Conte II Cabinet

The Conte II Cabinet was the 66th cabinet of the Italian Republic and the second cabinet led by Giuseppe Conte.[1][2][3] The government was sworn in on 5 September 2019.[4]

Conte II Cabinet
Flag of Italy.svg
66th Cabinet of Italy
Giuseppe Conte Quirinale (cropped).jpg
Date formed5 September 2019 (2019-09-05)
Date dissolved13 February 2021 (2021-02-13) (528 days)
People and organisations
Head of stateSergio Mattarella
Head of governmentGiuseppe Conte
No. of ministers21 (incl. Prime Minister)
Ministers removed3 resigned
Total no. of members24
Member partiesM5S, PD, LeU (Art.1SI),
IV (18 September 2019–14 January 2021)
Status in legislatureCoalition government
Opposition partiesLega, FI, FdI,
IV (since 14 January 2021)
History
Election(s)2018 election
Legislature term(s)XVIII Legislature (2018–present)
Incoming formation2019 government formation
PredecessorConte I Cabinet
SuccessorDraghi Cabinet

The cabinet is supported by the anti-establishment Five Star Movement (M5S) and the centre-left Democratic Party (PD), along with the leftist parliamentary group Free and Equal (LeU). On 17 September, the centrist party Italia Viva (IV), which splintered from the PD on that day, announced its support for the coalition, as well.

The government has been referred to as the "yellow-red government" (governo giallorosso), based on the customary colours of the main supporting parties.[5][6][7]

The Conte II Cabinet is the one with the lowest average age of its members in the history of the Italian Republic.[8]

On 13 January 2021, after weeks of disagreements within the government coalition, the two ministers of IV resigned from their posts. Having lost the full support of one of the parties forming the government, Prime Minister Conte resigned on 26 January 2021.[9][10][11]

Supporting partiesEdit

Beginning of termEdit

At the time of the government formation, its ministers and other members were part of the following three parties.

Party Position Main ideology Leader
Five Star Movement (M5S) Big tent Populism Luigi Di Maio
Democratic Party (PD) Centre-left Social democracy Nicola Zingaretti
Free and Equal (LeU)[a] Left-wing Democratic socialism Several leaders
  1. ^ Political alliance between Article One (led by Roberto Speranza) and Italian Left (led by Claudio Grassi).

The government also obtained the support of the Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE), and one of its senators, Ricardo Merlo, was appointed as undersecretary in the cabinet.[12] The government received also the external support of the following minor parties: Popular Civic List (CP), the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), Italy in Common (IiC), the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) and the Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT).[13][14]

2019–2021Edit

From 18 September 2019 to 13 January 2021, the government ministers and other members were from the following four parties.

Party Position Main ideology Leader
Five Star Movement (M5S) Big tent Populism Vito Crimi (acting)
Democratic Party (PD) Centre-left Social democracy Nicola Zingaretti
Italia Viva (IV) Centre Liberalism Matteo Renzi
Free and Equal (LeU)[a] Left-wing Democratic socialism Several leaders
  1. ^ Political alliance between Article One (led by Roberto Speranza) and Italian Left (led by Nicola Fratoianni).

On 17 September, former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi led a breakaway group outside the PD and formed Italia Viva, which confirmed its support to the government.[15]

End of termEdit

At the time of its resignation, the government ministers and other members are from the following three parties.

Party Position Main ideology Leader
Five Star Movement (M5S) Big tent Populism Vito Crimi (acting)
Democratic Party (PD) Centre-left Social democracy Nicola Zingaretti
Free and Equal (LeU)[a] Left-wing Democratic socialism Several leaders
  1. ^ Political alliance between Article One (led by Roberto Speranza) and Italian Left (led by Nicola Fratoianni).

On 13 January, former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi announced the withdrawal of his party’s support to the cabinet.[16]

HistoryEdit

BackgroundEdit

 
Conte with President Sergio Mattarella at the Quirinal Palace in August 2019

After the 2018 general election the Five Star Movement (M5S), which had come first in the election, and the League agreed to form a coalition government led by Giuseppe Conte, the Conte I Cabinet.

