The Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis, designated by siglum Dea or 05 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 5 (von Soden), is a codex of the New Testament dating from the 5th century written in an uncial hand on vellum. It contains, in both Greek and Latin, most of the four Gospels and Acts, with a small fragment of 3 John. Written one column per page, the codex contains 406 extant parchment leaves (from perhaps an original 534) measuring 26 x 21.5 cm, with the Greek text on the left face and the Latin text on the right. A digital facsimile of the codex is available from Cambridge University Library, which holds the manuscript.
|New Testament manuscript|
A sample of the Greek text from the Codex Bezae
|Text||Gospels and Acts of Apostles|
|Now at||University of Cambridge|
|Size||26 × 21.5 cm (10.2 × 8.5 in)|
The first three lines of each book are in red letters, and black and red ink alternate the title of books. As many as eleven people (G, A, C, B, D, E, H, F, J1, L, K) have corrected the manuscript between the sixth and twelfth centuries. The text is written colometrically and is full of hiatus. The Greek text of the codex has some copying errors, e.g., errors of metathesis: in John 1:3, ΕΓΕΝΕΤΟ was changed into ΕΝΕΓΕΤΟ; in Acts 1:9, ΥΠΕΛΑΒΕΝ into ΥΠΕΒΑΛΕΝ.
Some from the nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated form: ΙΗΣ (Ιησους), ΧΡΣ (Χριστος), ΠΑΡ (πατηρ), ΣΤΗ (σταυρωθη), but not for μητερ, υιος, σωτηρ, ανθρωπος, ουρανος, δαυιδ, Ισραηλ, Ιηρουσαλημ, which are written fully.
The manuscript is believed to have been repaired at Lyon in the ninth century, as revealed by a distinctive ink used for supplementary pages. It was closely guarded for many centuries in the monastic library of St Irenaeus at Lyon. The manuscript was consulted, perhaps in Italy, for disputed readings at the Council of Trent, and was at about the same time collated for Stephanus's edition of the Greek New Testament. During the upheavals of the Wars of Religion in the 16th century, when textual analysis had a new urgency among the Reformation's Protestants, the manuscript was stolen from the monastic library in Lyon when French Huguenots ransacked the library in 1562. It was delivered to the Protestant scholar Theodore Beza, the friend and successor of Calvin, who gave it in 1581 to the University of Cambridge, in the comparative security of England, which accounts for its double name. It remains in the Cambridge University Library (Nn. II 41).
John Mill collated and Johann Jakob Wettstein transcribed (1716) the text of the codex. Both did their editions of the Greek Testament, but both did their work carelessly. A much better collation was made about 1732 by John Dickinson.
The University of Cambridge in 1787 appointed Dr Thomas Kipling to edit a facsimile edition which appeared in two volumes in 1793.
The importance of the Codex Bezae is such that a colloquium held at Lunel, Hérault in the south of France in 27–30 June 1994 was entirely devoted to it. Papers discussed the many questions it poses to our understanding of the use of the Gospels and Acts in early Christianity, and of the text of the New Testament.
The manuscript presents the gospels in the Western order Matthew, John, Luke and Mark, of which only Luke is complete; after some missing pages the manuscript picks up with the Third Epistle of John (in Latin) and contains part of Acts.
- Matthew 1:1-20, 6:20-9:2, 27:2-12; John 1:16-3:26; Acts 8:29-10:14, 21:2-10, 21:16-18, 22:10-20, 22:29-End
- Omitted verses
- Matthew 5:20; 5:30; 9:34; 10:37b; 10:41b; 21:44; 23:14
- Mark 15:28
- Luke 5:39; 12:21; 19:25; 23–34; 24:5; 24:12; 24:40
- John 5:4
- Supplementations (by a later hand)
- Matthew 3:7-16; Mark 16:15-20; John 18:14-20:13
The Greek text is unique, with many interpolations found nowhere else, with a few remarkable omissions, and a capricious tendency to rephrase sentences. Aside from this one Greek manuscript it is found in Old Latin (pre-Vulgate) versions — as seen in the Latin here — and in Syriac, and Armenian versions. Bezae is the principal Greek representative of the Western text-type. The manuscript demonstrates the latitude in the manuscript tradition that could still be found in the 5th and 6th centuries, the date of this codex.
There is no consensus on the many problems the Greek text presents. Since the Latin text occasionally agrees with Codices Bobiensis and Vercellensis against all others, it "preserves an ancient form of the Old Latin", and is a witness to a text which was current no later than 250 CE. Issues of conformity have dogged the usage of the Codex Bezae in biblical scholarship. "In general the Greek text is treated as an unreliable witness," but it is "an important corroborating witness wherever it agrees with other early manuscripts."
Some of the outstanding features: Matthew 16:2b–3 is present and not marked as doubtful or spurious. One of the longer endings of Mark is given. Luke 22:43f and Pericope de adultera are present and not marked as spurious or doubtful. John 5:4 is omitted, and the text of Acts is nearly 8% longer than the generally received text.
Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis contains some extraordinary readings. Below is a comprehensive enumeration of those readings, with text and translation.
Gospel of MatthewEdit
Matthew 3:16 reads καταβαίνοντα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὡς περιστερὰν (descending out of heaven like a dove) with it vgmss syr(h)
Matthew 5:11 reads ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης (for the sake of righteousness) with itmss
Matthew 5:19 omits text ὃς δʼ ἂν ποιήσῃ καὶ διδάξῃ, οὗτος μέγας κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν (but whoever will do [them] and should teach [them], the same will be called great in the kingdom of the heavens) with א* W copboms
Matthew 5:20 is omitted.
