Caesars Palace is a luxury hotel and casino in Paradise, Nevada, United States. The hotel is situated on the west side of the Las Vegas Strip between Bellagio and The Mirage. It is one of Las Vegas's largest and best known landmarks.
|Location||Paradise, Nevada, U.S.|
|Address||3570 South Las Vegas Boulevard|
|Opening date||August 5, 1966|
|No. of rooms||4,391|
|Total gaming space||124,181 sq ft (11,536.8 m2)|
|Signature attractions||Replica ancient Roman, Greek and Renaissance art|
The Colosseum at Caesars Palace
The Forum Shops at Caesars
|Notable restaurants||Bacchanal Buffet|
Old Homestead Steakhouse
|Operating license holder||Caesars Entertainment Corporation|
|Renovated in||1974, 1979, 1992, 2001, 2005, 2011, 2015|
Caesars Palace was established in 1966 by Jay Sarno, who sought to create an opulent facility that gave guests a sense of life during the Roman Empire. It contains many statues, columns, and iconography typical of Hollywood Roman period productions including a 20-foot (6.1 m) statue of Augustus Caesar near the entrance. Caesars Palace is now owned by Vici Properties and operated by Caesars Entertainment. As of July 2016, the hotel has 3,976 rooms and suites in six towers and a convention facility of over 300,000 square feet (28,000 m2). The hotel has a large range of restaurants. Among them are several which serve authentic Chinese cuisine to cater to wealthy East Asian gamblers. From the outset, Caesars Palace has been oriented towards attracting high rollers. The modern casino facilities include table games such as blackjack, craps, roulette, baccarat, Spanish 21, mini-baccarat, Pai Gow, and Pai Gow poker. The casino also features a 4,500-square-foot (420 m2) 24-hour poker room; and many slot machines and video poker machines.
The hotel has operated as a host venue for live music and sports entertainment. In addition to holding boxing matches since the late 1970s, Caesars also hosted the Caesars Palace Grand Prix from 1981 to 1982. Notable entertainers who have performed at Caesars Palace include Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Dean Martin, Rod Stewart, Stevie Nicks, Celine Dion, Ike & Tina Turner, Shania Twain, Bette Midler, Cher, Elton John, Liberace, Diana Ross, Liza Minnelli, Julio Iglesias, Ann-Margret, Tony Bennett, Harry Belafonte, Lena Horne, Judy Garland, Gloria Estefan, Mariah Carey, Matt Goss, and Deana Martin. The main performance venue is The Colosseum. The theatre seats 4,296 people and contains a 22,450-square-foot (2,086 m2) stage. The stage was a special construction for Celine Dion's show, A New Day..., in 2003. After departing in 2007, Dion returned to the Colosseum with her new show entitled "Celine" on March 15, 2011, which was under contract through June 9, 2018 for 65 shows per year.
- 1 History
- 2 Architecture
- 3 Entertainment
- 4 Restaurants
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In 1962, cabana motel owners Jay Sarno and Stanley Mallin applied for a $10.6 million loan from the Teamsters Central States Pension Fund. He began plans to build a hotel on land owned by Kirk Kerkorian. Sarno would later act as designer of the hotel he planned to construct. His vision was to emulate life under the Roman Empire. The objective of the palace was to ensure an atmosphere in which everybody staying at the hotel would feel like a Caesar; this is why the name "Caesars Palace" lacks an apostrophe, making "Caesars" a plural instead of possessive noun. Caesars Palace was instrumental in beginning a new era of lavish casinos from the late 1960s onward. Architectural writer, Alan Hess, stated: "Caesars Palace needed only a sumptuous array of Classical statuary and a host of marble-white columns to establish its theme. The visitor's imagination, in league with well-placed publicity, filled in the opulence". Jefferson Graham wrote that the result was "the gaudiest, weirdest, most elaborate, and most talked about resort Vegas had ever seen. [Its] emblem was a chesty female dipping grapes into the waiting mouth of a recumbent Roman, fitted out in toga, laurel wreath, and phallic dagger".
The inauguration ceremony was held on August 5, 1966. Sarno and his partner, Nate Jacobsen, spent one million dollars on the event. The cost included "the largest order of Ukrainian caviar ever placed by a private organization", two tons of filet mignon, 300 pounds (140 kg) of Maryland crabmeat and 50,000 glasses of champagne. Cocktail waitresses in Greco-Roman wigs would greet guests and say "Welcome to Caesars Palace, I am your slave". Among the performers at the opening were Andy Williams and Phil Richards. According to author Ovid Demaris, Caesars Palace was "a mob-controlled casino from the day it opened its doors". By the time it opened, the significant publicity of the new hotel had generated $42 million in advanced bookings.
