The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia). In common usage, they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a particular thing or subject (e.g. homophobia). The suffix is antonymic to -phil-.
For more information on the psychiatric side, including how psychiatry groups phobias such as agoraphobia, social phobia, or simple phobia, see phobia. The following lists include words ending in -phobia, and include fears that have acquired names. In some cases, the naming of phobias has become a word game, of notable example being a 1998 humorous article published by BBC News. In some cases, a word ending in -phobia may have an antonym with the suffix -phil-, e.g. Germanophobe/Germanophile.
Many -phobia lists circulate on the Internet, with words collected from indiscriminate sources, often copying each other. Also, a number of psychiatric websites exist that at the first glance cover a huge number of phobias, but in fact use a standard text to fit any phobia and reuse it for all unusual phobias by merely changing the name. Sometimes it leads to bizarre results, such as suggestions to cure "prostitute phobia". Such practice is known as content spamming and is used to attract search engines.
An article published in 1897 in American Journal of Psychology noted "the absurd tendency to give Greek names to objects feared (which, as Arndt says, would give us such terms as klopsophobia – fear of thieves, triakaidekaphobia – fear of the number 13....)".
Specialists may prefer to avoid the suffix -phobia and use more descriptive terms such as personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and avoidant personality disorder. Terms should strictly have a Greek prefix although many are irregularly formed with Latin or even English prefixes. Many use inaccurate or imprecise prefixes, such as aerophobia (fear of air) for fear of flying.
|Achluophobia||fear of darkness|
|Acousticophobia||fear of noise – a branch of phonophobia|
|Acrophobia||fear of heights|
|Aerophobia||fear of aircraft or flying|
|Agoraphobia||fear of open places|
|Agyrophobia||fear of crossing streets|
|Aichmophobia||fear of sharp or pointed objects such as a needle or knife|
|Ailurophobia||fear/dislike of cats, a zoophobia|
|Alektorophobia||fear/dislike of chickens, a zoophobia|
|Anatidaephobia||fear/dislike of ducks, a zoophobia|
|Algophobia||fear of pain|
|Ancraophobia||fear of wind or drafts|
|Androphobia||fear of adult men|
|Apeirophobia||excessive fear of infinity, eternity, and the uncountable|
|Aphenphosmphobia||fear of being touched|
|Apotemnophobia||fear of becoming an amputee|
|Aquaphobia||fear of water. Distinct from hydrophobia, a scientific property that makes chemicals averse to interaction with water, as well as an archaic name for rabies.|
|Arachnophobia||fear of spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions, a zoophobia|
|Astraphobia||fear of thunder and lightning|
|Atelophobia||fear of imperfection|
|Autophobia||fear of isolation|
|Bacteriophobia||fear of bacteria|
|Basophobia, basiphobia||fear associated with astasia-abasia (fear of walking/standing erect) and a fear of falling|
|Batrachophobia||fear/dislike of frogs and other amphibians, a zoophobia|
|Belonephobia||fear of needles or pins|
|Bibliophobia||fear of books|
|Blood-injection-injury type phobia||a DSM-IV subtype of specific phobias|
|Cacophobia, aschimophobia||fear of ugliness|
|Carcinophobia||fear of cancer|
|Catoptrophobia||fear of mirrors|
|Chemophobia||fear of chemicals|
|Cherophobia||fear of happiness|
|Chiroptophobia||fear/dislike of bats, a zoophobia|
|Chromophobia, chromatophobia||fear of colors|
|Chronophobia||fear of time and time moving forward|
|Chronomentrophobia||fear of clocks|
|Cibophobia, sitophobia||aversion to food, synonymous with anorexia nervosa|