Matthew 5:30 is omitted, as in itd vgms syrs copboms
Matthew 5:32 omits text καὶ ὃς ἐὰν ἀπολελυμένην γαμήσῃ, μοιχᾶται (and whoever should marry her who is divorced, he commits adultery) with ita,b,d,k Origenmss
- ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς א B f1 22 279 660* 1192 2786* itk syrs,c copsa,bo Codex Schøyen Irenaeuslat Origen Cyprian
- ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν ευλογειτε τους καταρωμενους υμας, καλως ποιειτε τοις μισουσιν υμας, καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν επηρεαζοντων υμας, καὶ διωκόντων ὑμᾶς D L W Δ Θ 047 f13 33 118 700 892 Byz lat syrp,h,pal mae-1 goth Clement Eusebius
- πρόσευξαι τῷ πατρί σου ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ (shut the door and pray to your Father in secret) D f1 f13 700 syrs,c copbomss
- πρόσευξαι τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ (shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret) Byzantine and Alexandrian mss., all other mss. (rell)
- ἀνοῖξαι τὸ στόμα (open your mouth) D ith
- αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν (ask him) Byzantine and Alexandrian mss., rell
- Λεββαῖος (Lebbaeus) D itk,μ Origenlat
- Θαδδαῖος (Thaddeus) א B 124 788 892 2211 f13mss 17 130 892 itaur,c,ff1l vg cosa,bo Codex Schøyen
- Λεββαῖος ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Θαδδαῖος (Lebbaeus, he called Thaddeus) C2 L W X Δ Θ f1 f13mss 22 33 565 579 700 Byz itf syrp,h,pal arm
- Judas Zelotes (Judas the Zealot) ita,b,g1,h, q
- omitted in syrs which instead reads Judas the son of James as in Luke 6:16 and Acts 1:13
Matthew 10:11 omits text ἢ κώμην (or village) with f1 700 ita,b,d,ff1,h,k syrs
Matthew 10:14 omits text τῆς οἰκίας ἢ (that house or) with arm
Matthew 10:18 reads ἐπὶ ἡγεμόνων σταθήσεσθε (before governors ye shall be caused to stand) with 0171 itmss syrs
Matthew 10:37b (καὶ ὁ φιλῶν υἱὸν ἢ θυγατέρα ὑπὲρ ἐμὲ οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος = and the person loving their son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me) is omitted, as in 19 B* 983 syrh Codex Schøyen and the Hebrew Shem Tov Matthew manuscript.
Matthew 10:41b (καὶ ὁ δεχόμενος δίκαιον εἰς ὄνομα δικαίου μισθὸν δικαίου λήμψεται = and the one who receives a righteous person as a righteous person will receive a righteous person's reward) is omitted.
- Ἰησοῦ (Jesus) D 047 0233 7 99 262 348 349 483 484 517 659 954 1071 1424 1579 1604 syrc Origen
- Χριστοῦ (Christ) all other mss. (rell)
- ἐργαζόμενος (Are you the one who is to labor) D*
- ἐρχόμενος (Are you the one who is to come) rell
Matthew 11:5 omits text καὶ χωλοὶ περιπατοῦσιν (and the lame are walking)
- ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ περισσεύματος τῆς καρδίας τὸ στόμα λαλεῖ ἀγαθὰ (for out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks good) D* itd
- ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ περισσεύματος τῆς καρδίας τὸ στόμα λαλεῖ (for out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks) all other mss. (rell)
- ἵνα βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσιν καὶ ἀκούοντες μὴ ἀκούσωσιν καὶ μὴ συνῶσιν, μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν (so that while seeing, they should not see; and while hearing, they should not hear; and they should not perceive, lest they should turn back) D Θ f1 f13 22 it syrs,c (Eusebius)
- ὅτι βλέποντες οὐ βλέπωσιν καὶ ἀκούοντες οὐκ ἀκούουσιν οὐδὲ συνίουσιν (that while seeing, they should not see; and while hearing, they should not hear, nor are they perceiving) Byz rell
- ἵνα βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσιν καὶ ἀκούοντες μὴ ἀκούσωσιν μηδὲ συνῶσιν (so that while seeing, they should not see; and while hearing, they should not hear, nor should they perceive) 1424 itff1 cosa mae-1
- text omitted by Codex Schøyen
Matthew 13:14 adds text (begins passage) Πορεύθητι, καὶ εἰπὲ τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ (Go, and tell the people this) with itmss mae-1 Eusebius
- ἐλάλησεν (he spoke) D L* N O Θ f1mss f13 517 1424 1675 ita,b,c,d,e,f,ff2,h,k,q (syrs,c)
- παρέθηκεν (he put before them) all other mss. (rell)
Matthew 13:33 omits text ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς (he spoke to them) with itd,(k) syrs,c Codex Schøyen
- κόσμου (cosmos) D
- αἰῶνος τούτου (this age) N cosams,bo
- αἰῶνος (age) all other mss. (rell)
