Codex Claromontanus, symbolized by Dp or 06 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 1026 (von Soden), is a Greek-Latin diglot uncial manuscript of the New Testament, written in an uncial hand on vellum. The Greek and Latin texts are on facing pages, thus it is a "diglot" manuscript, like Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis. The Latin text is designated by d (traditional system) or by 75 in Beuron system.
|New Testament manuscript|
The Latin text of Romans 7:4-7 from Codex Claromontanus
|Text||Pauline Epistles, Hebrews|
|Found||Clermont (purchased by Theodore Beza)|
|Now at||Bibliothèque nationale de France|
|Size||24.5 × 19.5 cm (9.6 × 7.7 in)|
|Note||includes extra-canonical material|
The codex contains the Pauline epistles on 533 leaves, 24.5 × 19.5 cm (9.6 × 7.7 in). The text is written in one column per page, 21 lines per page. At least 9 different correctors worked on this codex. The fourth corrector, from the 9th century, added accents and breathings.
The Codex Claromontanus contains further documents:
- A stichometric catalogue of the Old Testament and New Testament canon, known as the Catalogus Claromontanus, of uncertain date, has been inserted in the codex. The list omits Philippians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, and Hebrews, but includes several works no longer considered canonical: Epistle of Barnabas, The Shepherd of Hermas, Acts of Paul, and Revelation of Peter. The two epistles of Peter are listed as if they were epistles of Paul to Peter ("ad Petrum"). The Epistle to the Hebrews follows after this catalogue.
- Two palimpsest leaves (nos. 162 and 163) are overwritten on fragments of the Phaethon of Euripides, faintly legible under the Christian text. They have been detached from the codex and in the Bibliothèque nationale de France are designated Cod. Gr. 107 B.
The Greek text of this codex is highly valued by critics as representing an early form of the text in the Western text-type, characterized by frequent interpolations and, to a lesser extent, interpretive revisions presented as corrections to this text. Modern critical editions of the New Testament texts are produced by an eclectic method, where the preferred reading is determined on a case-by-case basis, from among numerous variants offered by the early manuscripts and versions.
In this process, Claromontanus is often employed as a sort of "outside mediator" in collating the more closely related, that is mutually dependent, codices containing the Pauline epistles: Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. In a similar way, Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis is used in establishing the history of texts of the Gospels and Acts.
The text is written colometrically and the order of the epistles to the Colossians and Philippians has been reversed compared to other texts. Kurt Aland placed the text of the codex in Category II.
In Romans 8:1 it reads Ιησου (as א, B, G, 1739, 1881, itd, g, copsa, bo, eth); corrector b changed it into Ιησου κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν (as A, Ψ, 81, 629, 2127, vg); corrector c changed it into Ιησου μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν αλλα κατα πνευμα (as אc, K, P, 33, 88, 104, 181, 326, 330, (436 omit μη), 456, 614, 630, 1241, 1877, 1962, 1984, 1985, 2492, 2495, Byz, Lect).
In 1 Corinthians 7:5 it reads τη προσευχη (prayer) along with 11, 46, א*, A, B, C, D, G, P, Ψ, 33, 81, 104, 181, 629, 630, 1739, 1877, 1881, 1962, it vg, cop, arm, eth. Other manuscripts read τη νηστεια και τη προσευχη (fasting and prayer) or τη προσευχη και νηστεια (prayer and fasting).
It was named by the Calvinist scholar Theodore Beza because he procured it in the town of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Oise, in the Picardy region north of Paris. Beza was the first to examine it, and he included notes of some of its readings in his editions of the New Testament. The later history of its use by editors of the Greek New Testament can be found in the links and references.
Johann Gottfried Jakob Hermann published in 1821 the palimpsest text of the leaves 162-163.
- Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. and D. C. Parker, An Introduction to the New Testament Manuscripts and their Texts (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 259.
- "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (4 ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9.
- Bible Researcher, Stichometric list in Codex Claromontanus (about A.D. 400), reproduced from Westcott's General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, (London, 1870), appendix D
- Codex Claromontanus
- NA26, p. 409.
- UBS3, p. 548.
- UBS3, p. 564.
- UBS3, p. 573.
- UBS3, p. 591.
- NA26, p. 466.
- Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart, 2001), pp. 499-500.
- UBS3, p. 722.
- BN shelfmark Gr. 107 AB.
- J. J. Griesbach, Symbolae criticae ad supplendas et corrigendas variarum N. T. lectionum collectiones (Halle, 1793), pp. 31-77.
- Alexander Souter, The Original Home of Codex Claromontanus (D Paul), JTS VI (1904-1905), pp. 240–243.
- Bruce M. Metzger (1968). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (1 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 49–51.
- Trobisch, David, The Oldest Extant Editions of the Letters of Paul 1999 (e-text online).
- Berschin, Walter, "Greek Manuscripts in Western Libraries" ch. 6 of Greek Letters and the Latin Middle Ages: From Jerome to Nicholas of Cusa: diglot mss in the West.
- Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: Hinrichs. pp. 105–109.
- Fac-similés de manuscrits grecs, latins et français du 5e au 14e siècle, exposés dans la Galerie Mazarine (Paris 1900), Plates III, IV.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Codex Claromontanus.|
- The Bibliothèque nationale de France has all the images of Codex Claromontanus online
- R. Waltz, Codex Claromontanus D (06), Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism
- Michael D. Marlowe, Bible Research: Codex Claromontanus
- Codex Bezae and Codex Claromontanus (in French)
- More information at Earlier Latin Manuscripts