|Claustrophobia||fear of having no escape and being closed in|
|Coimetrophobia||fear of cemeteries|
|Coprophobia||fear of feces or defecation|
|Coulrophobia||fear of clowns|
|Cyberphobia||fear of computers|
|Cynophobia||fear/dislike of dogs, a zoophobia|
|Dental fear, odontophobia||fear of dentists and dental procedures|
|Dentophobia||fear of dentists|
|Diagraphephobia||fear of deleting files or an extreme fear of losing your computer data.|
|Domatophobia||fear of houses|
|Driving phobia, driving anxiety||fear of driving|
|Dysmorphophobia, body dysmorphic disorder||a phobic obsession with a real or imaginary body defect|
|Ecophobia||fear of cataclysmic environmental change|
|Eisoptrophobia||fear of mirrors or seeing one's reflection in a mirror|
|Emetophobia||fear of vomiting|
|Enochlophobia||fear of crowds|
|Entomophobia||fear/dislike of insects, a zoophobia|
|Ephebiphobia||fear of youth; inaccurate, exaggerated and sensational characterization of young people|
|Equinophobia||fear of horses|
|Ergophobia, ergasiophobia||fear of work or functioning, or a surgeon's fear of operating|
|Erotophobia||fear of sexual love or sexual abuse|
|Erythrophobia, erytophobia, ereuthophobia||fear of the color red, or fear of blushing|
|Eurotophobia||aversion to female genitals|
|Frigophobia||fear of becoming too cold|
|Gamophobia||fear of marriage|
|Gelotophobia||fear of being laughed at|
|Gephyrophobia||fear of bridges|
|Genophobia, coitophobia||fear of sexual intercourse|
|Genuphobia||fear of knees or the act of kneeling|
|Gerascophobia||fear of growing old or aging|
|Gerontophobia||fear of growing old, or a hatred or fear of the elderly|
|Globophobia||fear of balloons|
|Glossophobia||fear of speaking in public or of trying to speak|
|Gymnophobia||fear of nudity|
|Gynophobia||fear of adult women|
|Halitophobia||fear of bad breath|
|Haphephobia||fear of being touched|
|Heptadekaphobia, heptadecaphobia||fear of the number 17|
|Hedonophobia||fear of obtaining pleasure|
|Heliophobia||fear of the sun or sunlight|
|Helminthophobia, scoleciphobia, vermiphobia||fear of worms, a zoophobia|
|Hemophobia, haemophobia||fear of blood|
|Herpetophobia||fear/dislike of reptiles or amphibians, a zoophobia|
|Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia||fear of the number 666|
|Hippophobia||fear/dislike of horses, a zoophobia|
|Hodophobia||fear of travel|
|Hydrophobia||fear of water, see aquaphobia|
|Hypnophobia, somniphobia||fear of sleep or nightmares|
|Hypochondria||fear of illness|
|Ichthyophobia||fear of fish, including fear of eating fish, or fear of dead fish, a zoophobia|
|Insectophobia||fear of insects|
|Koumpounophobia||fear of buttons on clothing|
|Lilapsophobia||fear of tornadoes or hurricanes|
|Lepidopterophobia||fear of butterflies and moths|
|Mageiricophobia||fear of cooking|
|Masklophobia||fear of people in masks, costumes and mascots|
|Megalophobia||fear of large objects|
|Melanophobia||fear of the color black|
|Melissophobia, apiphobia||fear/dislike of bees, a zoophobia|
|Monophobia||fear of being alone or isolated or of one's self|
|Musophobia, murophobia, suriphobia||fear/dislike of mice or rats, a zoophobia|
|Mycophobia||fear of mushrooms|
|Myrmecophobia||fear of ants|
|Mysophobia, germophobia||fear of germs, contamination or dirt|
|Necrophobia||fear of death or the dead|
|Neophobia, cainophobia, cainotophobia, centophobia, kainolophobia, kainophobia, metathesiophobia, prosophobia||fear of newness, novelty, change or progress|
|Noctiphobia||fear of the night|
|Nomophobia||fear of being out of mobile phone contact|
|Nosocomephobia||fear of hospitals|
|Nosophobia||fear of contracting a disease|
|Nostophobia, ecophobia||fear of returning home|
|Numerophobia||fear of numbers|
|Nyctophobia, achluophobia, lygophobia, scotophobia||fear of darkness|
|Obesophobia||fear of gaining weight|