- Ἰωάννης (John) 103vid(?) א* D M U Γ 2 28 579 1424 Byzmss vgmss Origenpt
- Ἰωσῆς (Joses) 103vid(?) K L W Δ Π 0106 f13 22 565 1241 1582mg Byzmss itk,qc cosa,bomss Basil
- Ἰωσῆ (Joses) 118 157 700* 1071 syrh cobomss
- Ἰωσὴφ (Joseph) א2 B C N Θ f1 33 700c 892 lat syrs,c,hmg mae-1 Codex Schøyen cobomss Origenpt
Matthew 14:2 reads οὗτος ἐστιν Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής ὃν ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα (This is John the Baptist who I beheaded) with ita,b,ff1,h vgmss
Matthew 14:3 omits text Φιλίππου (of Philip) with itmss vgmss Augustine
Matthew 14:8 omits text ἐπὶ πίνακι (on a platter)
Matthew 14:27 omits text ὀ Ἰησοῦς (Jesus) with א* and 073 892 itff1 syrc cosa,bo Eusebius
- οὐκ ἔξεστιν (it is not licit) D itmss syrs,c Origen
- οὐκ ἐστιν (it is not) 1293 Tertullian Eusebius
- οὐκ καλὸν ἐστιν (right it is not) 544 1010 geo
- οὐκ ἔστιν καλὸν (it is not right) all other mss. (rell)
Matthew 15:28 omits text ὁ Ἰησοῦς (Jesus) with Γ syrs,c cosamss
Matthew 15:30 omits text κωφούς (mute)
Matthew 15:30 adds text πάντας to read and he healed them all with itmss cosamss,boms
Matthew 15:32 (D*) omits text μήποτε ἐκλυθῶσιν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ (lest they should faint in the way)
- Μαγαδάν (Magadan) א* B D
- Μαγεδάν (Magedan) א2 Δlat latmss syrs,c,(p) cosa Eusebius
- Μαγδαλάν (Magdalan) C N W 33 565 579 itq mae-1 cobo
- Μαγδαλά (Magdala) L Δgr Θ f1 f13 22 892 Byz syrh
Matthew 16:4 omits text καὶ μοιχαλὶς (and adulterous) with itmss
- τῆς ζύμης (the leaven) D Θ f13mss 124* 173 565 788 803 1058 1331 2145c 2295 2315 ita,b,d,ff2 syrs arm geomss Codex Schøyen
- τῶν ἄρτων (the bread loaves) f1 517 1424 1478* 1675, ite Origenpt
- τῆς ζύμης τῶν ἄρτων (the leaven of the bread loaves) א2 B K* L 157 176 372 375(c) 805 892 954 1009 1241 1273c 1295c 1446 1478c 1500c 2585 2605 2737 itaur,g1,l vg co Origenpt Jerome
- τῆς ζύμης τοῦ ἄρτου (the leaven of the bread loaf) C Kc W X Π Γ Δ f13mss 22 124c 387c 700 1500* 2145* Byz itc,f,q syrp,h cosams cobomss geomss Chrysostom
- τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων (the leaven of the Pharisees and the Sadducees) א* 30 (387*) (722) 785 1093 1279 1402 2297 2714 itff1 syrc
- τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων (the leaven of the Pharisees) 33 1295*
Matthew 16:16 reads ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ σῴζοντος (the son of the saving God) against all other mss.
- ἐπετίμησεν (rebuked) B* D ite syrc Origenmss
- διεστείλατο (ordered) all other mss. (rell)
- ὄρος ὑψηλὸν λίαν (very high mountain) D Eusebius
- ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατʼ ἰδίαν (high mountain by themselves) rell
- λευκὰ ὡς χιών (white as snow) D latmss syrc cobomss
- λευκὰ ὡς τὸ φῶς (white as the light) rell
Matthew 17:12b (οὕτως καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου μέλλει πάσχειν ὑπʼ αὐτῶν}} = So also the Son of Man is about to suffer at their hands) is transposed to follow Matthew 17:13, as in ita,b,c,d,e,ff1,ff2,g1,n,r1
- ἀπιστίαν (unbelief) C D L W Δ 1424 Byz latt syrs,p,h
- ὀλιγοπιστίαν (littleness of faith) א B Θ 0281 f1 f13 22 33 579 700 892 1192 2211 2680 syrc co Origen
- Verse included in א2 C D L W Δ f1 f13 22, 892mg Byz itmss vg syrp,h mae-1 cobomss arm Origen Basil
- Verse omitted in א* B Θ 0281 33 579 788 892* 1604 2680 ite,ff1 syrs,c,pal cosa,bomss Codex Schøyen geo
Matthew 17:26 omits text ὁ Πέτρος}} (Peter) with א B Θ 0281 f1 700 892* vgmss syrs cosa,bomss Chrysostom
Matthew 18:10 reads τῶν μικρῶν τούτων τῶν πιστευόντων εἰς ἐμέ}} (these little ones who believe in me) with itmss vgmss syrc cosamss
- Verse included in D G Lc,(mg) M W Δ Θc 078vid 1c 22 157 346 579 892c Byz lat syrc,p,h cobomss
- Verse omitted in א B L* Θ* f1 f13 9 33 146 556 837 892* 899* 929* 1294 1502 2317 2680 ite,ff1 syrs,pal cosa,bomss mae-1 Codex Schøyen geomss Origen Eusebius
Matthew 18:16 omits text μαρτύρων (witnesses)
Matthew 18:18 (D*) omits text ἔσται δεδεμένα ἐν οὐρανῷ, καὶ ὅσα ἐὰν λύσητε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς (will be bound in heaven, and whatever ye should loosen upon the earth) with itn
- καὶ ὃ ἀπολελυμένην γαμήσας μοιχᾶται (and who [ever] marries her who has been divorced commits adultery) B C* W Z Δ Θ 078 f1 f13 33 209mg 892 Byz itaur,c,f,q vg syrp,h cobo mae-1 Basil
- ὡσαύτως καὶ ὃ γαμῶν ἀπολελυμένην μοιχᾶται (so also who [ever] marries her who has been divorced commits adultery) 25
