Southern Federal District

The Southern Federal District (Russian: Южный федеральный округ, IPA: [ˈjuʐnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its territory lies mostly on the Pontic–Caspian steppe of Southern Russia. The Southern Federal District shares borders with Ukraine, the Azov Sea, and the Black Sea in the west, and Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea in the east.[6]

Southern Federal District
Южный федеральный округ
Location of the Southern Federal District. Crimea, whose annexation by Russia from Ukraine is mostly unrecognized internationally, shown in orange.
Location of the Southern Federal District. Crimea, whose annexation by Russia from Ukraine is mostly unrecognized internationally, shown in orange.
Coordinates: 47°14′N 39°43′E / 47.233°N 39.717°E / 47.233; 39.717
Country Russia
Established13 May 2000[2]
Administrative centreRostov-on-Don
 • Presidential EnvoyVladimir Ustinov
 • Total447,900 km2 (172,900 sq mi)
 • Rank7th
 • Total16,319,253[1]
 • Rank4th
 • Density33.1/km2 (86/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
 • Total 9.816 trillion
US$ 140 billion (2022)
 • Per capita₽ 588,461
US$ 8,419 (2022)
Federal constituent entity6 contained
Economic regions1 contained
HDI (2021)0.799[5]
high · 6th
Southern Federal District is located in European Russia
Southern Federal District
Southern Federal District
Southern Federal District in Russia



The Southern Federal District was originally called the North Caucasian Federal District when it was founded on 13 May 2000, but was renamed for political reasons on 21 June 2000. On 19 January 2010, the Southern Federal District was split in two, with its former southern territories forming a new North Caucasian Federal District.[7]

On 28 July 2016, Crimean Federal District (which contains the Republic of Crimea and the Federal city of Sevastopol) was abolished and merged into Southern Federal District in order to "improve the governance".[8] Crimean Federal District was established on 21 March 2014 after the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation.[9] The federal district includes both the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol, both recognized as part of Ukraine by most of the international community. Ukraine considers the area, along with the areas of Luhansk People's Republic, the Donetsk People's Republic, Kherson Oblast and Zaporizhzhia Oblast, as temporarily occupied territories.[10][11] Its population was 13,854,334 (62.4% urban) according to the 2010 Census,[1] living in an area of 420,900 square kilometers (162,500 sq mi).[3]


Population pyramid of the Southern Federal District at the 2021 Russian Census

Federal constituent entities


An official government translation of the constitution of Russia from Russian to English uses the term "constituent entities of the Russian Federation". For example, Article 5 reads: "The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."[12] A translation provided by Garant-Internet instead uses the term "subjects of the Russian Federation".[13]

Tom Fennell, a translator, told the 2008 American Translators Association conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" is a better translation than "subject".[14] This was supported by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department at Goltsblat BLP, saying in a 2011 presentation at a translators conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[15]

# Flag Coat of Arms Constituent entities Area in km2[3] Population Capital/administrative center Map of Administrative Division
1     Republic of Adygea 7,800 496,934 Maykop  
2     Astrakhan Oblast 49,000 960,142 Astrakhan  
3     Republic of Kalmykia 74,700 267,133 Elista  
4     Krasnodar Krai 75,500 5,838,273 Krasnodar  
5     Rostov Oblast 101,000 4,200,729 Rostov-on-Don  
6     Volgograd Oblast 112,900 2,500,781 Volgograd  
Disputed territories
A     Republic of Crimea[a] 26,100 1,934,630 Simferopol  
-     Donetsk People's Republic[b] 26,517 4,100,280 Donetsk  
-     Kherson Oblast[b] 28,461 1,016,707 Henichesk  
-     Lugansk People's Republic[b] 26,684 2,121,322 Lugansk  
B     City of Sevastopol[a] 900 547,820 Sevastopol  
-     Zaporozhye Oblast[b] 27,183 1,638,462 Melitopol  
  1. ^ a b Annexed by Russia in 2014; recognized internationally as a part of Ukraine.
  2. ^ a b c d Annexed by Russia in 2022; recognized internationally as a part of Ukraine.

Ethnic groups


Ethnic composition, according to the 2010 census: Total - 13 854 334 people.

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth in the Southern Federal District, 1990–2021[16][17]

Presidential plenipotentiary envoys



  1. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  2. ^ Putin, V. (May 13, 2000). "Указ Президента Российской Федерации о полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе" [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in the Federal District] (in Russian). Retrieved June 27, 2024 – via Wikisource.
  3. ^ a b c "1.1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ в 2014 г." [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators – 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  4. ^ Валовой региональный продукт по субъектам Российской Федерации в 2016-2022 гг.,
  5. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  6. ^ "Southern Federal District, Russia Guide".
  7. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  8. ^ "Крымский федеральный округ включен в состав Южного федерального округа" (in Russian). Interfax. July 28, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  9. ^ "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014.
  10. ^ Law about occupied territories of Ukraine. Mirror Weekly. 15 May 2014
  11. ^ Higher educational institutions at the temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine will not work – the minister of education. Newsru. 1 October 2014
  12. ^ "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Government of the Russian Federation. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  13. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Garant-Internet. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  14. ^ Knizhnik, Irina (2009). "On legal terminology, the jury is still out" (PDF). SlavFile. 18 (1). Slavic Languages Division, American Translators Association: 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  15. ^ Nekrasova, Tamara (2011). "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" (PDF). Eulita. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  16. ^ "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  17. ^ "Ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении" [Life expectancy at birth]. Unified Interdepartmental Information and Statistical System of Russia (in Russian). Retrieved June 1, 2022.
Federal districts of Russia
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