In August 2019, Matteo Salvini, Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the League, announced a motion of no confidence against the government, after growing tensions within the majority. Salvini's move came right after a vote in the Senate regarding the progress of the Turin–Lyon high-speed railway, in which the League, along with the largest opposition parties, voted against an attempt of the M5S to block the construction works.[17] Many political analysts believe the no confidence motion was an attempt to force early elections to improve his party's standing in Parliament, due to its increasing support in opinion polls, ensuring Salvini could become the next Prime Minister.[18] On 20 August, following the parliamentary debate in which Conte harshly accused Salvini of being a political opportunist who "had triggered the political crisis only to serve his personal interest",[19] the Prime Minister tendered his resignation to President Sergio Mattarella.[20]

Government formationEdit

On 21 August, Mattarella started consultations with parliamentary groups. On the same day, the national board of the Democratic Party (PD) officially and unanimously opened to the prospect of a cabinet with the M5S,[19] based on pro-Europeanism, green economy, sustainable development, fight against economic inequality and a new immigration policy.[21] However, the talks resulted in a unclear outcome, the President announced a second round of consultations starting on 27 August.[22]

Negotiations between PD and M5S started,[23] while Free and Equal (LeU), a left-wing parliamentary group, announced its support too.[24] On 28 August, PD's leader Nicola Zingaretti announced at the Quirinal Palace his favourable position on forming a new government with the Five Stars with Conte at its head.[25] On same day, Mattarella summoned Conte to the Quirinal Palace for 29 August to give him the task of forming a new cabinet.[26] On 3 September, M5S members voted through the so-called "Rousseau Platform" in favor of an agreement with the PD, with Conte Prime Minister, with more than 79% of the vote out of nearly 80,000 voters.[27]

 
The government at the Quirinal Palace for the oath

On 4 September Conte announced the ministers of this new cabinet, which was sworn in on the following day.[28] At its start, the government was composed of 21 ministers, 14 men and 7 women, a majority of whom are from Southern Italy.[29][30]

Investiture votesEdit

On 9 September 2019 the Chamber of Deputies approved the government with 343 votes in favour, 263 against and 3 abstentions.[31][32] On the following day the Senate followed suit, with 169 in favour, 133 against and 5 abstentions.[33][34]

9–10 September 2019
Investiture votes for Conte II Cabinet
House of Parliament Vote Parties Votes
Chamber of Deputies
(Present: 609[a] of 630,
Majority: 304)
 Y Yes M5S (208), PD (109), LeU (14), CPAPPSIAC (4), +EuCD (3), Others (5)
343 / 609
 N No Lega (121), FI (95), FdI (33), NcIUSEI (4), Others (10)
263 / 609
Abstention SVPPATT (3)
3 / 609
Senate of the Republic
(Present: 307[b] of 321,
Majority: 152)
 Y Yes M5S (104), PD (49), Aut (4), LeU (4), Others (8)
169 / 307
 N No Lega (57), FI (56), FdI (18), +Eu (1), Others (1)
133 / 307
Abstention Aut (3), M5S (1), PD (1)
5 / 307
  1. ^ Absent (16): FI (4), Lega (3), M5S (3), PD (2), FdI (1), Others (3)
    On institutional leave (4): M5S (4)
  2. ^ Absent (8): FI (5), M5S (1), Others (2)
    On institutional leave (5): M5S (1), PD (1), Lega (1), Aut (1), Others (1)
    President (1)

Italia Viva and M5S crisesEdit

In September 2019 former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi lead a split from the PD, and formed a party called Italia Viva. The new party had two ministers (Teresa Bellanova and Elena Bonetti) and one undersecretary, and kept its support for the Conte II government.[35]

In December 2019 the Minister of Education and Research, Lorenzo Fioramonti, resigned after disagreements with the rest of the cabinet regarding the recently approved 2020 budget bill. Fioramonti considered the share of funds dedicated to education and research to be insufficient.[36] For the designation of the new Minister, Prime Minister Conte decided to split the Ministry of Education, University and Research into two. The Ministry of Public Education went to the former undersecretary Lucia Azzolina (M5S), whereas the Ministry of University and Research went to the dean of the University of Naples Federico II, Gaetano Manfredi (Ind).[37]

In January 2020, the Five Star Movement suffered multiple parliamentary defections and a sizeable decrease in popularity with respect to the 2018 elections.[38] Luigi Di Maio resigned from his position as M5S political leader, retaining his position as foreign minister.[39]

