The Crimean Bridge (Russian: Крымский мост, tr. Krymskiy most, IPA: [ˈkrɨmskʲij most]), also called the Kerch Strait Bridge, or colloquially the Kerch Bridge, is a pair of Russian-constructed parallel bridges, spanning the Strait of Kerch between the Taman Peninsula of Krasnodar Krai and the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea.[d] The bridge complex provides for both road and rail traffic, and has a length of 19 km (11.8 mi),[e] making it the longest bridge Russia has ever built,[f] and the longest bridge in Europe.
|Carries||A290 highway |
|Crosses||Kerch Strait: (Kerch–Yenikale Canal, Tuzla Island, Tuzla Spit remains)|
|Locale||Kerch, Crimea and Taman, Russia|
|Official name||Крымский мост|
|Owner||Government of Russia|
|Design||Double parallel railroad-road truss arch bridge|
|Total length||Railroad bridge: 18.1 km (11.2 mi) |
Road bridge: 16.9 km (10.5 mi)
|Water depth||Up to 9 m (30 ft)|
|Longest span||227 metres (745 ft)|
|Clearance below||35 m|
|No. of lanes||4|
|No. of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||Russian gauge|
|Designer||Institute Giprostroymost – Saint Petersbirg|
|Construction start||February 2016[a]|
|Construction end||April 2018 (road bridge)|
December 2019 (rail bridge)
|Construction cost||227,92 billion rubles|
|Opened||2018[b] (road bridge)|
2019 -2020 (rail bridge)[c]
|Inaugurated||15 May 2018 (road bridge) |
23 December 2019 (rail bridge)
|Replaces||Kerch railway bridge, |
Kerch Strait ferry line
|Daily traffic||15,000 cars|
|Toll||Free of charge|
Having been considered at least since 1903, planning for the bridge began in 2014, after the Russian annexation of Crimea. In January 2015, the multibillion-dollar contract for the construction of the bridge was awarded to Arkady Rotenberg's Stroygazmontazh. Construction of the bridge commenced in February 2016;[a] the road bridge was inaugurated by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 15 May 2018 and opened for non-truck cars on 16 May and for trucks on 1 October. The rail bridge was inaugurated on 23 December 2019 and the first scheduled passenger train crossed the bridge on 25 December 2019. The bridge was opened for freight trains on 30 June 2020. A record traffic was recorded on 15 August 2020 and amounted to 36,393 cars.
The bridge was christened the Crimean Bridge after an online vote in December 2017, while "Kerch Bridge" and "Reunification Bridge" were the second and third most popular choices respectively.
Pre-annexation proposals and attemptsEdit
The Kerch railway bridgeEdit
Proposals to build a bridge across the Kerch Strait were considered from the early 20th century onward.
During the WWII German Organisation Todt built ropeway over the strait. Finished in June 1943 it had daily capacity of 1,000 tons. Construction of combined road and railway bridge started in April 1943, but before it was finished, retreating German troops blew up the already completed parts of the bridge and destroyed the ropeway.
In 1944, the Soviet Union constructed a 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) bridge across the strait. This bridge, not designed as permanent, was marred by design and construction errors, and was destroyed by flowing ice in February 1945. The proposal to repair it was quickly dismissed and the remnants of the destroyed bridge were dismantled, with permanent bridge designs envisaged instead.
In 1949 the Soviet government ordered the construction of a 5.969-kilometre (3.709 mi) two-tier combined road-rail bridge (two road lanes on the upper tier and two rail tracks on the lower tier) with 40 m clearance below, connecting Yeni-Kale with Chushka Spit, but in 1950 the construction was halted and a ferry line was created instead.
A different version of the fixed link, the Kerch waterworks project («Керченский гидроузел») was developed since the mid-1960s, proposing a system of dams and bridges across the strait. The project was not implemented due to a lack of funding and the collapse of the USSR.