On December 31, 1967, stunt performer Evel Knievel arrived at the hotel to watch a boxing match and convinced Sarno that he could jump over the distance of 140 feet (43 m) over the fountains. ABC came in to film the jump, in which Knievel hit the top of the safety ramp after the jump and flew over his handlebars into the parking lot of neighbouring Dunes. Fracturing his pelvis, several bones and suffering a concussion, he lay in a hospital unconscious for 29 days in a coma before recovering. On April 14, 1989, Knievel's son Robbie successfully completed the jump.
The first casino at the hotel was named Circus Circus. It was intended to be the world's liveliest and most expensive casino, attracting elite gamblers from around the world.  In 1969, a Federal Organized Crime Task Force accused the casino's financial manager, Jerome Zarowitz, of having ties with organized-crime figures in New York and New England. Although Zarowitz was never tried, the task force pressured Sarno and his other investors to sell the casino, which led to it being acquired by Lum's restaurant chain owners Stuart and Clifford S. Perlman for $60 million. The company soon shed its restaurant operations and changed its name to Caesars World. On July 15 of that year, executives lay ground on an expansion area of the hotel, and they buried a time capsule in the area.
Frank Sinatra began performing at Caesars Palace in 1967, after a fallout with Howard Hughes and Carl Cohen at The Sands. He signed a three-year contract. In the early morning hours of September 6, 1970, Sinatra was playing a high stakes baccarat at the casino, where he was performing at the time. Normal limits for the game are US$2,000 per hand; Sinatra had been playing for US$8,000 and wanted the stakes to be raised to US$16,000. When Sinatra began shouting after his request was denied, hotel executive Sanford Waterman came to talk with him. Witnesses to the incident said the two men both made threats, with Waterman producing a gun and pointing it at Sinatra. Sinatra walked out of the casino and returned to his Palm Springs home without fulfilling the rest of his three-week engagement there. Waterman was booked on a charge of assault with a deadly weapon, but was released without bail. The local district attorney's office declined to file charges against Waterman for pulling the gun, stating that Sinatra had refused to make a statement regarding the incident. Despite swearing to never perform at Caesars again,  Sinatra returned after his retirement in January 1974, and became a frequent performer at Caesars Palace throughout the decade. He was performing at Caesars when his mother Dolly died in a plane crash in January 1977, and in 1979 he was awarded the Grammy Trustees Award in a party at the hotel, while celebrating 40 years in show business and his 64th birthday. When Sinatra was given back his gaming license by the Nevada Gaming Commission in 1981, he became an entertainment-public relations consultant at the casino for $20,000 a week.
In 1971, some 1500 African American rights activists stormed the hotel in a protest. The National Welfare Rights Organization was involved with a "coalition of welfare mothers, Legal Services lawyers, radical priests and nuns, civil rights leaders, movie stars and housewives". Five years later in the spring of 1976, hundreds of African American workers went on strike at the hotel in the first major strike in Las Vegas history. The entrances to the hotel and casino were blocked, and the hotel lost several million dollars from the strike, including one cancellation worth $500,000. In 1973, the Del Webb corporation was contracted to build a $8 million 16-story building adjacent to the Palace.
In 1981, a fire broke out at the hotel, hospitalizing 16 people. The Perlmans sold their shares in Caesars World that year after trying to get a gaming license for a casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The New Jersey Casino Control Commission accused the brothers of doing business with people who had organized-crime connections.
In 1986, the annual Teamsters convention was held at Caesars with a $650,000 party. The lavish feast included caviar, crab claws, roast beef and a range of 15 different desserts. In 1991, Sheila King won a $250,000 jackpot in the casino at Caesars Palace on a $500 machine and won $50,000 twice soon afterward. Over three years she won $200 million on the machines but kept pumping the money back into the machines. Despite her luck, in 1994 her winnings fell to $500,000, and she spent much of her time over the next four years in the law courts claiming that the casino operators had tampered with her machines and deceived her to keep her winning.
In the 1990s, the hotel's management sought to create more elaborate features to compete with the other modern Las Vegas developments. The Forum Shops at Caesars opened in 1992; it was one of the first venues in the city where shopping, particularly at high-end fashion house stores, was an attraction in itself. A new redevelopment opened on October 22, 2004.