|Oikophobia||fear of home surroundings and household appliances|
|Ommetaphobia||fear of eyes|
|Oneirophobia||fear of dreams|
|Ophidiophobia||fear/dislike of snakes, a zoophobia|
|Ophthalmophobia||fear of being stared at|
|Ornithophobia||fear/dislike of birds, a zoophobia|
|Osmophobia, olfactophobia||fear of odors|
|Ostraconophobia||fear/dislike of shellfish, a zoophobia|
|Panphobia||fear of everything or constant fear of an unknown cause|
|Pedophobia, paedophobia, pediaphobia||fear of babies and children|
|Phagophobia||fear of swallowing|
|Phallophobia||fear of erections|
|Pharmacophobia||fear of medications|
|Phasmophobia||fear of ghosts or phantoms|
|Philophobia||fear of love|
|Phyllophobia||fear of leaves|
|Phobophobia||fear of fear itself or of having a phobia|
|Phonophobia||fear of loud sounds or voices|
|Pogonophobia||fear of beards|
|Pornophobia||dislike or fear of pornography; may be used in reference to the opposition to visual nudity|
|Porphyrophobia||fear of the color purple|
|Pteromerhanophobia||fear of flying|
|Pyrophobia||fear of fire|
|Radiophobia||fear of radioactivity or X-rays|
|Ranidaphobia||fear/dislike of frogs, a zoophobia|
|Scopophobia||fear of being looked at or stared at|
|Sexophobia||fear of sexual organs or sexual activities|
|Siderodromophobia||fear of trains or railroads|
|Social phobia||fear of people or social situations|
|Somniphobia||fear of sleep|
|Spectrophobia||fear of mirrors|
|Stasiphobia||fear of standing or walking|
|Submechanophobia||fear of partially or fully submerged man-made objects|
|Taphophobia, taphephobia||fear of graves, or fear of being placed in a grave while still alive|
|Technophobia||fear of advanced technology (see also Luddite)|
|Telephone phobia||fear or reluctance of making or taking telephone calls|
|Teratophobia||fear of giving birth to a monster or a disfigured foetus|
|Tetraphobia||fear of the number 4|
|Thalassophobia||fear of the sea, or fear of being in the ocean|
|Thanatophobia||fear of dying|
|Thermophobia||fear of intolerance to high temperatures|
|Tokophobia||fear of childbirth or pregnancy|
|Tomophobia||fear of invasive medical procedure|
|Tonitrophobia||fear of thunder|
|Toxiphobia||fear of being poisoned|
|Traumatophobia||a synonym for injury phobia: fear of having an injury|
|Trichophobia||delusional fear of something in the roots of the hair that stops it from growing, or fear of hair loss|
|Triskaidekaphobia, terdekaphobia||fear of the number 13|
|Trypanophobia, belonephobia, enetophobia||fear of needles or injections|
|Trypophobia||fear of holes or textures with a pattern of holes|
|Vehophobia||fear of driving|
|Verminophobia||fear of germs|
|Workplace phobia||fear of the workplace, a subset of ergophobia|
|Xanthophobia||fear of the color yellow|
|Zoophobia||fear of animals|
Cultural prejudices and discrimination
|Acephobia||fear/dislike of asexual people|
|Aporophobia||fear/dislike of people without resources|
|Biphobia||fear/dislike of bisexuality or bisexuals|
|Ephebiphobia||fear/dislike of youth|
|Gerontophobia, gerascophobia||fear/dislike of aging or the elderly|
|Heterophobia||fear/dislike of heterosexuals|
|Homophobia||fear/dislike of homosexuality, homosexuals, or gays (as opposed to lesbians)|
|Lesbophobia||fear/dislike of lesbians|
|Pedophobia||fear/dislike of babies or children|
|Psychophobia||fear/dislike of mental illness or the mentally ill|
|Transphobia||fear/dislike of transgender people|
Ethnic prejudices and discrimination
The suffix -phobia is used to coin terms that denote a particular anti-ethnic or anti-demographic sentiment, such as Americanophobia, Europhobia, Francophobia, Hispanophobia, and Indophobia. Often a synonym with the prefix "anti-" already exists (e.g. Polonophobia vs. anti-Polonism). Anti-religious sentiments are expressed in terms such as Christianophobia and Islamophobia.