- text omitted by א C3 D L S 2* 69 209* 828 1241 ita,b,d,e,ff1,ff2,g1,h,l,r1 syrs,c cosa,boms Codex Schøyen Origen
- τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεὸς (Why are you calling me good? There is no one good, not one except God) C K W (Δ) f13 28 33 118 565 1071 1241 1582c Byz itf,q syrp,h cosa,boms Chrysostom Basil
- τί με ἐρωτᾷς περὶ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ; εἷς ἐστιν ὁ ἀγαθός (Why are you asking me about the good? One there is that is good) א B D L Θ f1 22 700 892 1192* 1424mg ita,d syrs,hmg mae-1 arm geo aeth Origen
- τί με ἐρωτᾷς περὶ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ; εἷς ἐστιν ὁ ἀγαθός ὁ θεὸς (Why are you asking me about the good? One there is that is good: God) lat syrc cobo mae
- τί με ἐρωτᾷς περὶ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ; οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεὸς (Why are you asking me about the good? No one is good, not one except God) Eusebius
- τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; εἷς ἐστιν ἀγαθός, ὁ πατὴρ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς (Why are you calling me good? One there is good: the Father in the heavens) Diatessaronmss Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Hippolytus
- τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; εἷς ἐστιν ἀγαθός, ὁ πατὴρ (Why are you calling me good? One there is good: the Father) Marcion it(e) (Clement)
Matthew 19:25 reads ἐξεπλήσσοντο καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν σφόδρα (they were astonished and they were afraid exceedingly) with itmss vgmss syrc
Matthew 19:29 omits text ἢ πατέρα (or their father) and text ἢ γυναῖκα (or their wife)
- πολλαπλασίονα (manifold) B L 579 cosa mae-1 Origen
- ἑκατονταπλασίονα (hundredfold) א C D W Δ Θ f1,13 33 Byz latt syr cobo Codex Schøyen Basil rell
Matthew 20:16 adds text πολλοὶ γὰρ εἰσιν κλητοί ὀλίγοι δὲ ἐκλεκτοὶ (for many are called, but few chosen) with C W Δ Θ f1,13 33 Byz latt syr mae-1 cobomss
Matthew 20:17 omits text μαθητὰς (disciples) with א L Θ f1,13 892* syrs,c cobo Codex Schøyen Origen
- καὶ τὸ βάπτισμα ὃ ἐγὼ βαπτίζομαι βαπτισθήσεσθε (and the baptism which I am baptized with ye will be baptized) C W X Δ Σ Φ f13mss 33 579 Byz itf,h,q syrp,h cobomss
- omit text — א B D L Z Θ 085 f1,13mss 22 lat syrs,c cosa,bomss mae-1 Codex Schøyen
ὑμεῖς δὲ ζητεῖτε ἐκ μικροῦ αὐξήσαι καὶ ἐκ μείζονος ἔλαττον εἶναι εἰσερχόμενοι δὲ καὶ παρακληθέντες δειπνῆσαι μὴ ἀνὰκλινεσθε εἷς τοὺς ἐξἔχοντας τόπους μήποτε ἐνδοξότερον σου ἐπέλθῃ καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ δειπνοκλήτωρ εἴπῃ σοι ἔτι κάτω χὼρει καὶ καταισχυνθήσῃ ἐὰν δὲ αναπεσής εἷς τόν ἥττονα τόπον καὶ ἐπέλθῃ σου ἥττων ἐρεῖ σοι ὁ δειπνοκλήτωρ σύναγε ἔτι ἄνω καὶ ἔσται σοι τοῦτο χρήσιμον
But seek to increase from that which is small, and to become less from that which is greater. When you enter into a house and are summoned to dine, do not sit down at the prominent places, lest perchance a man more honorable than you come in afterwards, and he who invited you come and say to you, "Go down lower"; and you shall be ashamed. But if you sit down in the inferior place, and one inferior to you come in, then he that invited you will say to you, "Go up higher"; and this will be advantageous for you.
In syrc the passage reads slightly different, perhaps making more intelligible sense. The Syriac reflects the following Greek text. Literal translation:
ὑμεῖς δὲ ζητεῖτε ἐκ μικροῦ αὐξήσαι καὶ μὴ ἐκ μείζονος ἔλαττον εἶναι εἰσερχόμενοι δὲ καὶ παρακληθέντες δειπνῆσαι μὴ ἀνὰκλινεσθε εἷς τοὺς ἐξἔχοντας τόπους μήποτε ἐνδοξότερον σου ἐπέλθῃ καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ δειπνοκλήτωρ εἴπῃ σοι ἔτι κάτω χὼρει καὶ καταισχυνθήσῃ ἐὰν δὲ αναπεσής εἷς τόν ἥττονα τόπον καὶ ἐπέλθῃ σου ἥσσων ἐρεῖ σοι ὁ δειπνοκλήτωρ σύναγε ἔτι ἄνω καὶ ἔσται σοι τοῦτο χρήσιμον
But seek ye to increase from the least, and not from the greater to become the lesser. Also, when ye enter and are invited to dine, do not recline in one of the distinguished places, lest one more honorable than you might come and, upon approaching the dinner host, you should be told, "Move further down," and you will be humiliated. But if you recline in the inferior place, and one lesser than you should come, the dinner host will tell you, "Come, be joined in yet higher," and this will be of benefit to you.
