Codex Washingtonianus

The Codex Washingtonianus or Codex Washingtonensis, designated by W or 032 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 014 (Soden), also called the Washington Manuscript of the Gospels, and The Freer Gospel, contains the four biblical gospels and was written in Greek on vellum in the 4th or 5th century.[1] The manuscript is lacunose.

Uncial 032
New Testament manuscript
Painted cover of the Codex Washingtonianus, depicting the evangelists Luke and Mark (7th century)
Painted cover of the Codex Washingtonianus, depicting the evangelists Luke and Mark (7th century)
NameWashingtonianus (Freer Gospel)
Datec. 300–500
FoundEgypt (purchased by Charles Lang Freer)
Now atFreer Gallery of Art
Size187 leaves; 20.75 x 13.75 cm
Typeeclectic text-type
Noteunique insertion following Mark 16:14


The codex is made from 187 parchment leaves (20.5–21 cm by 13-14.5 cm) with painted wooden covers, consisting of 26 quires (four to eight leaves).[2] The text is written in one column per page, 30 lines per page.[1] There are numerous corrections made by the original scribe and a few corrections dating to the late 5th or 6th century. John 1:1-5:11 is a replacement of a presumably damaged folio, and dates to around the 7th century. Mark 15:13-38 and John 14:26-16:7 are lacking. The ink is dark brown. The words are written continuously without separation. Accents are absent. The rough breathing mark is used very rarely.

Like in Codex Bezae (D), the Gospels follow in Western order: Matthew, John, Luke, Mark.[3]: 80 

The following nomina sacra are used in the Codex (nominative case; the other cases are also used for the same words): ΘΣ, ΚΣ, ΧΡΣ, ΙΣ, ΠΝΑ, ΑΝΟΣ, ΠΗΡ, ΜΗΡ, ΥΣ, ΔΑΔ (ΔΔ once), ΙΗΛ (ΙΣΡΛ once).[4]: VI 

Matthew 16:2b–3 is present and not marked as doubtful or spurious. Luke 22:43-44, John 5:4 and the Pericope de adultera are not present in the manuscript. It lacks Matthew 5:21–22 (as Minuscule 33),[5]: 8  and Luke 19:25 (as D, 69, 1230, 1253, lectionaries, b, d, e, ff², syrc, syrsin, copbo).[6]: 290 [5]: 223 

It includes Matthew 23:14, supported by manuscripts 0104, 0107, 0133, 0138, and most other Byzantine manuscripts.[5]: 65 

Text of the CodexEdit

The Codex is cited as a "consistently cited witness of the first order" in the critical apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graece. The codex was apparently copied from several different manuscripts and is the work of two scribes. The text-type is eclectic:

Notable Readings

Matthew 1:10

Αμων (Amon) - W L ƒ13 Byz
Αμως (Amos) - א B C[5]: 1 

Matthew 10:12

λεγοντες ειρηνη τω οικω τουτω (saying, 'Peace to this house') - W א2 D L Θ ƒ1 1010 it vgcl
αυτην - Majority of manuscripts[5]: 24 

Matthew 23:3

τηρειν τηρειται και ποιειται - W 0107 0138 ƒ13 q syp, h Majority of manuscripts
ποιήσατε καὶ τηρεῖτε - א2 B L Z Θ 892[5]: 65 

Mark 1:3

πασα φαραγξ πληρωθησεται και παν ορος και βουνος ταπεινωθησεται και εσται παντα τα σκολια εις ευθειαν και η τραχεια εις πεδιον και οφθησεται η δοξα κυριου και οψεται πασα σαρξ το σωτηριον του θεου οτι κυριος ελαλησεν φωνη λεγοντος βοησον και ειπα τι βοησω οτι πασα σαρξ χορτος και πασα η δοξα αυτης ως ανθος χορτου εξηρανθη ο χορτος και το ανθος εξεπεσεν το δε ρημα κυριου μενει εις τον αιωνα - W c
omit - Majority of manuscripts[5]: 88 

Mark 2:3

ιδου ανδρες ερχονται προς αυτον βασταζοντες εν κρεβαττω παραλυτικον - W e bopt
ερχονται φεροντες προς αυτον παραλυτικον αιρομενον υπο τεσσαρων - Majority of manuscripts[5]: 92 

Mark 10:19

μη αποστερησης
omit - W B K Ψ ƒ1 ƒ13 28 700 1010 1079 1242 1546 2148 10 950 1642 1761 syrs arm geo
incl. - Majority of manuscripts[6]: 165 

Mark 9:49

πας γαρ πυρι αλισθησεται – W א (εν πυρι) B L Δ ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 260 sys sa
και πασα θυσια αλι αλισθησεται - Majority of manuscripts[5]: 121 

Mark 10:48

omit - W 1241
incl. - Majority of manuscripts[5]: 125 

Mark 13:2

και μετα τριων ημερων αλλος αναστησεται ανευ χειρων (and after three days another will arise) — W D it
omit - Majority of manuscripts[5]: 133 