Coronavirus outbreakEdit

In February 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to northern Italian regions. In a few weeks, it spread to the rest of the country, with major concentration of cases in the regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont and Veneto. The government faced the subsequent health crisis by imposing gradually stricter measures of social distancing and quarantine, until a nationwide lockdown was imposed on 9 March, restricting the movement of people except for reasons of necessity, health, or work.[40][41]

January 2021 political crisisEdit

On 13 January 2021, after weeks of disagreements between IV and the rest of the government regarding the handling of the Next Generation EU funds, all three cabinet members of IV (Minister of Agriculture Teresa Bellanova, Minister of Family Elena Bonetti and Undersecretary for Economy Ivan Scalfarotto) resigned from their posts.

Having lost the full support of one of the parties forming the government, Prime Minister Conte narrowly won a confidence vote at the Senate with a 156–140 tally, including 16 abstension votes from the IV senators, falling short of the absolute majority of 161 votes.[42]

Due to that, and unable to find enough votes in Parliament to move ahead with the current government, on 26 January 2021 Conte tended his resignations to President Sergio Mattarella, who asked him to stay in office to handle current affairs (as is customary in Italian politics).[9][10][11]

Party breakdownEdit

Beginning of termEdit

MinistersEdit

9
9
1
3

Ministers and other membersEdit

2019–2021Edit

MinistersEdit

9
7
2
1
4

Ministers and other membersEdit

End of termEdit

MinistersEdit

9
7
1
4

Ministers and other membersEdit

Geographical breakdownEdit

Beginning of termEdit

 
A choropleth map showing the number of ministers from each region.

2019–2021Edit

End of termEdit

Council of MinistersEdit

The Council of Ministers is composed of the following members:[43][1][2]

Office Name Party Term
Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte Independent[a] 2019–2021
Minister of Foreign Affairs Luigi Di Maio Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Minister of the Interior Luciana Lamorgese Independent 2019–2021
Minister of Justice Alfonso Bonafede Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Minister of Defence Lorenzo Guerini Democratic Party 2019–2021
Minister of Economy and Finance Roberto Gualtieri Democratic Party 2019–2021
Minister of Economic Development Stefano Patuanelli Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Minister of Agriculture Teresa Bellanova Democratic Party / Italia Viva 2019–2021
Minister of the Environment Sergio Costa Independent[a] 2019–2021
Minister of Infrastructure and Transport Paola De Micheli Democratic Party 2019–2021
Minister of Labour and Social Policies Nunzia Catalfo Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Minister of Education, University and Research Lorenzo Fioramonti Five Star Movement 2019
Lucia Azzolina (Public Education) Five Star Movement 2020–2021
Gaetano Manfredi (University and Research) Independent 2020–2021
Minister of Cultural Heritage and Activities Dario Franceschini Democratic Party 2019–2021
Minister of Health Roberto Speranza Free and Equal (Art.1) 2019–2021
Minister for Parliamentary Relations Federico D'Incà Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Minister of Public Administration Fabiana Dadone Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Minister of Regional Affairs Francesco Boccia Democratic Party 2019–2021
Minister for the South Giuseppe Provenzano Democratic Party 2019–2021
Minister for Family and Equal Opportunities Elena Bonetti Democratic Party / Italia Viva 2019–2021
Minister of European Affairs Vincenzo Amendola Democratic Party 2019–2021
Minister for Sport and Youth Policies Vincenzo Spadafora Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Minister for Technological Innovation Paola Pisano Five Star Movement 2019–2021
Secretary of the Council of Ministers Riccardo Fraccaro Five Star Movement 2019–2021
  1. ^ a b Proposed by the Five Star Movement.