Matthew 20:30 omits text Κύριε (Lord) with א Θ f13 118 157 209 346 565 700 ita,b,c,d,e,ff1,ff2,h,n syrc,palms mae-1 Codex Schøyen
- τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ θεοῦ (the temple of God) C D W X Δ Σ Φ f1 22 69 124 174 346 983 Byz lat syr geomss Basil
- τὸ ἱερὸν (the temple) א B L Θ 0281vid f13, most minuscule mss., itb syrpal co Codex Schøyen arm geomss aeth
- Ἄρατε αὐτόν ποδῶν καὶ χειρῶν καὶ Βάλετε αὐτόν εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (Takepl him [by] his feet and his hands and castpl him into the outer darkness) D ita,b,c,d,e,ff1,ff2,h,q,r1 syrs,c Irenaeuslat Lucifer
- Δήσαντες αὐτοῦ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ἐκβάλετε αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (After bindingpl him [by] his feet and his hands, dispelpl him into the outer darkness) א B L Θ 085 f1 22 700 892 itaur,f,g1,l vg syrp co Codex Schøyen Didymus
- Δήσαντες αὐτοῦ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ἄρατε αὐτόν καὶ ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (After bindingpl him [by] his feet and his hands, takepl and dispelpl him into the outer darkness) C (M) W Δ (Φ) 0102 33 (565) (579) (1241) (1424) Byz itf syr(h)
- Βάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (castpl [him] into the outer darkness) f13
Matthew 22:17 omits text Εἰπέ οὖν ἡμῖν (Therefore, tell us) with ita,b,d,e,ff1,ff2,q,r1 syrs coboms Codex Schøyen
Matthew 22:24 omits text τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ (his wife)
- ἄγγελοι (angels) B D E* Θ 0197 0233 f1 22 700 itmss syrs,c cosa Codex Schøyen arm geo Origen Severus
- ἄγγελοι θεοῦ (angels of God) א L Σ f13 28 33 157 892 1071 1241 1243 1292 1424 itaur,ff1,g1,l vg syrh,p cobo
- ἄγγελοι τοῦ θεοῦ (angels of the God) W Δ 0102 0161 565 579 Byz
- εἰ οὖν Δαυὶδ ἐν πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν κύριον (If then David in the Spirit calls him "Lord") D K Δ Θ 0281 f13 565 1424 itmss vgmss syrh** mae-1 cobomss
- εἰ οὖν Δαυὶδ καλεῖ αὐτὸν κύριον (If then David calls him "Lord") rell
- ἐκείνης τῆς ὥρας (from that hour) D W f1 1506 ita,d,q syrs,c cobomss Origen
- ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρας (from that day) rell
- ῥαββί ῥαββί (Rabbi! Rabbi!) D W 0107 f13 Byz syrs,c,h
- ῥαββί (Rabbi) א B L Δ Θ 0102 f1 33 892 1241 lat syrp co
- καθηγητὴς ὁ χριστός (your teacher, the Christ) א*,2 D K Π L (W) Δ Θ 0102 0107 f1,13 Byz Basil
- διδάσκαλος (your teacher) א1 B 33 517 565 892* co Clement
- διδάσκαλος ὁ χριστός (your teacher, the Christ) 892c
- ῥαββί (Rabbi) syrp
- ῥαββί ὁ χριστός (Rabbi, the Christ) syrc
Matthew 23:14 is omitted, as in א B D L Z Θ f1 33 892* ita,aur,d,e,ff1,g1 vg syrs,palms cosa,bomss mae-1 Codex Schøyen arm geo Origen Eusebius
Matthew 23:26 omits text καὶ τῆς παροψίδος (and the plate) with Θ f1 2* 700 ita,d,e,ff2,r1 syrs Irenaeuslat Clement
Matthew 24:31 adds text ἀρχομένων δὲ τούτων γίνεσθαι ἀναβλέψατε καὶ ἐπάρατε τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑμῶν διότι ἐγγίζει ἡ ἀπολύτρωσις ὑμῶν (But when these things begin happening, look up and lift up your heads, because that your redemption is approaching) with 1093 itb,c,d,h,q,r1
Matthew 24:41 adds text δύο ἐπὶ κλίνης μιᾶς εἷς παραλαμβάνεται καὶ εἷς ἀφίεται (two upon one bed; one taken, and one left) with f13 itmss vgmss Origenmss
Gospel of MarkEdit
- Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ υἱοῦ θεοῦ (Jesus Christ, son of God) א1 B D L W 732 1602 2427 latt syrmss co goth Irenaeuslat
- Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ (Jesus Christ, son of the God) A Δ f1,13 33 565 579 700 892 1071 1342 1424 Byz syrp,h
- Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ κυρίου (Jesus Christ, son of the LORD) 1241
- Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ (Jesus Christ) — א* Θ 28 530 582* 820* 1021 1436 1555* 1692 2430 2533 syr(pal) cosams armmss Irenaeuspt Origen Basil Cyril Epiphanius Jerome
- Ἠσαΐᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ (Isaiah the prophet) D Θ f1 700 ℓ844,2211 Irenaeuspt Origenpt Epiphanius Titus