|Osmophobia||hypersensitivity to smells causing aversion to odors|
|Phonophobia||hypersensitivity to sound causing aversion to sounds|
|Photophobia||hypersensitivity to light causing aversion to light|
|Bibliophobia||fear or hatred of books, as a cultural phenomenon|
|Lipophobia||avoidance of fats in food ( )|
|Coronaphobia||fear of COVID-19|
-phobia in the natural sciences
In the natural sciences, words with the suffix -phobia/-phobic generally describe a predisposition for avoidance and/or exclusion. For antonyms, see here
|Acidophobia/acidophobic||preference for non-acidic conditions|
|Heliophobia/heliophobic||aversion to sunlight|
|Hydrophobia/hydrophobic||the property of being repelled by water|
|Lipophobicity||the property of fat rejection (sometimes also called lipophobia)|
|Oleophobicity||the property of oil rejection|
|Photophobia (biology)||a negative phototaxis or phototropism response, or a tendency to stay out of the light|
|Ultrahydrophobicity||the property given to materials that are extremely difficult to get wet|
|Thermophobia||aversion to heat|
Jocular and fictional phobias
- Aibohphobia – a humorous term for the fear of palindromes, which is a palindrome itself. The term is a piece of computer humor entered into the 1981 The Devil's DP Dictionary.
- Anatidaephobia – the fictional fear that one is being watched by a duck. The word comes from the name of the family Anatidae, and was used in Gary Larson's The Far Side.
- Anoraknophobia – a portmanteau of "anorak" and "arachnophobia". It was used in the Wallace and Gromit comic book Anoraknophobia. Also the title of an album by Marillion.
- Arachibutyrophobia – fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth, from Latin arachis "peanut" and butyrum "butter". The word is used by Charles M. Schulz in a 1982 installment of his Peanuts comic strip, and by Peter O'Donnell in his 1985 Modesty Blaise adventure novel Dead Man's Handle.
- Charlophobia – the fictional fear of any person named Charlotte or Charlie, mentioned in the comedic book A Duck is Watching Me: Strange and Unusual Phobias (2014), by Bernie Hobbs. The phobia was created to mock name bias, a form of discrimination studied by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Chicago.
- Hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia – fear of long words, from the root word sesquipedalophobia combined with monstrum and hippopotamus. This was mentioned on the first episode of Brainiac Series Five as a Tickle's Teaser.
- Keanuphobia – fear of Keanu Reeves, portrayed in the Dean Koontz book, False Memory, where a woman has an irrational fear of Reeves and has to see her psychiatrist, Mark Ahriman, each week, unaware that she only has the fear in the first place because Ahriman implanted it via hypnotic suggestion to amuse himself. He calls her "Keanuphobe" in his head.
- Nihilophobia – fear of nothingness, from Latin nihil and "nothing, none", as described by the Doctor in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Night". Voyager's morale officer and chef Neelix has this condition, having panic attacks while the ship was traversing a dark expanse of space known as the Void. It is also the title of a 2008 album by Neuronium.
- Robophobia – irrational fear of robots and/or androids, also known as "Grimwade's Syndrome". It was first used in "The Robots of Death", the fifth serial of the 14th season of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who.
- Semaphobia – fear of average web developers to use Semantic Web technologies.
- Venustraphobia – fear of beautiful women, according to a 1998 humorous article published by BBC News. Venustraphobia is also the title of a 2006 album by Casbah Club.
- The A–Z of Fear, a 30 October 1998 BBC News unsigned article in the "Entertainment" section
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- Hydrophobia (and Superhydrophobia) can be used for chemical and scientific purposes. See Hydrophobe page.
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A catalogue of unusual phobias reveals that the fear of long words is known as hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia.
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