Caroline of Baden (German: Friederike Karoline Wilhelmine von Baden; 13 July 1776 – 13 November 1841) was by marriage an Electress of Bavaria and later the first Queen consort of Bavaria by marriage to Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria.
|Caroline of Baden|
|Electress consort of Bavaria|
|Tenure||16 February 1799 – 1 January 1806|
|Queen consort of Bavaria|
|Tenure||1 January 1806 – 13 October 1825|
|Born||13 July 1776|
Karlsruhe, Margraviate of Baden
|Died||13 November 1841 (aged 65)|
Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria
(m. 1797; died 1825)
|Father||Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden|
|Mother||Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt|
Early life edit
Caroline was considered as a bride for Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, but the fear of attracting opposition from France made her family hesitate.
On 9 March 1797, in Karlsruhe, she became the second spouse of Maximilian, Duke of Palatine Zweibrücken, who two years later would inherit the Electorate of Bavaria. As a result of the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the rank of Elector became obsolete, and the ruler of Bavaria was promoted to the rank of King. As a result, Caroline became Queen of Bavaria. Caroline had seven children with her husband, including two pairs of twins, an interesting occurrence considering Caroline was also a twin herself.
She was allowed to keep her Protestant religion and had her own Protestant pastor, which was unique for a Bavarian queen. She was described as a very dignified consort and hostess of the Bavarian court and raised her daughters to have a strong sense of duty.
Death and funeral edit
Caroline of Baden died 13 November 1841, outliving her husband by sixteen years and one month. Due to her Protestant religion, her funeral was conducted with so little royal dignity that there were public protests. By order of the Catholic archbishop of Munich, Lothar Anselm von Gebsattel, all participating Catholic clergy were dressed in ordinary clothes instead of church vestments. The Protestant clergy were halted at the church door and not allowed to proceed inside for the service, so Ludwig Friedrich Schmidt gave the funeral sermon there. Afterward, the funeral procession dissipated, and the coffin was placed in the burial crypt without ceremony. This treatment of his beloved stepmother permanently softened the attitude of Caroline's stepson Ludwig I of Bavaria, who up until that time had been a strong opponent of Protestantism despite his marriage to the Protestant princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
|Son||5 September 1799||Stillborn|
|Maximilian Joseph Charles||28 October 1800||12 February 1803||Died in childhood|
Queen consort of Prussia
|13 November 1801
|14 December 1873||Married in 1823 the future King Frederick William IV of Prussia and had no issue|
Queen consort of Saxony
|8 November 1877||Married in 1822 the future King John of Saxony and had issue|
|Marie Anne Leopoldine
Queen consort of Saxony
|27 January 1805
|13 September 1877||Married in 1833 the future King Frederick Augustus II of Saxony and had no issue|
Archduchess of Austria
|28 May 1872||Married in 1824 Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and had issue|
Duchess in Bavaria
|30 August 1808||25 January 1892||Married in 1828 Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria and had issue|
|Maximiliana Josepha Caroline||21 July 1810||4 February 1821||Died in childhood|
- Almanach de la cour: pour l'année ... 1817. l'Académie Imp. des Sciences. 1817. p. 69.
- Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. pp. 38 (father), 69 (mother).
- Françoise de Bernardy : "Stéphanie de Beauharnais, fille adoptive de Napoléon et grande-duchesse de Bade " L.A.P. Pais, 1977.