Agreements between Ukrainian and Russian governmentsEdit
The idea of a Kerch Strait bridge, now intended to become an international fixed link between the independent states of Russia and Ukraine, survived the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but in 1994 the Russian and Ukrainian governments failed to finalize the project. Former Moscow mayor Yury Luzhkov was a vocal advocate for a highway bridge across the strait, expressing hope that it would bring the Crimeans closer to Russia, both economically and symbolically. Similar hopes were expressed by pro-Russian authorities in Crimea, who hoped that the bridge would contribute to either a "revival of the Silk Road" or to a multinational road along the Black Sea coast.[g]
Construction of the bridge was reconsidered by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2006, and the then-Transport Minister of Ukraine Mykola Rudkovsky stated that he expected the bridge to be a "net positive for Crimea" as it would allow "every tourist visiting Russian Caucasus to visit Crimea as well". The issue was discussed by prime ministers of both countries in 2008, and a Transport Strategy of Russia, adopted in that year, envisaged the construction of the Kerch Strait bridge as a high priority issue for the development of the Southern Federal District's transport infrastructure in the period 2016–2030, with design to be created by 2015.
In 2010, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed an agreement to build a bridge across the Kerch Strait, and Russia and Ukraine signed a memorandum of mutual understanding on the construction of the bridge on 26 November 2010. A 2011 study by the Ukrainian government announced preliminary preference for a route between Cape Fonar and Cape Maly Kut. Had that project been accomplished, it would have meant construction of a 10.92 km (6.79 mi) bridge link, with 49 km (30 mi) of adjacent roads and 24 km (15 mi) of adjacent railroads.
The shelving of the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement in November 2013 led to increased interest in the construction of a bridge between Crimea and the Taman Peninsula of Russia, and an agreement on the construction of that bridge was signed as a part of the 17 December 2013 Ukrainian–Russian action plan. In late January 2014, the Ukrainian and Russian governments decided that a new joint Ukrainian–Russian company would be commissioned to handle the construction of the bridge, while the Russian state enterprise Russian Highways (Avtodor) would become responsible for the bridge in the long term. Additionally, it was decided a special working group would determine the location and set the technical parameters. The Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine estimated that construction would take five years and cost between $1.5 and $3 billion. In early February 2014, Russian Highways (Avtodor) was instructed by the First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia to work on a feasibility study to be published in 2015.
In the following months, as relations deteriorated, bilateral negotiations over the bridge collapsed, yet Russia claimed that it expected the December 2013 deals to be honored, and on 3 March prime minister Dmitry Medvedev signed a governmental decree to create a subsidiary of Avtodor to oversee the project. A contest for the engineering survey of the bridge project was announced by that subsidiary on 18 March, but by that time the premise of the contest, which still referred to 2013 agreements, was already outdated.
After annexation and start of constructionEdit
Following the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014 amid a sharp deterioration in Ukrainian-Russian relations, the Kerch Strait bridge project became an instrumental part of Russian plans to integrate the newly annexed territory into Russia. Although Ukraine lost control of the peninsula, it was still able to isolate it by shutting vital transportation links, since Russia, unlike Ukraine, did not have overland links to Crimea at that time, and using the Kerch Strait ferry line had its limitations: ferry traffic was often halted because of bad weather, and there were often long queues of vehicles.
Aside from practical necessity, the bridge had a symbolic purpose: it was meant to show Russia's resolve to hold Crimea, and as a "physical" attachment of Crimea to Russian territory. No longer a bilateral infrastructure project, design and construction of the Kerch Strait bridge from that time onwards was conducted by Russia unilaterally – and it was only at this time that the construction of a permanent fixed link across the Kerch Strait ceased to be a long-shelved project and became reality.
The announcement that Russia would build a road-rail bridge over the strait was made by the Russian President Vladimir Putin on 19 March 2014, just one day after Russia officially claimed Crimea. In January 2015, the contract for construction of the bridge was awarded to the SGM Group, whose owner Arkady Rotenberg (reportedly a close personal friend of Putin) was internationally sanctioned in response to the Russian military's involvement in Ukraine. SGM typically constructed pipelines and had no experience building bridges, according to BBC News.