In June 2005, Harrah's Entertainment acquired Caesars Entertainment, Inc. and became the owner of Caesars Palace. Harrah's changed its own name to Caesars Entertainment in 2010, to capitalize on the prestige of the Caesars brand.
In 2010, Caesars Palace was fined $250,000 by the Nevada Gaming Commission for permitting a high-limit baccarat player to dance on the card table while the game was underway. In September 2015, Caesars Palace agreed to pay the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network an $8 million civil money penalty for violating the Bank Secrecy Act.
In October 2017, ownership of Caesars Palace was transferred to Vici Properties as part of a corporate spin-off; Vici leased the property back to Caesars Entertainment at an initial annual rent of $165 million.
Jeff Campbell of Lonely Planet refers to the hotel as "quintessentially Las Vegas", a "Greco-Roman fantasyland featuring marble reproductions of classical statuary". The art deco style fused with clear influences from Hollywood epic productions dominate. Construction of the 14-story Caesars Palace hotel on the 34-acre (14 ha) site began in 1962, and it opened in 1966. It lay next to Dunes Hotel and opposite the Desert Inn. The original hotel featured lanes of cypresses and marble columns as part of a 900 feet (270 m) frontage, with the hotel set back 475 feet (145 m) . The car park could accommodate up to 1300 cars.
Water is heavily used for at least 18 fountains throughout—the casino resort uses over 240 million gallons a year. A 20 feet (6.1 m) high statue of Julius Caesar hailing a taxi lies in the driveway leading to the entrance, and there are replicas of Rape of the Sabine Women and statues of Venus and David which greet guests as they arrive. Near the entrance is a four-faced, eight-handed Brahma shrine which weighs four tons, It was made in Bangkok, Thailand, with a casting ceremony on November 25, 1983, according to the inscription on it.
A $75 million renovation of the hotel's original Roman Tower, built in 1966 and extended in 1974, was completed in January 2016. The 14-story Tower, last renovated in 2001, will have 20 rooms added for a total of 587 rooms and suites, and will be renamed the Julius Tower. Entertainment Close-Up wrote that the Julius Tower is the "latest piece of a $1 billion investment to cement Caesars Palace as the premier resort at the center of the Las Vegas Strip". Nobu Tower (formerly Centurion Tower) is a 14-story tower that was completed in 1970 at a cost of $4.2 million. In 2011 it was announced that the tower would be renovated and be renamed to Nobu, and to operate as the first Nobu Hotel with a restaurant.
Rooms in the Forum Tower opened in 1979. The Palace Tower opened in 1998 and mirrors the Greco-Roman theme of the hotel with fluted columns and Corinthian columns and pediments on its facade and fountains and statues scattered around its interior space.
Plans for the Augustus Tower began in 2003 and were consolidated in 2004 with the architects Bergman Walls Associates. The expansion at a cost of $289 million US included a 26-story, 345-foot-tall tower, as well as an addition of new convention and meeting facilities at the resort. The Augustus opened in 2005 with 949 rooms, which were designed for more upscale luxury and service than the other parts of the resort. The Octavius Tower opened in January 2012. The 668-room tower was added as part of a $860-million expansion. The tower shares a lobby with the Augustus Tower. The pools at Caesars Palace are modeled after the Roman baths.
The Forum ShopsEdit
The mall's spiral staircase consists of spiral escalators. The mall also contains many replicas of famous fountains. The Fall of Atlantis fountain uses special effects and 9 feet (2.7 m) animated figures to tell the story of the Myth of Atlantis.
With many high-end boutiques including Cartier, Chanel, Calvin Klein, Dior, Emporio Armani, Gucci, Ted Baker, Tiffany and Co, Valentino and Versace, it is the highest grossing mall in the United States, with higher sales per square foot than Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills, California. The mall, which was 280,000 square feet at its 1992 opening, was expanded by 500,000 square feet in 1997. A third expansion, which began in 2002, added another 200,000 square feet to the property. The Forum Shops property is considered to be the most valuable real estate in Las Vegas.
The original hotel tower had 680 rooms, and each featured a room with one wall which was fully mirrored from floor to ceiling. The hotel featured an 800-seat theatre restaurant and three public dining areas, two health clubs, an epicurean room, a convention hall of up to 2000 people and 20 separate halls and committee rooms, accommodating up to 5000 people in total. Marble was imported from Italy, rosewood from Brazil, with gold leafing throughout the place.