- τῷ Ἠσαΐᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ (Isaiah the prophet) א B L Δ 22 33 565 892 1241 2427 lat syrp,hmg,pal cosa,bomss arm geo goth Irenaeuspt Origenpt Basil Eusebius Jerome
- τοῖς προφήταις (the prophets) A P W f13 28 579 1342 Byz vgms syrh cobomss Irenaeuspt
- in the prophet Malachi syrhmg(mss)
Mark 1:6 omits text καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ (and a leather belt roundabout his waist) with ita,b,d,ff2,r1,t vgms
Mark 1:7 omits text κύψας (stoop) with Θ f13 28* 565 ℓ844,2211 itmss
- τῆς βασιλείας (the kingdom) A D K Π W Δ f13mss 28mg 157 700 1071 1424 1475c 2766c Byz itmss vg syrp cobomss goth
- omit text — א B L Θ f1,13mss 28* 33 156 301 373 508 565 579 717 892 1090 1127 1320 1342 1416 1464 1475* 1566 2126 2427 2766* itb,c,ff2,t syrs,h cosa,bomss Origen
- omits text - ἐπὶ Ἀβιάθαρ [τοῦ] [ἀρχ]ιερέως...σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσι; א B A C L K M U Δ Π f1 f13 2 28 157 579
- λέγω δὲ *ὑμεῖν, W
- omits text - [ὅτι] Τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο, [καὶ] οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον; א B C* L Θ
Mark 5:9 it has απεκριτη. The other manuscripts have:
- λεγιων ονομα μοι — א B C L Δ
- απεκριθη λεγων — E 565 700
- λεγεων — A W Θ f1 f13 Byz
- και μετα τριων ημερων αλλος αναστησεται ανευ χειρων (and within three days another will arise without hands) D W ita,b,c,d,(e),ff2,i,(k),n,r1 Cyprian
- text omitted — rell
In Mark 15:34 (see Psalms 22:2) it has ὠνείδισάς με (insult me), supported by Old Latin itc, (i), k and by syrh. The ordinary reading here is ἐγκατέλιπές με (forsaken me) supported by Alexandrian mss, or με ἐγκατέλιπες (see Matthew 27:46) supported by Byzantine mss.
Gospel of LukeEdit
In Luke 4:17 the codex contains unique textual variant ἁπτύξας (touched), corrected by a later hand into ἀναπτύξας (unrolled). The other manuscripts have in this place:
- ἀνοίξας (opened) — B, A, L, W, Ξ, 33, 892, 1195, 1241, ℓ 547, syrs, h, pal, copsa, bo
- ἀναπτύξας (unrolled) — א, K, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, f1, f13, 28, 565, 700, 1009, 1010, 1071, 1079, 1216, 1230, 1242, 1253, 1344, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz.
In Luke 6:5 Bezae contains an interpolation:
- τῇ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ, θεασάμενός τινα ἐραζόμενον τῷ σαββάτῳ, εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ἄνθρωπε, εἰ μὲν οἴδας τί ποιεῖς, μακάριοις εἶ· εἰ δὲ μὴ οἴδας, ἐπικατάρατος καὶ παραβάτης εἶ τοῦ νόμου. (On that same day, seeing someone working on the Sabbath, he (Jesus) said to him, 'Man, if you know what you do, blessed are you; but if you do not know, you are cursed and a transgressor of the law.')
In Luke 7:1 επειδη επληρωσεν παντα τα ρηματα αυτου εις τας ακοας του λαου εισηλθεν ] και εγενετο οτε ετελεσεν ταυτα τα ρηματα λαλων ηλθεν
- στραφεις δε επετιμησεν αυτοις και ειπεν, Ουκ οιδατε ποιου πνευματος εστε (But He turned and rebuked them and He said: You do not know what manner of spirit you are of) — as in (ℓ 1127m) d geo
In Luke 11:2 it contains the unique variant ἐφ ἡμᾶς ἐλθέτω σου ἡ βασιλεία (Let thine kingdom come upon us). Comparatively, others read:
- ἐλθέτω τὸ πνεῦμα σου τὸ ἄγιον εφ ημας και καθαρισατω ημας (May your Holy Spirit come upon us and cleanse us) — 162, 700
- ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου (May your kingdom come) — majority of mss
- ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου (May your kingdom come) — C P W Δ f13 1241 (p45 indistinguishable ἐλθάτω or ἐλθέτω)
- omit — geo
Luke 11:32 is omitted
Luke 11:36 is omitted
Luke 12:21 is omitted, as in ita, b, d
Luke 19:33 is omitted
Luke 23:34 omits text ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν πάτερ, ἄφες αὐτοῖς, οὐ γὰρ οἴδασιν τί ποιοῦσιν (Then Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they are doing") with 75 אa B W Θ 0124 31* 38 435 597* 1241 1808* ita,bc,d syrs copsa,bo.