In April 2014, the Ukrainian government gave Russia six months notice of its withdrawal from the now-defunct bilateral Kerch Bridge agreement. Since then, the Ukrainian government has actively condemned Russian construction of the bridge as illegal because Ukraine, "as a coastal state with regard to the Crimean Peninsula", did not give its consent to such construction, and called on Russia to demolish "those parts of that structure located within temporarily occupied Ukrainian territory". Sanctions were introduced by the United States and the European Union against companies involved in the construction, and since December 2018 the United Nations General Assembly repeatedly condemned construction and opening of the bridge as "facilitating the further militarization of Crimea" and "restricting the size of ships that can reach the Ukrainian ports on the Azov coast". Russia, on the other hand, asserted that it "shall not ask for anybody’s permission to build transport infrastructure for the sake of the population of Russian regions".
After the annexation, Russian officials looked at various options for connecting Crimea to the Russian mainland, including a tunnel, but eventually settled on a bridge. The Russian government's draft resolution of 1 September 2014 required the bridge to have four lanes of vehicle traffic and a double-track railway.
An official video from October 2015 contained a CGI concept of the bridge design, annotated with various measurements. It showed a four-lane, flat deck highway bridge running parallel with the separate two-track railway. The main span over the Kerch Strait shipping canal would have a steel arch support, 227 m (745 ft) wide with a 35 m (115 ft) clearance above the water to allow ships to pass under. There would be three segments: from the Taman Peninsula to Tuzla Spit is 7 km (4 mi); across Tuzla Island is 6.5 km (4.0 mi); and from Tuzla Island to the Crimean Peninsula is 5.5 km (3.4 mi) (19 km (12 mi) total).
The final concept was a major change from the initial project considered in late 2014, which had envisaged construction of two bridge links (parallel road and rail bridges between the Taman Peninsula and the Tuzla Spit and a double deck road-rail bridge between Tuzla Island and the Kerch Peninsula) and a causeway on Tuzla Spit. This design was scrapped, the causeway being deemed too risky to rely on given the instability of the Tuzla Spit. The official reason for abandonment of a double deck bridge in favor of two continuous parallel structures was that the latter solution allows for less massive spans and for simultaneous construction of both bridges (rather than having to construct one level of bridge first before starting the second one), an important consideration given demands by the Russian government that road and rail links be operational quickly. The "Tuzla route" was preferred over shorter variants (starting at Chushka Spit), in particular because doing otherwise would have interfered with the still operational ferry line, to the effect of worsening transport communications between Russia and Crimea.
The bridge was built by Stroygazmontazh Ltd (SGM), which had never before built a major bridge. Because of the risk of sanctions, no international insurance company was willing to underwrite the potential $3 billion loss. It was insured instead by a small Crimean company.
The geology of the Kerch Strait is difficult: it has a tectonic fault, and the bedrock is covered by a 60 m (197 ft) layer of silt. About 70 mud volcanoes have been found in the area of the strait. More than 7,000 piles support the bridges; these piles have been driven up to 91 m (300 ft) beneath the water surface. Some of the piles are at an angle to make the structure more stable during earthquakes.
Preliminary work on the bridge began in May 2015. More than 200 bombs and a few airplanes (including an Ilyushin Il-2 and a Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk) from the World War II era were found in the area during pre-construction clearance. Three temporary bridges were built, to facilitate access (independent of weather and currents) for main construction. By October 2015, the first of the temporary bridges had been constructed, connecting Tuzla Island and Taman Peninsula.
Main construction started in February 2016. The first piles were installed in early 2016, and in April 2016 the first pillar of the road bridge was constructed. The foundations of the road bridge were completed in August 2017. The two shipping canal arches (over the Kerch–Yenikale Canal) were lifted into position in August and October that year. In October 2017, National Guard of Russia Director Viktor Zolotov announced the formation of a new "maritime brigade", intended to protect the bridge as part of Russia's Southern Military District. In December 2017 all road pillars and spans were completed, by April 2018 asphalt concrete was laid onto the road bridge, and after some examination the road bridge was deemed ready for operation.
