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Papyrus 75 (75, Papyrus Bodmer XIVXV) is an early Greek New Testament papyrus. It is generally described as "the most significant" papyrus of the New Testament to be discovered so far.[1] This evaluation of the manuscript is a result of the early date that has usually been assigned to it (circa 175–225 CE) and the fact that its text so closely resembles that of the fourth century Codex Vaticanus. However, the early date of 75, and therefore its importance for the textual criticism of the New Testament, was called into question in 2016.[2]

Papyrus 75
New Testament manuscript
End of the Gospel of Luke and beginning of the Gospel of John
End of the Gospel of Luke and beginning of the Gospel of John
NameP. Bodmer XIV–XV
TextLuke 3:18–24:53 + John 1–15 (extensive portions)
Date175–225 (Martin and Kasser), late third century-early fourth century (Orsini), fourth century (Nongbri)
FoundPabau, Egypt
Now atVatican Library, Rome
CiteV. Martin, R. Kasser, Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV
Size26 cm x 13 cm
TypeAlexandrian text-type
Notevery close to P66, B, 0162



 75 was discovered in the 1950s and once belonged to the Swiss book collector Martin Bodmer (thus its original designation, P. Bodmer XIV–XV). It was sold in 2006 and donated to the Vatican Library, which now refers to the manuscript as "Hanna Papyrus 1 (Mater Verbi)". [3] Originally "[it] contained about 144 pages ... of which 102 have survived, either in whole or in part."[4] It 'contains about half the text of ... two Gospels"[5]  – Luke (Papyrus Bodmer XIV) and John (Papyrus Bodmer XV) in Greek. It was originally assigned on the basis of its handwriting to circa 175–225 CE, but it has recently been asserted on the basis of comparative evidence that handwriting very similar to that of  75 was still in use in the fourth century.[6] In any event,  75 is one of the earliest manuscripts (along with  4)[7] of the Gospel of Luke. "The surviving fragment contains Luke 3:18–24:53..."[7][8] An unusual feature of this codex is that when the Gospel of Luke ends, the Gospel of John begins on the same page.[9]

It lacks text of Christ's agony at Gethsemane (Luke 22:43–44)[10] and Pericope Adulterae.

It uses a staurogram in Luke 14:27.


The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. Kurt Aland placed it in Category I.[11] The text is closer to Codex Vaticanus than to Codex Sinaiticus. Agreement between  75 and codex B is 92% in John,[12] and 94% in Luke.[13] It concurs with  111.[14]

According to Kurt Aland,  75 is the key for understanding the primitive textual history of New Testament,[15] but recently Brent Nongbri has argued that restricting the date of  75 to the late second or early third century is not realistic, and that the similarity of the text of  75 to that of Codex Vaticanus might be better explained by considering both books as products of the fourth century.[16]

Textual variantsEdit

In Luke 8:21 it reads αυτον instead of αυτους; the reading is supported by Minuscule 705 and Codex Veronensis.[17]

In Luke 11:4, the phrase αλλα ρυσαι ημας απο του πονηρου (but deliver us from evil) is omitted. The omission of this phrase is also supported by the following manuscripts: Sinaiticus (א), Vaticanus (B), Codex Regius, f1, 700, vg, syrs, copsa, bo, arm, geo.[18]

In Luke 16:19 the manuscript reads Ανθρωπος δε τις ην πλουσιος, ονοματι Ν[ιν]ευης, και ενεδιδυσκετο "There was a rich man, with the name N[in]eue, who clothed himself",[19] This reading has support from the Sahidic version and the two Greek minuscule manuscripts 36 and 37, in addition to a scholion of uncertain date have ευρον δε τινες και του πλουσιου εν τισιν αντιγραφοις τουνομα Νινευης λεγομενον.[20]

Luke 22:43–44 is omitted, as in codices א*, Alexandrinus (A), B, Borgianus (T), 1071.[21]

In Luke 23:34,  75 has omitted the words: "And Jesus said: Father forgive them, they know not what they do." This omission is supported by the manuscripts Sinaiticusa, B, Bezae (D*), W, Θ, 0124, 1241, ita, d, syrs, copsa, copbo.[22]

Luke 24:26

δοξαν – majority of mss
βασιλειαν –  75[23]

