The Codex Koridethi, also named Codex Coridethianus, designated by Θ, 038, or Theta (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 050 (Soden), is a 9th-century manuscript of the four Gospels. It is written in Greek with uncial script in two columns per page, in 25 lines per page. There are gaps in the text: Matthew 1:1–9, 1:21–4:4, and 4:17–5:4 are missing.
|New Testament manuscript|
|Now at||Georgian National Center of Manuscripts|
|Size||29 x 24 cm|
|Type||Caesarean text-type / Byzantine text-type|
The letters are written in a rough, inelegant hand. The scribe who wrote the text is believed to have been unfamiliar with Greek.
Name and historyEdit
Many people think that the text gets its name from the town in which it was discovered. This is not correct. The Editio Princeps by Beermann and Gregory states:
Kala/Caucasia: In the year 1853 a certain Bartholomeé visited a long abandoned monastery in Kala, a little village in the Caucasian mountains near the Georgian/Russian border (some miles south east of the 5600m high Elbrus). There, in an old church, far off every civilisation, he discovered the MS. The MS rested there probably for several hundred years (Beermann: ca. 1300–1869).
Koridethi: Before this time the MS was in a town called Koridethi. This was a village near the Black Sea, near today's Batumi in Georgia. There should still be some ruins of a monastery. Notes in the Gospel indicate dates from ca. 965 CE on. At around this time, according to a note, the book has been rebound. The book was there until around 1300 CE.
Further south, Armenia: A Greek inscription mentions the city of Tephrice or Tephrike (Greek: Τεφρική): "I, Kurines, Comes of the comandant of the city Tephrice came to the castelles and went back to the fort of the Great Martyrs(?)." Even though the content and meaning is not completely clear, the city Tephrice is clear. The town was destroyed in 873. It was on a line between today's Sivas and Malatya in Turkey/Armenia. Beermann's conclusion therefore is (p. 581) that the codex must be older than 873 CE. Beermann speculates that the "fort of the Great Martyrs" (if correctly deciphered) might have been Martyropolis, a town near the Wan Lake, near today's Batman in Turkey.
- Witness of Byzantine text-type
In 2007 the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft edited The Gospel According to John in the Byzantine Tradition. Koridethi is cited in the apparatus. In the Introduction to this edition is written: "Manuscript 038 (Θ) represents a text on the boundary of what might reasonably be considered a manuscript of the Byzantine tradition in John".
Text of the codexEdit
The text-type of Matthew ch. 1-14, Luke, and John is more or less Byzantine, while Mark is Caesarean. The text of the Matthew ch. 14-28 is Alexandrian. Aland placed it in Category II. It lacks the text of the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11).
- It reads Ιωσιας δε εγεννησεν τον Ιωακειμ, Ιωακειμ δε εγεννησεν τον Ιεχονιαν instead of Ιωσιας δε εγεννησεν τον Ιεχονιαν. The reading is supported by Codex Campianus, f1, 33, 258, 478, 661, 791, 954, 1216, 1230, 1354, 1604, ℓ 54.
- It has additional text: και υποστρεψας ο εκατονταρχος εις τον οικον αυτου εν αυτη τη ωρα ευρεν τον παιδα υγιαινοντα (and when the centurion returned to the house in that hour, he found the slave well) as well as codices א*, C, (N), 0250, f1, (33, 1241), g1, syrh.
- It reads λεγοντες ειρηνη τω οικω τουτω instead of αυτην. The reading is used by manuscripts: Sinaiticus*,2, Bezae, Regius, Washingtonianus, f 1 1010 (1424), it vgcl.
- It reads ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οἱ γεωργοὶ, θεασάμενοι αὐτὸν ἐρχόμενον (But those tenants, looking on as he arrived). This reading is used by the 1904 edition of the official Eastern Orthodox Patriarchal Text (NTPT) and is found in manuscripts: f13, Minuscule 28, 1071
- phrase και το βαπτισμα ο εγω βαπτιζομαι βαπτισθησεσθε (and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with) omitted, as in codices Sinaiticus, B, D, L, Z, 085, f1, f13, it, syrs, c, copsa.
- it has famous textual variant "Ιησουν τον Βαραββαν" (Jesus Barabbas). This variant contain Minuscule 700, and manuscripts of the textual family f1.
In Mark 9:49 it has unique textual variant πας γαρ πυρι αναλωθησεται instead of πας γαρ πυρι αλισθησεται.
In Luke 14:5 it has singular reading ὄνος υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς for υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς;
In Luke 23:34 omitted words: "And Jesus said: Father forgive them, they know not what they do." This omission is supported by the manuscripts Papyrus 75, Sinaiticusa, B, D*, W, 0124, 1241, a, Codex Bezaelat, syrs, copsa, copbo.
In John 7:51 it reads απο Καρυωτου for Ισκαριωτου, the reading of the codex is supported by Sinaiticus, f13, syrh;
- παντες γαρ οι λαβοντες μαχαιραν εν μαχαιρα απολουνταιν – Θ
- Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (4 ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9.
- Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
- "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Die Koridethi-Evangelien", Gustav Beermann und Caspar René Gregory, Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1913
- Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. p. 257. (as 1360)
- The Gospel According to John in the Byzantine Tradition, Stuttgart 2007, Introduction, p. V.
- Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1991), p. 2; UBS3, p. 2.
- Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1991), p. 18
- Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1991), p. 24
- Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1991), 56.
- Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1991), p. 121.
- UBS3, p. 273.
- UBS4, p. 311.
- UBS3, p. 342
- UNS3, p. 349
- NA26, p. 307.
- K. Lake, R. P. Blake, The Text of the Gospels and the Koridethi Codex, The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Jul. 1923), pp. 267–286.
- B. H. Streeter (1924). The Four Gospels. A study of origins the manuscript traditions, sources, authorship, & dates. Oxford. pp. 77–107.
- Herman C. Hoskier, Collation of Koridethi with Scrivener's Reprint of Stephen III, BBC 6 (1929), pp. 31–56.
- F. G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (4th ed.), London 1939.
- A. Souter (1915). "The Koridethi Gospels". The Expositor. 10: 173–181.
- R. Waltz, Codex Koridethi at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism (2007)
- Sakartvélo, Tbilisi, National Center of Manuscripts (olim AN Inst. Kekelidze), gr. 28 Pinakes | Πίνακες, Textes et manuscrits grecs