On 15 May 2018, President Vladimir Putin led a convoy of trucks, driving one himself, across the bridge in an inauguration ceremony. The bridge was opened for non-truck vehicle traffic on 16 May 2018 and for trucks on 1 October.
In October 2018, the Russian Taman Road Administration reported that when one of the railway spans was being lowered into place, it tilted and fell into the sea. This occurred in the sea section between Tuzla Spit and Tuzla Island. In November 2018 railway pillars were completed.
On 24 March 2019 the bridge's press center reported completion of construction of railway spans, and on 18 July it reported completion of the bridge's rail tracks. In October 2019, the opening for freight trains was postponed until 2020, the official cause was a delay in the construction of the connecting railroad caused by the discovery of an ancient site on the Kerch Peninsula. Sale of train tickets across the Kerch Strait started in November 2019. On 18 December 2019 the rail bridge was deemed ready for operation, and President Putin formally opened the bridge on 23 December. The first scheduled passenger train crossed the bridge on 25 December 2019, while the bridge was opened for freight trains on 30 June 2020.
The rail bridge design provides the ability to install an overhead railway electrification system "whenever such decision will be made", requiring no rebuilding of the bridge's structures. Pending electrification, the rail bridge is served by diesel locomotives.
Concrete casting and asphalting of the overpass spans on Tuzla Island.
Operation and impactEdit
The road bridge, opened in 2018, quickly overtook the Kerch Strait ferry as a preferred route of communication of Crimea with the rest of de facto Russian territory. In its first 12 hours of operation the bridge broke the traffic record of the ferry, which had been established in August 2017. After the bridge was opened for trucks in October 2018, truck transportation via the ferry virtually ceased. After the first full year of operation (May 2018 – May 2019) the road bridge had served three times more traffic than the Kerch Strait ferry had served in the whole of 2017. Since the road bridge is free of charge, in contrast to the ferry, it is claimed that users of the bridge saved more than 16 billion rubles. The bridge is said to have contributed to an increase of the number of tourists visiting the Crimea, with bridge traffic peaking in the summer months – on 5 August 2018 the bridge broke a single-day record for car traffic, with 32,000 vehicles crossing the span, followed by over 33,000 vehicles on 12 August that year and over 35,000 a year later.
Conversely, a decrease of prices in Crimea, which was expected to occur after the opening of the road bridge, did not happen. According to local Russian administration, this situation persists because large retail groups are not working in Crimea due to either risk of being sanctioned or because they deem Crimea a "logistic dead end", although there are expectations that opening of the rail bridge will contribute to a decrease of prices for certain goods.
Ukraine, which has two major ports on the Sea of Azov through which it exports steel and agricultural products, has alleged that the bridge is being used by Russia as part of a creeping hybrid blockade of Ukrainian ports in the Azov Sea, and that Russian inspections of ships have risen sharply since the bridge opened in May 2018, some being forced to wait for three days before being allowed through. The main span of the bridge is 33 to 35 metres (108 to 115 ft) above sea level; the Ukrainian maritime authority says many ships are too big to pass safely under the bridge. The bulk carrier Copan (deadweight tonnage 17,777 tons) solved this problem by cutting off the top of her mast. On 26 October 2018 The Globe and Mail, citing Ukrainian sources, reported that the bridge had reduced Ukrainian shipping from its Sea of Azov ports by about 25%. In November 2018 the area near the bridge became a site of the Kerch Strait incident, in which the Russian navy claimed that three Ukrainian vessels entered Russian territorial waters. Russian forces seized the vessels and arrested their crews. During this time, passage through the Strait was blocked by a large cargo ship, placed under the bridge to prevent passage of other craft. In response, Ukraine declared martial law in some regions of the country for 30 days.
A part of a big Greek terracotta statue has been found at the Crimean Bridge construction site, during the underwater digging near the Ak-Burun Cape. According to archaeologists this is a unique finding, since it is the first of its kind found in the northern Black Sea area.
In popular cultureEdit
A romantic comedy film was also made by Russian film director Tigran Keosayan about the construction of the bridge called The Crimean Bridge. Made with Love!. It was officially released in cinemas in Russia on 1 November 2018.
- Preliminary work started in May 2015, and the main construction (of the link itself) started in February 2016. See below.
- Opened on 16 May 2018 for non-truck traffic and on 1 October for trucks
- Opened on 25 December 2019 for passenger traffic and on 30 June 2020 for freight trains
- Russian-annexed, mostly internationally recognised as part of Ukraine.
- Entire fixed link, including small causeways at the ends. The bridges themselves are 18.1 km (11.2 mi) (rail) and about 17 km (10.6 mi) (road) long
- Crimean Bridge is also often considered to be the longest bridge in Russia, but this is applicable only for the de facto Russian territory, including Crimea, since most of the bridge is located within the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Taman–Tuzla Spit part, lying in undisputed Russian territory, is only 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) long, which makes it shorter than President Bridge in Ulyanovsk Oblast (5.825 kilometres (3.619 mi))
- After the 2014 annexation of Crimea, Russia continued to support the inclusion of the peninsula into that proposed road, claiming that such an option would be economically more feasible, but Ukraine, previously supportive of the project, now stridently opposed it.
- "О проекте".
- "Началось возведение свайных фундаментов Керченского моста". 10 March 2016.
- "Проектировщик моста в Крым – РБК: "Мы нашли оптимальное решение"". РБК. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- "О проекте".
- "Проектировщиком моста в Крым стал петербургский "Гипростроймост"" (in Russian). 6 April 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- "Строительство моста через Керченский пролив. Съемка с коптера". РИА Новости Крым. 22 May 2017.
- "Автодорожная часть Крымского моста открылась для движения автомобилей". ТАСС (in Russian). Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- "Крыму начало везти". Коммерсантъ. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
Крымский мост 1 октября стал доступен для движения грузового транспорта.
- "Названа средняя загрузка Крымского моста: 15 тысяч машин в сутки". 6 November 2019.
- "Сколько будет стоить проезд по Крымскому мосту? КерчьИНФО – новости Керчи". 12 May 2018.
- Roth, Andrew (15 May 2018). "Putin opens 12-mile bridge between Crimea and Russian mainland". Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- Stolyarov, Gleb. "Trucker Putin opens Russia bridge link with annexed Crimea". U.S. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- Walker, Shaun (31 August 2017). "Russia's bridge link with Crimea moves nearer to completion". Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- Hodge, Nathan. "Russia's bridge to Crimea: A metaphor for the Putin era". CNN. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
The United States and most other countries have refused to recognize the annexation of Crimea, and sanctions on Russia don't seem likely to be lifted anytime soon.
- "Bridge connects Crimea to Russia, and Putin to a Tsarist dream". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- "Завершено сооружение пролетов Крымского моста под автодорогу". РИА Новости Крым (in Russian). 20 December 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- "Russia pushes back 'Putin's bridge' to annexed Crimea by a year". Reuters. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Hodge, Nathan. "Russia's bridge to Crimea: A metaphor for the Putin era". CNN. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- "Putin inaugurates bridge by driving a truck across to seized peninsula Crimea". ABC News. 15 May 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- Крымский мост открыли для проезда грузовиков: фото и видео [Crimean Bridge has been opened for truck traffic: photo and video]. 24.ua (in Russian). Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- "На Крымском мосту установили новый рекорд автотрафика". TASS. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
- "Голосование за название строящегося в Керченском проливе моста завершено". Interfax.ru (in Russian). 17 December 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- Bologov, Petr (27 February 2017). "The bridge-long dream". intersectionproject.eu. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "Предисловие | Мост через Керченский пролив". kerch.rusarchives.ru. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
- "Макропроект в Крыму". www.kommersant.ru (in Russian). 22 October 1994. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- Проект для моря. Vokrug sveta (in Russian). 1 December 1972. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- На стыке двух морей (33–36 pages). Tekhnika Molodezhi (in Russian). January 1985. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- "Мост через Керченский пролив". pantikapei. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- Лужков присоединяет Крым к России. Kommersant (in Russian). 8 April 1999. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
- "Черноморское кольцо уперлось в Украину" (in Russian). Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "Кабмин рассматривает возможность соединения Украины с Россией". Украинская правда (in Russian). Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- "Между Керчью и Россией построят мост". podrobnosti. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- "Россия и Украина договорились строить мост через Керченский пролив". lenta.ru. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- "2008 Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation". www.rzd.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- Azarov creates group for bridging the Kerch Strait, Kyiv Post (9 August 2010)
- Russia, Ukraine to construct bridge across Kerch Strait, Kyiv Post (26 November 2010)
- "Украина выбрала северный вариант моста через Керченский пролив". Kavkaz Uzel. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- «Автодор» приступает к подготовке проекта моста через Керченский пролив Читайте далее Vedomosti (14 February 2014)
- Глава Минтранса: Россия приостановила переговоры с Украиной по проекту Керченского моста [Head of the [Russian] Ministry of Transport: Russia ceased negotiations with Ukraine regarding the Kerch Strait Bridge project]. TASS. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Medvedev Signs Decree Creating Contractor for Kerch Strait Bridge Project The Moscow Times (3 March 2014)
- "Объявлен конкурс на инженерные изыскания по строительству Керченского моста". ТАСС. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- "Request on proposals on the engineering design of the Kerch Strait Bridge, Contest Documentation, page 20". zakupki.gov.ru. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- David M. Herszenhorn (19 March 2014). "Dependence on Russia Is Likely to Leave Region's Economy in a Precarious State". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
The process is also fraught with risks, including the possibility that the Ukrainian government could move to further isolate the geographically remote peninsula by shutting vital transportation lines. There is no overland transportation link between Russia and Crimea, and building a bridge across the shortest waterway, near the Crimean city of Kerch, would take years and cost an estimated $3 billion to $5 billion
- Andrew Roth (15 May 2018). "Putin opens 12-mile bridge between Crimea and Russian mainland". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
The 12-mile (19km), $3.7bn (£2.7bn) bridge is Moscow’s only direct road link to Crimea. Russia expects it will carry millions of cars and rail travellers and millions of tons of cargo each year. Previously, all car traffic passed over the Kerch strait by ferry or by passing through Ukraine
- "Russia Makes Bold Move to Try to Solidify Control Over Crimea". The Daily Signal. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Как всего за два года был построен Крымский мост [How Crimean Bridge was constructed for only two years]. Vedomosti (in Russian). Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Russia to Build Bridge to Crimea". RIA Novosti. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Kerch Strait bridge to be built ahead of schedule – deputy minister". ITAR–TASS. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Ukraine conflict: Putin ally to build bridge to Crimea". BBC News. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Ukraine withdraws from Kerch Strait bridge project with Russia". ITAR–TASS. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Crimea: Who controls its territorial waters?". BBC. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine on the unlawful launch of the Kerch Strait bridge by the Russian Federation
- Киев считает противоправным введение РФ запрета на судоходство через Керченский пролив [Kiev deems Russian restrictions on shipping in the Kerch Strait illegal]. Interfax-Ukraine (in Russian). Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Statement by the delegation of Ukraine at the 28th meeting of States Parties to the UNCLOS". Permanent Mission of Ukraine to the United Nations. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "U.S. imposes sanctions on 'Putin's bridge' to Crimea". Reuters. 2 September 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Ukraine: EU adds six entities involved in the construction of the Kerch Bridge connecting the illegally annexed Crimea to Russia to sanctions list". Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 73/194 "Problem of the militarization of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, Ukraine, as well as parts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov"". United Nations Documents. 23 January 2019.