Luke 24:1 omits text ἀρώματα with (aromatics) itmss syrs,c cosa
Luke 24:2 omits text ἐλθοῦσαι δὲ εὗρον (Then, upon arriving, they found) with 070 itc cosa
Luke 24:6 omits text τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ (the Lord Jesus) with ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1
Luke 24:6 omits text οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἀλλὰ ἠγέρθη with ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1 armmss geomss
Luke 24:7 omits text ἁμαρτωλῶν (sinful) with ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1
Luke 24:9 omits text ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου (from the tomb) with ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1 arm geo
Luke 24:10 omits text ἦσαν δὲ (Now they were) with A W Γ 788 1241 ℓmss itd,e syrs,c
Luke 24:12 is omitted, as in ita,b,d,e,l,r1
Luke 24:17 omits text καὶ ἐστάθησαν (and they stood still) with Cyril
Luke 24:36 omits text καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς εἰρήνη ὑμῖν (and said to them, "Peace be unto you") with ita,b,e,ff2,l,r1
Luke 24:40 is omitted, as in ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1 syrs,c Marcion
Luke 24:42 omits text και απο μελισσιου κηριου (and honeycomb of the beehive) with 75 א A B L W P 579 1079 1377* 2411 itd,e syrs cosa,bomss
Luke 24:46 omits text ἐκ νεκρῶν (from the dead) with cosa
Luke 24:49 omits text τοῦ πατρός (my Father) with ite
Luke 24:49 omits text Ἱερουσαλήμ (Jerusalem) with 75 א B C* L itmss vg syrs cosa,bomss Didymus
Luke 24:51 omits text καὶ ἀνεφέρετο εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν (and he was being uplifted into the sky) א* ita,b,d,e,ff2,l
Luke 24:52 omits text προσκυνήσαντες αὐτὸν (upon worshiping him) with ita,b,d,e,ff2,l syrs
- αἰνοῦντες (praising) D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1 vgmss
- εὐλογοῦντες (eulogizing) 75 א B C* L syrs,pal cosa,bo geo
- αἰνοῦντες καὶ εὐλογοῦντες (praising and eulogizing) A C2 W Δ Θ Ψ f1 f13 33 157 579 Byz itaur,c,f,q vgmss syrp,h arm
Gospel of JohnEdit
- ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἐστίν (in Him is life) — Sinaiticus, Bezae, Vetus Latina, Sahidic mss
- ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ᾓν (in Him was life) — majority of mss
There are lacunae from John 1:1 to 3:15 in the Latin text and from John 1:17 to 3:25 in the Greek text.
- υιος σου – Greek text of the codex
- υιος αυτου – Latin text
John 4:9 omits text οὐ γὰρ συγχρῶνται Ἰουδαῖοι Σαμαρίταις (for Jews have no dealings with Samaritans) with א* ita,b,d,e,j
- Ἐραυνᾶτε τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε ἔχειν ἐν αὐταῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον· καὶ ἐκεῖναί εἰσιν ἁμαρτάνουσαι περὶ ἐμοῦ· (You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; and they are they sin about Me)
- της θαλασσης της Γαλιλαιας εις τα μερη της Τιβεριαδος – along with Θ, 892, 1009, 1230, 1253, itb,d,e
- εγω ουκ αναβαινω (I am not going) – Sinaiticus, Bezae, Codex Cyprius, 1241
- εγω ουπω αναβαινω (I am not yet going) – Vaticanus, Regius, Borgianus, Washingtonianus, Koridethi, Ψ, 0105, 0180, 0250, f1, f13, Byz
John 8:46 is omitted
- εἰς τὴν χώραν Σαμφουριν ἐγγὺς τῆς ἐρήμου (into the region of Sepphoris near the wilderness) — D
- εἰς τὴν χώραν ἐγγὺς τῆς ἐρήμου (into the region near the wilderness) — majority of mss
John 12:8 is omitted
- και ουκετι ειμι εν τουτω τω κοσμω και ουτοι εν τω κοσμω εισιν καγω προς σε ερχομαι [ουκετι ειμι εν τω κοσμω · και εν τω κοσμω ειμι] πατερ αγιε τηρησον αυτους εν τω ονοματι σου [και οτε ημην μετ αυτων ⸆ εγω ετηρουν αυτους εν τω ονοματι σου] ο δεδωκας μοι ϊνα ωσιν εν καθως ημεις ·
Acts of the ApostlesEdit
Acts in Codex Bezae differs in ways which make it possibly an earlier version perhaps directly from Luke.
- Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
- Codex Bezae facsimile at the Cambridge Digital Library
- David C. Parker, Codex Bezae: An Early Christian Manuscript and its Text, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ss. 35-43, 123-163.
- Gregory, Caspar R. (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. p. 43. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- L. Neville Birdsall, The Geographical and Cultural Origin of Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis: A Survey of the Status Qyaestionnis, Mainly from Palaeographical Standpoint, in: Studien zum Text zur Ethik des Neuen Testaments: Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstag von Heinrich Greeven, ed. Wolfgang Schrage, Beihelfe zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 47 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 186), 102-114.
