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Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken

Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise; 9 March 1721 – 30 March 1774) was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage to Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was famed as one of the most learned women of her time and known as The Great Landgräfin.

Caroline
Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt
Caroline-Henriette of Hesse Darmstadt-f4578561.jpg
Portrait of Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Born9 March 1721
Strasbourg
Died30 March 1774 (aged 53 years)
Darmstadt
SpouseLouis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
IssueCaroline, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Frederika Louisa, Queen of Prussia
Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
Amelie, Hereditary Princess of Baden
Wilhelmina Louisa, Grand Duchess of Russia
Luise, Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Landgrave Frederick
Landgrave Christian
HousePalatinate-Zweibrücken
FatherChristian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
MotherCaroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken

BiographyEdit

Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken.

She married on 12 August 1741 in Zweibrücken, Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The marriage was arranged and unhappy: Caroline was interested in music and literature, while her consort was interested in military matters, and she lived separated from him at Buchsweiler. She founded a factory to ease the states economy. In 1772, she promoted the politician Karl Friedrich von Moser.

Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She befriended several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished he had the power to make her Queen of Europa. She also had contact with Frederick II of Prussia. She was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected, and he famously referred to her as the Glory and Wonder of our century; after her death, he sent an urn to Darmstadt with the text femina sexo, ingenio vir ('A woman by sex, a man by spirit'). [1]

IssueEdit

Name Portrait Birth Death Notes
Caroline
Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
  2 March 1746 18 September 1821 Married Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, had issue
Frederika Louisa
Queen of Prussia
  16 October 1751 25 February 1805 Married in 1769 Frederick William II of Prussia, had issue.
Louis I
Grand Duke of Hesse
  14 June 1753 6 April 1830 Married in 1799 Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, had issue
Amalie
Hereditary Princess of Baden
  20 June 1754 21 June 1832 Married in 1775 Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden, had issue
Wilhelmina Louisa
Grand Duchess Natalia Alexeievna of Russia
  25 June 1755 26 April 1776 Married in 1773 the future Emperor Paul I of Russia, no surviving issue
Louisa Augusta
Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
  30 January 1757 14 February 1830 Married in 1775 Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, had issue
Frederick
1759 1802
Christian
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
  25 November 1763 17 April 1830 Died unmarried

AncestryEdit

LiteratureEdit

  • Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Philipp A. Pauli: Darmstadt: Eine historisch-topographische Skizze und Excursionen in die Umgegend. Will, 1815, S. 89.
  2. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 93.

External linksEdit