- "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Urging Russian Federation to Withdraw Its Armed Forces from Crimea, Expressing Grave Concern about Rising Military Presence". United Nations. Meetings Coverage and Press Releases. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 74/17 "Problem of the militarization of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, Ukraine, as well as parts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov"". United Nations Documents. 13 December 2019.
- "Russia Defends Opening of Crimea Bridge Against U.S. Criticism". The Moscow Times. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Обоснование проекта Керченского моста будет готово к декабрю [Feasibility study of the Kerch Bridge project will be ready by December]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "…И распахнутся в Крым ворота". transportrussia.ru. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Kolyushev, Igor (August 2018). Технические особенности проектирования Крымского моста [Technical aspects of the designing of the Crimean Bridge] (PDF). Дороги. Инновации в строительстве (in Russian).
- "Мост через Керченский пролив можно построить только в двух местах". РБК. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "Это, по сути, половина дела". Коммерсантъ. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Pollock, Emily (6 July 2018), Europe's Longest Bridge Spans Troubled Waters, Engineering.com, archived from the original on 13 October 2018
- Kerch Strait Bridge may collapse at any time – expert, UNIAN, 12 October 2018
- "200 бомб найдено в районе строительства моста через Керченский пролив". tvzvezda.ru. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Поисковики нашли Ил-2 с останками пилота при строительстве Керченского моста". tvzvezda.ru. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- "Kittyhawk подняли со дна". gazeta.ru. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- "Три временных моста построят для доставки материалов на строительство Керченского перехода". Tass.ru. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Завершено строительство первого рабочего моста в Керченском проливе". Kp.ru. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Минтранс: строительство железнодорожной части Крымского моста идет по графику [Ministry of Transportation: construction of the rail part of the Crimean Bridge is taking place according to schedule]. ТАСС. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Первые сваи: началось устройство фундаментов Керченского моста [First pile: construction of the [deep] foundations of the Kerch Bridge started]. RBK. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Построена первая опора Керченского моста [First pillar of the Kerch Bridge has been completed]. Interfax.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Строители погрузили все сваи в основание автодорожной части моста в Крым [All piles are installed into the foundations of the road part of the bridge to Crimea]. RIA Novosti Crimea (in Russian). 16 August 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Russia's National Guard to form maritime brigade". TASS. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- Завершено возведение всех опор автодорожной части моста через Керченский пролив [All pillars of the road part of the Kerch Strait Bridge are built]. Interfax (in Russian).
- "Expert points to vulnerability of Kerch bridge from military perspective". www.unian.info. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
As UNIAN reported, on December 20, the occupiers completed the next stage of the Crimean bridge construction – assembling the span structures of the road section, having fully formed the bridge's sheet from Russia's Taman coast to the occupied Kerch.
- Асфальт уложили на автодорожной части моста через Керченский пролив [Road part of the Kerch Strait Bridge has been covered with asphalt]. Interfax-Russia.ru (in Russian). 26 April 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Автодорожная часть моста через Керченский пролив прошла приемочные обследования". Interfax-Russia.ru (in Russian). 26 April 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Строители установили последнюю сваю железнодорожной части моста в Крым [Final pile of the rail part of the bridge to Crimea has been installed]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 4 June 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- На Крымском мосту уложили первые рельсы [First tracks have been laid onto the Crimean Bridge]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Section of Crimean Bridge falls into sea, UAWire, 5 October 2018
- "Фрагмент пролета строящейся ж/д части Крымского моста съехал в воду" [Part of the span of the unfinished railway part of the Crimean bridge slid into the water], RIA Press
- "Фрагмент пролета железнодорожной части Крымского моста съехал в воду при монтаже" [Part of the span of the railway part of the Crimean bridge slid down into the water during installation], TASS