CompositionEdit

Office Portrait Name Term of office Party
Prime Minister   Giuseppe Conte 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Independent
Undersecretaries
  • Mario Turco (M5S) – Delegated to Economic Planning and Investment
  • Andrea Martella (PD) – Delegated to Publishing and Information
  • Pietro Benassi (Ind.) – Delegated to Information and Security (since 22 January 2021)
Minister of Foreign Affairs   Luigi Di Maio 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Deputy Ministers
Undersecretaries
Minister of the Interior   Luciana Lamorgese 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Independent
Deputy Ministers
Undersecretaries
Minister of Justice   Alfonso Bonafede 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Undersecretaries
Minister of Defence   Lorenzo Guerini 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Democratic Party
Undersecretaries
Minister of Economy and Finance   Roberto Gualtieri 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Democratic Party
Deputy Ministers
Undersecretaries
Minister of Economic Development   Stefano Patuanelli 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Deputy Minister
Undersecretaries
Minister of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies   Teresa Bellanova 5 September 2019 – 14 January 2021[b]
Italia Viva
Before 18 September 2019:
Democratic Party
  Giuseppe Conte
(Acting)
14 January 2021 – 13 February 2021 Independent
Undersecretaries
Minister of the Environment   sergio Costa 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Independent
Undersecretaries
Minister of Infrastructure and Transport   Paola De Micheli 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Democratic Party
Deputy Minister
Undersecretaries
Minister of Labour and Social Policies   Nunzia Catalfo 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Undersecretaries
Minister of Education, University and Research[c]   Lorenzo Fioramonti 5 September 2019 – 30 December 2019[d] Five Star Movement
  Giuseppe Conte
(Acting)
30 December 2019 – 10 January 2020 Independent
Deputy Minister
Undersecretaries
Minister of Public Education[c]   Lucia Azzolina 10 January 2020 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Deputy Minister
Undersecretary
Minister of University and Research[c]   Gaetano Manfredi 10 January 2020 – 13 February 2021 Independent
Minister of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism   Dario Franceschini 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Democratic Party
Undersecretaries
Minister of Health   Roberto Speranza 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Free and Equal
(Art.1)
Deputy Minister
Undersecretaries
Minister for Parliamentary Relations
(without portfolio)
  Federico D'Incà 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Undersecretaries
Minister of Public Administration
(without portfolio)
  Fabiana Dadone 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Minister of Regional Affairs and Autonomies
(without portfolio)
  Francesco Boccia 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Democratic Party
Minister for the South
(without portfolio)
  Giuseppe Provenzano 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Democratic Party
Minister for Family and Equal Opportunities
(without portfolio)
  Elena Bonetti 5 September 2019 – 14 January 2021[e] Italia Viva
Before 18 September 2019:
Democratic Party
  Giuseppe Conte
(Acting)
14 January 2021 – 13 February 2021 Independent
Minister of European Affairs
(without portfolio)
  Vincenzo Amendola 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Democratic Party
Undersecretaries
Minister for Sport and Youth Policies
(without portfolio)
  Vincenzo Spadafora 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Minister for Technological Innovation
(without portfolio)
  Paola Pisano 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
Secretary of the Council of Ministers
(Undersecretary to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers)
  Riccardo Fraccaro 5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021 Five Star Movement
  1. ^ Scalfarotto resigned during a press conference in which Matteo Renzi, leader of Italia Viva, withdrew his support to the government.
  2. ^ Bellanova resigned during a press conference in which Matteo Renzi, leader of Italia Viva, withdrew his support to the government.
  3. ^ a b c On 28 December 2019, after the resignation of former Minister of Education, University and Research, Lorenzo Fioramonti, the prime minister split the Ministry into a Ministry of Public Education and a Ministry of University and Research.
  4. ^ Fioramonti resigned after disagreements on the 2020 financial budget bill. According to Fioramonti, the approved bill allocated insufficient funds for education and research.
  5. ^ Bonetti resigned during a press conference in which Matteo Renzi, leader of Italia Viva, withdrew his support to the government.

ReferencesEdit

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  9. ^ a b Johnson, Miles (26 January 2021). "Italy's PM Conte resigns as government crisis intensifies". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  10. ^ a b "Italy's PM Conte to resign on Tuesday, hopes to form new government". Italy's PM Conte to resign on Tuesday, hopes to form new government. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
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  12. ^ Riccardo Merlo (MAIE) confermato sottosegretario agli steri
  13. ^ La Camera vota la fiducia con 343 sì, il premier replica alla Camera fra le proteste. Alzata anche una sedia
  14. ^ Governo, il Conte bis incassa la fiducia alla Camera. Il discorso del premier
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External linksEdit