John 10:7

η θυρα (door) – majority
ο ποιμην (shepherd) –  75 copsa copac[24]

The manuscript also lacks the Pericope of the Adulteress, usually placed in Translations at John 7:53–8:11. This omission is supported by the manuscripts  66 | Codex Sinaiticus | Codex Vaticanus | Codex Alexandrinusvid | Codex Ephraemi Rescriptusvid | Codex Regius | Codex Petropolitanus Purpureus | Codex Borgianus | Codex Washingtonianus | Codex Sangallensis 48 | Codex Koridethi | Codex Athous Lavrensis | Uncial 0141 | Uncial 0211 | Minuscule 33 | Minuscule 131 | Minuscule 565 | Minuscule 1241 | Minuscule 1333| Minuscule 1424 | a | f | l | q | sy | ly | pbo | bopt; Or Hiermss.[25]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Aland and Aland, The Text of the New Testament (1989), p. 244
  2. ^ Nongbri, "Reconsidering the Place of Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV ( 75) in the Textual Criticism of the New Testament" and Orsini, "I papiri Bodmer: scritture e libri", 77
  3. ^
  4. ^ Metzger+Ehrman (2005),p.58
  5. ^ Bodmer Papyrus 14–15 arrives at the Vatican
  6. ^ Nongbri, "Reconsidering the Place of Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV ( 75) in the Textual Criticism of the New Testament"
  7. ^ a b Gregory (2003) p.28
  8. ^ Wilker
  9. ^ Edwards (1976), p. 194
  10. ^ Nestle, Eberhard; Nestle, Erwin; B. Aland; K. Aland; J. Karavidopoulos; C. M. Martini; B. M. Metzger (2001). Novum Testamentum Graece (27 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. p. 235. ISBN 978-3-438-05100-4.
  11. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  12. ^ S. A. Edwards, P75 Under the Magnifying Glass, Novum Testamentum, XVIII, fasc. 3, pp. 211-212.
  13. ^ Gordon D. Fee,  75,  66, and Origen: The Myth of Early Textual Recension in Alexandria, in: E. J. Epp & G. D. Fee, Studies in the Theory & Method of NT Textual Criticism, Wm. Eerdmans (1993), pp. 247-273.
  14. ^ Philip W. Comfort, Encountering the Manuscripts. An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism, Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005, p. 76.
  15. ^ Reconsidering  75 in the Frame of a Various Egyptian Tradition
  16. ^ Nongbri, "Reconsidering the Place of Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV ( 75) in the Textual Criticism of the New Testament"
  17. ^ NA26, p. 181
  18. ^ UBS3, p. 256.
  19. ^ Philip Comfort, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts (2001), p. 551.
  20. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations, Clarendon Press: Oxford 1977, p. 136.
  21. ^ UBS3, p. 305.
  22. ^ UBS4, p. 311.
  23. ^ NA26, p. 244
  24. ^ NA26, p. 282
  25. ^ The Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 28th Edition, pg. 322 apparatus


  • V. Martin, R. Kasser, Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV: Evangiles de Luc et Jean, Vol. 1, Papyrus Bodmer XIV: Evangile de Luc chap. 3-24; vol. 2, Papyrus Bodmer XV: Evangile de Jean chap. 1-15, Cologny-Geneva: Biblioteca Bodmeriana, 1961.
  • B. Nongbri, "Reconsidering the Place of Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV ( 75) in the Textual Criticism of the New Testament", 11Journal of Biblical Literature11 135, no. 2 (2016): 405–437
  • P. Orsini, "I papiri Bodmer: scritture e libri", Adamantius 21 (2015), 60–78
  • K. Aland and B. Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes, 2nd rev. ed. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995)
  • Gregory, A. The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period Before Irenaeus, Mohr Siebeck, (2003) ISBN 3-16-148086-4, p. 28
  • Metzger, Bruce Manning; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The text of the New Testament: its transmission, corruption, and restoration. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 58–9. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9.
  • Aland, Kurt (2009). "Neue Neutestamentliche Papyri III". New Testament Studies. 22 (04): 375–96. doi:10.1017/S0028688500010080.
  • Comfort, Philip W.; David P. Barrett (2001). The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers. pp. 501–608. ISBN 978-0-8423-5265-9.


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