- "Ротенберг рассказал об инциденте на железнодорожной части Крымского моста" [Rotenberg told about the incident on the railway part of the Crimean bridge], RBC
- "Многотонный пролет Крымского моста съехал в море: причины и последствия" [A span of the multi-span the Crimean bridge slid into the sea: causes and consequences], Kryminform
- "Строители подняли съехавший в воду пролет Крымского моста" [Builders raise the span of the Crimean bridge that fell into the water]. Interfax.ru (in Russian). 24 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
- Строители завершили возведение опор железнодорожной части Крымского моста [Construction of the pillars of the railway part of the Crimean Bridge has been completed]. RBK. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Строители собрали все пролеты железнодорожной части Крымского моста". ТАСС. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- "Строители завершили укладку рельсов на Крымском мосту" (in Russian). 18 July 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- ""Рано или поздно моста не станет": почему в России опасаются пускать грузовые поезда в Крым" [“Sooner or later there will be no bridge”: why in Russia they are afraid to let freight trains into Crimea]. Krym Realii (in Russian). 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- Минтранс отложил открытие движения грузовых поездов по Крымскому мосту [Ministry of Transportation [of Russia] delayed opening of the Crimean Bridge for freight trains] (in Russian). 7 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "Russia Launches Direct Crimea Train Ticket Sales". The Moscow Times. 8 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Строительство железнодорожной части Крымского моста официально завершено". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "Строительство железнодорожной части Крымского моста закончено". РИА Новости (in Russian). 18 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- Putin takes first train across Crimea bridge, AFP, 23 December 2019.
- Первый поезд проехал по Крымскому мосту [The first train drove along the Crimean Bridge]. Kommersant (in Russian). Retrieved 25 December 2019.
- По Крымскому мосту запустили железнодорожное грузовое движение [Railway freight traffic launched on the Crimean Bridge]. Kommersant (in Russian). 30 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
- "Железная дорога Крымского моста построена с расчетом на дальнейшую электрификацию". ТАСС. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "Крымский мост за полдня работы побил абсолютный рекорд переправы". Interfax.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "Фуры ушли на мост: что ждет Керченскую паромную переправу". РИА Новости Крым (in Russian). 1 October 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "Почти пять миллионов машин уже пересекли Крымский мост". Газета.Ru (in Russian). Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "5 млн транспортных средств пересекли Крымский мост за год работы". Interfax-Russia.ru (in Russian). 15 May 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "Что изменилось в Крыму с открытием моста". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "Крымский мост установил новый суточный рекорд трафика: больше 33 тыс. машин". Interfax-Russia.ru (in Russian). 13 August 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "На Крымском мосту зафиксировали рекордный трафик". РБК. 13 August 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "Аксенов: пуск железнодорожной части Крымского моста снизит цены в регионе на ряд товаров". ТАСС. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Lourie, Richard (26 October 2018), "Putin's bridge over troubled waters", The Globe and Mail
- Choursina, Kateryna (25 July 2018), Ukraine Complains Russia Is Using New Crimea Bridge to Disrupt Shipping, Bloomberg
- Marex (30 August 2018), The U.S. Accuses Russia of Harassing Ukrainian Shipping, The Maritime Executive
- Klimenko, Andrey (18 September 2018), Bulk carrier had to cut off mast to pass under illegal Kerch Strait Bridge, The Maritime Executive
- "Ukraine–Russia clash: MPs back martial law". BBC News. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Ukraine accuses Russia of firing on its ships near Crimea", The Irish Times, 25 November 2018, retrieved 6 October 2019
- "Ancient Greek artifact unearthed at Crimean bridge construction site", tass, 22 March 2017, retrieved 22 March 2017
- MacFarquhar, Neil; Nechepurenko, Ivan (11 November 2017). "Putin's Bridge to Crimea May Carry More Symbolism Than Traffic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crimean Bridge.|
Vasco da Gama Bridge
| Europe’s longest bridge
2018 – present
South overpass of the
Western High-Speed Diameter
| Russia’s longest bridge|
2018 – present1
| Europe’s longest railway bridge|
2019 – present
| Russia’s longest railway bridge|
2019 – present
|Notes and references|
|1. Longest bridge built by Russia, but whether longest in Russia depends on one's stance in the Crimean dispute.|