "Oscars - The Nominees". The Academy Awards of Motion Pictures and the Arts. Archived from the original on January 10, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "Oscars 2013: the full list of winners". The Guardian. London. February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "The '44th NAACP Image Awards' nominees announced" (PDF). National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. December 11, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- "Awards for 2012". National Board of Review. December 5, 2012. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Serjeant, Jill (January 2, 2013). ""Lincoln," "Zero Dark Thirty," up for Producers Guild awards". Reuters. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "DC Comics: Django Unchained". Grand Comics Database.
- DC Comics: Django Unchained at the Comic Book DB
- Alexander, Bryan (May 24, 2014). "Tarantino wants to make 'Django' TV mini-series". USA Today. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
- Staskiewicz, Keith (December 11, 2015). "Quentin Tarantino explains how Hateful Eight began as a Django novel". Entertainment Weekly. US: Time Inc. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Galloway, Stephen (December 10, 2015). "Quentin Tarantino, Ridley Scott, Four More Directors on the Decline of "Middle-Class Films," Facing Retirement". The Hollywood Reporter. US: Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Acuna, Kirsten (December 15, 2014). "Sony Is Apparently Working On A 'Django Unchained'/'Zorro' Crossover Movie With Quentin Tarantino". Business Insider. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "Dynamite® Django / Zorro #1". Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Quentin Tarantino Slapped With $100 Million-Plus Copyright Lawsuit Over 'Django Unchained'". The Wrap. December 30, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- "Quentin Tarantino sued for alleged Django Unchained copyright infringement". Entertainment Weekly. December 31, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- "COLVIN et al v. TARANTINO et al". Pacer Monitor.