Luke 4:17

καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ βιβλίον (and opened the book) - W A B L Ξ 33 892 1195 1241 547 sys, h, pal sa bo
καὶ ἀναπτύξας τὸ βιβλίον (and unrolled the book) - א Dc K Δ Θ Π Ψ ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 1009 1010 Byz[7][5]: 164 

Luke 11:19

εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια
omit. - W (singular reading likely due to homoeoteleuton (ὅτι λέγετε ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια. εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια)
incl. - Majority of manuscripts

Luke 22:43–44

omit - W 𝔓75 א A B T 1071
incl. - Majority of manuscripts[6]: 305 

Luke 23:34

Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν, Πάτερ, ἄφες αὐτοῖς· οὐ γὰρ οἴδασιν τί ποιοῦσιν (And Jesus said: Father forgive them, they know not what they do.)
omit - W 𝔓75 אa B D* Θ 0124 1241 a d sys sa bo
incl. - Majority of manuscripts[6]: 308 

John 7:1

ου γαρ ειχεν εξουσιαν - W a b ff² l r1 syc
ου γαρ ηθελεν - Majority of manuscripts [6]: 350 
Mark 16:12-17 with the Freer Logion in 16:14

Freer LogionEdit

The ending of Mark in this codex is especially noteworthy because it includes a unique insertion after Mark 16:14, referred to as the "Freer Logion".

Κακεινοι απελογουντο λεγοντες οτι ο αιων ουτος της ανομιας και της απιστιας υπο τον σαταναν εστιν, ο μη εων τα (τον μη εωντα?) υπο των πνευματων ακαθαρτα (-των?) την αληθειαν του θεου καταλαβεσθαι (+ και?) δυναμιν. δια τουτο αποκαλυψον σου την δικαιοσυνην ηδη, εκεινοι ελεγον τω χριστω. και ο χριστος εκεινοις προσελεγεν οτι πεπληρωται ο ὅρος των ετων της εξουσιας του σατανα, ἀλλὰ εγγιζει ἄλλα δεινα. και υπερ ων εγω αμαρτησαντων παρεδοθην εις θανατον ινα υποστρεψωσιν εις την αληθειαν και μηκετι αμαρτησωσιν ινα την εν τω ουρανω πνευματικην και αφθαρτον της δικαιοσυνης δοξαν κληρονομησωσιν.[5]: 148 


And they excused themselves, saying, "This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth and power of God to prevail over the unclean things of the spirits [or: does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth and power of God]. Therefore reveal thy righteousness now" - thus they spoke to Christ. And Christ replied to them, "The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they may return to the truth and sin no more in order to inherit the spiritual and incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven.[3]: 81 

This text is not found in any other manuscript, but was partially quoted by Jerome:

et illi satisfaciebant dicentes: Saeculum istud iniquitatis et incredulitatis substantia (sub Satana?) est, quae non sinit per immundos spiritus veram Dei apprehendi virtutem: idcirco iamnunc revela iustitiam tuam.[5]: 148 


The codex was purchased by Charles Lang Freer on a trip to Egypt in November 1906.[8] Metzger states: "It is the only Greek Gospel manuscript of early date of which we know provenance. Though the exact spot in Egypt where it was found is not known, there are indications that it came from a monastery in the neighbourhood of the Pyramids."[9] The writing is closely related to the Codex Panopolitanus (Papyrus Cairensis 10759), Henoch manuscript, found in Akhmim in 1886.[10]: 3 

There is a subscription at the end of the Gospel of Mark, written in semi-cursive from the 5th century: "Holy Christ, be thou with thy servant Timothy and all of his." The similar note appears in Minuscule 579. Hermann von Soden cited a number of similar subscriptions in other manuscripts.[10]: 2 

It is located in the Smithsonian Institution at the Freer Gallery of Art (06. 274) in Washington, D.C., United States, and some of it can be viewed online. Complete images of the codex are available from the Rights and Reproductions office at the Freer Gallery of Art.

The manuscript is dated by the INTF to the 4th or 5th century.[11]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  2. ^ Léon Vaganay, Christian-Bernard Amphoux, Jenny Heimerdinger, An introduction to New Testament textual criticism (1991), p. 17.
  3. ^ a b c Metzger, Bruce Manning; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (4 ed.). New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9.
  4. ^ Henry A. Sanders, Facsimile of the Washington Manuscript of the Four Gospels in the Freer Collection, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1912.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Aland, Kurt; Black, Matthew; Martini, Carlo Maria; Metzger, Bruce M.; Wikgren, Allen, eds. (1981). Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece (26 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung. ISBN 3-438-051001. (NA26)
  6. ^ a b c d e Aland, Kurt; Black, Matthew; Martini, Carlo Maria; Metzger, Bruce Manning; Wikgren, Allen, eds. (1983). The Greek New Testament (3rd ed.). Stuttgart: United Bible Societies. ISBN 9783438051103. (UBS3)
  7. ^ Metzger, Bruce Manning (2001). A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. p. 114.
  8. ^ Freer + Sackler Galleries
  9. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Early versions of the New Testament, Clarendon Press: Oxford 1977, p. 117.
  10. ^ a b Henry A. Sanders, The New Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection, The Macmillan Company, London 1918.
  11. ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit