Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe. Injection is a technique for delivering drugs by parenteral administration, that is, administration via a route other than through the digestive tract. Parenteral injection includes subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous, intracardiac, intraarticular, and intracavernous injection.
Injection is generally administered as a bolus, but can possibly be used for continuous drug administration as well. The medication may be long-acting even when administered as a bolus and is then called depot injection. Administration by an indwelling catheter is generally preferred instead of injection in case of more long-term or recurrent drug administration.
Injections are among the most common health care procedures, with at least 16 billion administered in developing and transitional countries each year. 95% of injections are administered in curative care, 3% are for immunization, and the rest for other purposes, such as blood transfusions. In some instances the term injection is used synonymously with inoculation even by different workers in the same hospital. This should not cause confusion; the focus is on what is being injected/inoculated, not the terminology of the procedure.
Since the process imparts a small puncture wound to the body (with varying degrees of pain depending on injection type and location, medication type, needle gauge, the skill of the individual administering the injection and the sensitivity of the individual being injected), fear of needles is a common phobia and proper antiseptic measures should be used.
Types of InjectionsEdit
Intravenous injections (IV injections) involve needle insertion directly into the vein and the substance is directly delivered into the bloodstream. In medicine and drug use, this route of administration is the fastest way to get the desired effects since the medication moves immediately into blood circulation and to the rest of the body. This type of injection is the most common and often associated with illicit drug use because of the rapid effects.
Intramuscular injections (IM injections) deliver a substance deep into a muscle, where they are quickly absorbed by blood vessels. Common injections sites include the deltoid, vastus lateralis, and ventrogluteal muscles. Most inactivated vaccines, like influenza, are given by IM injection. Some medications are formulated for IM injection, like epinephrine autoinjectors. Medical professionals are trained to give IM injections, but patients can also be trained to self-administer medications like epinephrine.
In a subcutaneous injection (SubQ injections), the medication is delivered to the tissues between the skin and the muscle. Absorption of the medicine is slower than that of intramuscular injection. Since the needle does not need to reach the muscles, often a bigger gauge and shorter needle is used. Usual site of administration is fat tissues behind the arm. Certain intramuscular injection medicines such as EpiPen® can also be used subcutaneously. Insulin injection is a common type of subcutaneous injection medicine. Certain vaccines including the MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella), varicella vaccine (chickenpox), and zoster vaccine (shingles) are given subcutaneously.
In an intradermal injection, medication is delivered directly into the dermis, the layer just below the epidermis of the skin. The injection is often given at a 5 to 15 degree angle with the needle placed almost flat against the patient's skin. Absorption takes the longest from this route compared to intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injections. Because of this, intradermal injection are often used for sensitivity tests, like tuberculin and allergy tests, and local anesthesia tests. The reactions caused by these tests are easily seen due to the location of the injections on the skin.
Common sites of intradermal injections are the forearm and lower back.
A depot injection is an injection, usually subcutaneous, intradermal, or intramuscular, that deposits a drug in a localized mass, called a depot, from which it is gradually absorbed by surrounding tissue. Such injection allows the active compound to be released in a consistent way over a long period. Depot injections are usually either solid or oil-based. Depot injections may be available as certain forms of a drug, such as decanoate salts or esters. Examples of depot injections include Depo Provera and haloperidol decanoate. Prostate cancer patients receiving hormone therapy usually get depot injections as a treatment or therapy. Zoladex is an example of a medication delivered by depot for prostate cancer treatment or therapy. Naltrexone may be administered in a monthly depot injection to control opioid abuse; in this case, the depot injection improves compliance by replacing daily pill administration.
The advantages of using a long-acting depot injection include increased medication compliance due to reduction in the frequency of dosing, as well as more consistent serum concentrations. A significant disadvantage is that the drug is not immediately reversible since it is slowly released.
|Medication||Brand name||Class||Vehicle||Dosage||Tmax||t1/2 single||t1/2 multiple||logPc||Ref|
|Aripiprazole lauroxil||Aristada||Atypical||Watera||441–1064 mg/4–8 weeks||24–35 days||?||54–57 days||7.9–10.0|
|Aripiprazole monohydrate||Abilify Maintena||Atypical||Watera||300–400 mg/4 weeks||7 days||?||30–47 days||4.9–5.2|
|Bromperidol decanoate||Impromen Decanoas||Typical||Sesame oil||40–300 mg/4 weeks||3–9 days||?||21–25 days||7.9|||
|Clopentixol decanoate||Sordinol Depot||Typical||Viscoleob||50–600 mg/1–4 weeks||4–7 days||?||19 days||9.0|||
|Flupentixol decanoate||Depixol||Typical||Viscoleob||10–200 mg/2–4 weeks||4–10 days||8 days||17 days||7.2–9.2|||
|Fluphenazine decanoate||Prolixin Decanoate||Typical||Sesame oil||12.5–100 mg/2–5 weeks||1–2 days||1–10 days||14–100 days||7.2–9.0|||
|Fluphenazine enanthate||Prolixin Enanthate||Typical||Sesame oil||12.5–100 mg/1–4 weeks||2–3 days||4 days||?||6.4–7.4|||
|Fluspirilene||Imap, Redeptin||Typical||Watera||2–12 mg/1 week||1–8 days||7 days||?||5.2–5.8|||
|Haloperidol decanoate||Haldol Decanoate||Typical||Sesame oil||20–400 mg/2–4 weeks||3–9 days||18–21 days||7.2–7.9|||
|Olanzapine pamoate||Zyprexa Relprevv||Atypical||Watera||150–405 mg/2–4 weeks||7 days||?||30 days||–|
|Paliperidone palmitate||Invega Sustenna||Atypical||Watera||39–819 mg/4–12 weeks||13–33 days||25–139 days||?||8.1–10.1|
|Perphenazine decanoate||Trilafon Dekanoat||Typical||Sesame oil||50–200 mg/2–4 weeks||?||?||27 days||8.9|
|Perphenazine enanthate||Trilafon Enanthate||Typical||Sesame oil||25–200 mg/2 weeks||2–3 days||?||4–7 days||6.4–7.2|||
|Pipotiazine palmitate||Piportil Longum||Typical||Viscoleob||25–400 mg/4 weeks||9–10 days||?||14–21 days||8.5–11.6|||
|Pipotiazine undecylenate||Piportil Medium||Typical||Sesame oil||100–200 mg/2 weeks||?||?||?||8.4|
|Risperidone||Risperdal Consta||Atypical||Microspheres||12.5–75 mg/2 weeks||21 days||?||3–6 days||–|
|Zuclopentixol acetate||Clopixol Acuphase||Typical||Viscoleob||50–200 mg/1–3 days||1–2 days||1–2 days||4.7–4.9|
|Zuclopentixol decanoate||Clopixol Depot||Typical||Viscoleob||50–800 mg/2–4 weeks||4–9 days||?||11–21 days||7.5–9.0|
|Note: All by intramuscular injection. Footnotes: a = Microcrystalline or nanocrystalline aqueous suspension. b = Low-viscosity vegetable oil (specifically fractionated coconut oil with medium-chain triglycerides). c = Predicted, from PubChem and DrugBank. Sources: Main: See template.|
|Estrogen||Form||Major brand names||EPD||CIC-D||Duration|
|Estradiol||Aqueous solution||–||?||–||<1 day|
|Oil solution||Estradiol||40–60 mg||–||1–2 mg ≈ 1–2 days|
|Aqueous suspension||Aquadiol, Diogyn, Progynon, Mego-E||?||3.5 mg||0.5–2 mg ≈ 2–7 days; 3.5 mg ≈ >5 days|
|Microspheres||Juvenum-E, Juvenum||?||–||1 mg ≈ 30 days|
|Estradiol benzoate||Oil solution||Progynon-B||25–35 mg||–||1.66 mg ≈ 2–3 days; 5 mg ≈ 3–6 days|
|Aqueous suspension||Agofollin-Depot, Ovocyclin M||20 mg||–||10 mg ≈ 16–21 days|
|Emulsion||Menformon-Emulsion, Di-Pro-Emulsion||?||–||10 mg ≈ 14–21 days|
|Estradiol dipropionate||Oil solution||Agofollin, Di-Ovocylin, Progynon DP||25–30 mg||–||5 mg ≈ 5–8 days|
|Estradiol valerate||Oil solution||Delestrogen, Progynon Depot, Mesigyna||20–30 mg||5 mg||5 mg ≈ 7–8 days; 10 mg ≈ 10–14 days;|
40 mg ≈ 14–21 days; 100 mg ≈ 21–28 days
|Estradiol benzoate butyrate||Oil solution||Redimen, Soluna, Unijab||?||10 mg||10 mg ≈ 21 days|
|Estradiol cypionate||Oil solution||Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin||20–30 mg||–||5 mg ≈ 11–14 days|
|Aqueous suspension||Cyclofem, Lunelle||?||5 mg||5 mg ≈ 14–24 days|
|Estradiol enanthate||Oil solution||Perlutal, Topasel, Yectames||?||5–10 mg||10 mg ≈ 20–30 days|
|Estradiol dienanthate||Oil solution||Climacteron, Lactimex, Lactostat||?||–||7.5 mg ≈ >40 days|
|Estradiol undecylate||Oil solution||Delestrec, Progynon Depot 100||?||–||10–20 mg ≈ 40–60 days;|
25–50 mg ≈ 60–120 days
|Polyestradiol phosphate||Aqueous solution||Estradurin||40–60 mg||–||40 mg ≈ 30 days; 80 mg ≈ 60 days;|
160 mg ≈ 120 days
|Estrone||Oil solution||Estrone, Kestrin, Theelin||?||–||1–2 mg ≈ 2–3 days|
|Aqueous suspension||Estrone Aq. Susp., Kestrone, Theelin Aq.||?||–||0.1–2 mg ≈ 2–7 days|
|Estriol||Oil solution||–||?||–||1–2 mg ≈ 1–4 days|
|Polyestriol phosphate||Aqueous solution||Gynäsan, Klimadurin, Triodurin||?||–||50 mg ≈ 30 days; 80 mg ≈ 60 days|
|Notes: All aqueous suspensions are of microcrystalline particle size. Estradiol production during the menstrual cycle is 30–640 µg/day (6.4–8.6 mg total per month or cycle). The vaginal epithelium maturation dosage of estradiol benzoate or estradiol valerate has been reported as 5 to 7 mg/week. An effective ovulation-inhibiting dose of estradiol undecylate is 20–30 mg/month. Sources: See template.|
|Progestogen||Form||Major brand names||Class||TFD
|Algestone acetophenide||Oil solution||Perlutal, Topasel, Yectames||Pregnane||?||–||75–150 mg||100 mg ≈ 14–32 days|
|Cyproterone acetate||Oil solution||Androcur Depot||Pregnane||?||–||–||300 mg ≈ 20 days|
|Dydrogesteronea||Aqueous suspension||–||Retropregnane||?||–||–||100 mg ≈ 16–38 days|
|Gestonorone caproate||Oil solution||Depostat, Primostat||Norpregnane||25–50 mg||–||–||25–50 mg ≈ 8–13 days|
|Hydroxyprogesterone acetatea||Aqueous suspension||–||Pregnane||350 mg||–||–||150–350 mg ≈ 9–16 days|
|Hydroxyprogesterone caproate||Oil solution||Delalutin, Proluton, Makena||Pregnane||250–500 mgb||–||250–500 mg||65–500 mg ≈ 5–21 days|
|Levonorgestrel butanoatea||Aqueous suspension||–||Gonane||?||–||–||5–50 mg ≈ 3–6 months|
|Lynestrenol phenylpropionatea||Oil solution||–||Estrane||?||–||–||50–100 mg ≈ 14–30 days|
|Medroxyprogesterone acetate||Aqueous suspension||Depo-Provera||Pregnane||50–100 mg||150 mg||25 mg||50–150 mg ≈ 14–50+ days|
|Megestrol acetate||Aqueous suspension||Mego-E||Pregnane||?||–||25 mg||25 mg ≈ >14 daysc|
|Norethisterone enanthate||Oil solution||Noristerat, Mesigyna||Estrane||100–200 mg||200 mg||50 mg||50–200 mg ≈ 11–52 days|
|Oxogestone phenylpropionatea||Oil solution||–||Norpregnane||?||–||–||100 mg ≈ 19–20 days|
|Progesterone||Oil solution||Progestaject, Gestone, Strone||Pregnane||200 mgb||–||–||25–350 mg ≈ 2–6 days|
|Aqueous suspension||Agolutin Depot||Pregnane||50–200 mg||–||–||50–300 mg ≈ 7–14 days|
|Note: All by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. All are synthetic except for P4, which is bioidentical. P4 production during the luteal phase is ~25 (15–50) mg/day. The OID of OHPC is 250 to 500 mg/month. Footnotes: a = Never marketed by this route. b = In divided doses (2 × 125 or 250 mg for OHPC, 10 × 20 mg for P4). c = Half-life is ~14 days. Sources: Main: See template.|
The pharmaceutical injection type of infiltration involves loading a volume of tissue with the drug, filling the interstitial space. Local anesthetics are often infiltrated into the dermis and hypodermis.
The pain of an injection may be lessened by prior application of ice or topical anesthetic, or simultaneous pinching of the skin. Recent studies suggest that forced coughing during an injection stimulates a transient rise in blood pressure which inhibits the perception of pain. Sometimes, as with an amniocentesis, a local anesthetic is given. The most common technique to reduce the pain of an injection is simply to distract the patient.
Proper needle technique and hygiene is important to perform injections safely for patients and healthcare personnel. A new, sterile needle should be used each time, as needles get duller and more damaged with each use and reusing needles increases risk of infection. Needles should not be shared between people, as this increases risk of transmitting blood-borne pathogens. This can lead to infections and even lifelong disease.
In addition, multi-use medication bags, bottles, syringes, and ampules should not be entered with used needles. This practice also increases the risk of disease transmission between people sharing the same medication.
Aseptic technique should always be practiced when administering injections. Aseptic practices and procedures include barriers such as gloves, gowns and masks for health care providers, sterile instruments (needles, syringes, etc.) and equipment, contact guidelines to avoid touching non-sterile surfaces with sterile items, and environmental controls.
Needles should be disposed of in sharps containers. This reduces the risk of accidental needle sticks and exposure to other people. Sharps containers should be closed once they are 3/4 full and sealed with duct tape. In the United States, there are 39 states that participate in programs to provide needle or syringe exchange programs. If living in a state with a sharps take back program, the sharps container may be taken to the take back center for disposal. Otherwise, it should be placed in the center of a full trash bag. In the state of Ohio, sharps are allowed to be put in the regular trash. Some medicine companies provide mail-back sharps programs.
Risks of Unsafe InjectionsEdit
Unsafe injection practices can be attributed to at least 49 disease outbreaks since 2001. Contamination of needles at the point of administration can lead to transmission of Hepatitis B and C, HIV, and bloodstream infections. Drug users have high rates of unsafe needle use including sharing needles between people. The reuse of needles puts people at risk for disease. The spread of HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C from injection drug use is a worldwide issue. In North America in 1994, over half of HIV cases were the result of drug use and unsafe injection practices.
Another risk is poor collection and disposal of dirty injection equipment, which exposes healthcare workers and the community to the risk of needle stick injuries. In some countries, unsafe disposal can lead to re-sale of used equipment on the black market. Many countries have legislation or policies that mandate that healthcare professionals use a safety syringe (safety engineered needle) or alternative methods of administering medicines whenever possible.
According to one study, unsafe injections cause an estimated 1.3 million early deaths each year.
To improve injection safety, the WHO recommends:
- Changing the behavior of health care workers and patients
- Ensuring the availability of equipment and supplies
- Managing waste safely and appropriately
Improvements to injection safetyEdit
An important movement in injection safety is the rising prevalence of supervised injection sites. These sites not only provide clean needles to mitigate infection risk, they also provide a safe space with clinicians and life saving support if needed. In an event of an overdose a clinician would be able to administer life saving support including medications such as naloxone, an opioid antagonist, used as an antidote in opioid overdose situations. Safe injection site are associated with lower overdose mortality, ambulance calls, and HIV infections.
Ten countries around the world currently use safe injection sites, also called supervised consumption services. These include Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. In total, there are about 120 sites operating. Although the United States does not currently have any safe injection sites, some cities such San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Denver are considering opening them. In 2018, the California State Assembly attempted to pass Assembly Bill 186 to launch a three-year pilot program in San Francisco for California's first safe injection sites. Colorado and Pennsylvania are not too far behind, expressing their interests in launching safe injection sites. Recent rulings in Pennsylvania have determined that safe injection sites are not unlawful under the federal law.
Many species of animals, and some stinging plants, have developed poison-injecting devices for self-defence or catching prey, for example:
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