- D. C. Parker, Codex Bezae: An Early Christian Manuscript and Its Text (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992
- Knight, Kevin (2017). "Codex Bezae". www.newadvent.org. New Advent. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
Beza wrote in the letter accompanying his gift that the manuscript was obtained from the monastery of St. Irenæus in Lyons, during the war in 1562. Lyons was sacked by the Huguenots in that year and this manuscript was probably part of the loot. The reformer said it had lain in the monastery for long ages, neglected and covered with dust; but his statement is rejected by most modern scholars. It is claimed, in fact, that this codex is the one which was used at the Council of Trent in 1546 by William Dupré (English writers persist in calling this Frenchman a Prato), Bishop of Clermont in Auvergne, to confirm a Latin reading of John 21, si eum volo manere, which is found only in the Greek of this codex. Moreover, it is usually identified with Codex beta, whose peculiar readings were collated in 1546 for Stephens' edition of the Greek Testament by friends of his in Italy. Beza himself, after having first denominated his codex Lugdunensis, later called it Claromontanus, as if it came not from Lyons, but from Clermont (near Beauvais, not Clermont of Auvergne). All this, throwing Beza's original statement into doubt, indicates that the manuscript was in Italy in the middle of the sixteenth century, and has some bearing upon the locality of the production.
- Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (4 ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 70–73. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9.
- "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- F. H. A. Scrivener, Bezae Codex Cantabrigiensis: being an exact Copy, in ordinary Type, of the celebrated Uncial Graeco-Latin Manuscript of the Four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, written early in the Sixth Century, and presented to the University of Cambridge by Theodore Beza A.D. 1581. Edited, with a critical Introduction, Annotations, and Facsimiles, 1864.
- The story of the colloquium has been chronicled by one of the participants: J.-M. Auwers, "Le colloque international sur le Codex Bezae", Revue Théologique de Louvain 26 (1995), 405-412. See also: Codex Bezae, Studies from the Lunel Colloquium, ed. D.C. Parker & C.-B. Amphoux
- Bruce Metzger The Text of the New Testament 4th ed. p. 73.
- Metzger, p. 103.
- Michael Marlowe. "Bible Researcher". Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2004-01-25.
- Epp, Eldon Jay (2005). The Theological Tendency of Codex Bezae Cantebrigiensis in Acts. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-521-02047-3.
- Howard, George (1995). Hebrew Gospel of Matthew (2nd ed.). Macon: Mercer University Press. pp. 186–187. ISBN 0-86554-442-5.
- Bruce M. Metzger, B.D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 71.
- NA26, p. 102.
- NA26, p. 123.
- ΝΑ26, p. 175
- NA26, p. 232
- UBS4, p. 311
- NA26, p. 243
- NA26, p. 245
- NA26, p. 269
- NA26, p. 289
- NA26, p. 384.
- J. M. Wilson, "The Acts of the Apostles, translated from the Codex Bezae with an Introduction on its Lucan origin and Importance", The Macmillan Co., New York and Toronto, 1923
- Christian-B. Amphoux, «La grande lacune du Codex de Bèze.», Vol. 17 (2004) 3-26
- F. H. Chase, The Old Syriac Element in the Text of Codex Bezae. MacMillan, 1893.
- J. Rendel Harris, Codex Bezae: A Study of the so-called Western Text of the New Testament. Cambridge: University Press, 1891.
- J. Rendel Harris, Four lectures on the western text of the New Testament (London 1894)
- M.-É. Boismard – A. Lamouille, Le texte occidental des Actes des Apôtres. Reconstitution et réhabilitation, 2 vol., Paris 1984.
- F. G. Kenyon, Codex Bezae (1901) JTS, pp. 293–299, at the Internet Archive
- A. F. J. Klijn, A Survey of the Researches Into the Western Text of the Gospels and Acts (1949–1959), Novum Testamentum, Volume 3, Numbers 1–2, 1959, pp. 1–53.
- W. A. Strange, The Problem of the Text of Acts, (SNTS MS, 71), Cambridge 1992.
- D. C. Parker, Codex Bezae: An Early Christian Manuscript and its Text. Cambridge: University Press, 1992.
- Codex Bezae, Studies from the Lunel Colloquium, June 1994, ed. D.C. Parker & C.-B. Amphoux, Leiden: Brill, 1996.
- Scrivener F. H. A., Bezae Codex Cantabrigiensis: being an exact Copy, in ordinary Type, of the celebrated Uncial Graeco-Latin Manuscript of the Four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, written early in the Sixth Century, and presented to the University of Cambridge by Theodore Beza A.D. 1581. Edited, with a critical Introduction, Annotations, and Facsimiles, Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co, 1864.
- Weiss Bernard, Der Codex D in der Apostelgeschichte, Texte und Untersuchungen (Leipzig 1897)
- James D. Yoder, "The Language of the Greek Variants of the Codex Bezae," Novum Testamentum 3 (1959), pp. 241–248.
- L’Évangile de Luc et les Actes des Apôtres selon le Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis, annotated translation by Sylvie Chabert d’Hyères. Paris: L’Harmattan, 422 p., 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Codex Bezae.|
- High resolution digital facsimile of the Codex Bezae with full transcription, from Cambridge University Library
- R. Waltz, Codex Bezae at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism
- Bible Researcher website discusses the Codex Bezae
- The Gospels and Acts according to codex Bezae; greek and latin text, translation and comments
- History of Research on Codex Bezae
- Codex Bezae and the Da Vinci Code The alleged parchment 1 has been copied from Codex Bezae
- Real secrets and hoaxes, of Da Vinci Code, Rennes-le-Château and Codex Bezae, analyzed on the "Mercure de Gaillon"
- Codex Bezae and Codex Claromontanus (in French)
- Catholic Encyclopedia 1910: Codex Bezae
- More information at Earlier Latin Manuscripts