As of 2015, the hotel has 3,960 rooms and suites in six towers. In addition to its regular rooms and suites, Caesars Palace offers penthouse suites, and 14 villa suites named after notable Romans. A number of Roman statues were imported from Florence, Italy, valued at over $150,000. Statues of Julius Caesar and emperors such as Augustus and Nero are particularly common at the Palace. There are many variations of Augustus throughout, including two copies of the Prima Porta Augustus. Author Margaret Malamud notes the contrast between his "sober and pious figure" in the Olympic Lounge and the "statue of Nero and his lyre with which it is paired". There is a 25 feet (7.6 m) statue of the goddess Fortuna. One statue of David in the interior is an exact replica of an early 16th-century Michelangelo masterpiece, standing 18 feet (5.5 m) high and weighing over nine tons.
Caesars Forum and gambling facilitiesEdit
Caesars Forum is the original casino of the hotel which opened in 1966 with 30 gaming tables and 250 slot machines. It contains 20 black Italian marble columns with white marble and gold leaf trimmings. Friezes and statues depict Roman conquests, and women motifs are prevalent. In the centre is a flat ornate dome with an "enormous chandelier in the shape of a Roman medallion, made of 100,000 handmade and handpolished crystals" on the ceiling. It reportedly held the world record at the time for the world's largest crystal ceiling fixture. The cocktail waitresses, as of 2005, still wear the same uniform which was designed by Jay Sarno: white, off-the-shoulder mini-tunics with high-heeled Roman sandals.
The modern casino facilities include table games such as Blackjack, Craps, Roulette, Baccarat, Spanish 21, Mini-Baccarat, Pai Gow and Pai Gow poker. Caesars Palace's 4,500 square feet (420 m2) 24-hour poker room currently lies in heart of the gaming floor between The Colosseum and the Race & Sports Book, where racing and sports bets are put on. It moved there in June 2014, when Pure Nightclub underwent an expansion and annexed its space. As of December 2015 it contains 16 tables with free Wi-Fi and USB charging ports. There are many traditional reel-type slot machines, video reels machine, video poker games, video blackjack or keno, in which participants can play from 1¢ to $500. One author noted that due to the combination of darkness and enclosure of the gambling room, never being lit with light from the outside, it "disorients the occupant in space and time", and one "loses track of where he is and when it is".
Music and showmanshipEdit
Many international performers such as Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Rod Stewart, Celine Dion, Cher, Bette Midler, Liberace, Liza Minnelli, Elton John, George Burns, Pat Cooper, Diana Ross, Paul Anka, Julio Iglesias, Judy Garland, David Copperfield, Stevie Nicks, Dolly Parton, Tony Bennett, Gloria Estefan, Phyllis Diller, Luis Miguel, Ike & Tina Turner, Janet Jackson, Shania Twain, Jerry Seinfeld, Harry Belafonte, Louie Anderson, Ricky Martin, Mariah Carey, Deana Martin, B.B. King, Pilita Corrales and Matt Goss have performed at the hotel.
In mid-1996, a new venue known as "Caesars Magical Empire" was created on the property, showcasing magicians such as Michael Ammar, Jon Armstrong, Lee Asher, Whit Haydn, Jeff "Magnus" McBride, and Alain Nu. The "Empire" was closed on November 30, 2002, after which the structure was razed to make room for a large concert hall created for singer Celine Dion. The Colosseum at Caesars Palace is a 4,296-seat entertainment venue with a 22,450 square feet (2,086 m2) stage, which was originally built at a cost of $95-million for Celine Dion's show, A New Day..., in 2003. A success, the Colosseum show earned almost $175,000 on average per night and grossed $500 million in four years. The venue has since hosted performances by numerous other artists. Gloria Estefan performed a special seven-day concert in October 2003 for the launch of her album Unwrapped, titled Live & Unwrapped. In May 2007, Bette Midler was announced as Dion's formal replacement, performing 100 shows a year, with Elton John continuing to perform his popular Red Piano show 50 nights a year while Midler was on hiatus. After taking a three-year hiatus, Cher, following her Farewell Tour, returned to Caesars Palace with a three-year contract, performing 200 shows beginning May 6, 2008.
On May 26, 2009, U.S President Barack Obama performed in the Colosseum in the one-night show A Good Fight alongside Sheryl Crow, Bette Midler and Rita Rudner to fundraise for Nevada's senator Harry Reid re-election campaign. Several streets were closed and the Augustus tower was blocked as security precautions by the Secret Service during the visit. In March 2011, Celine Dion returned to The Colosseum with her new show entitled "Celine", which is under contract for 70 shows per year, through 2017.
Absinthe is a live show that premiered on April 1, 2011 on the forecourt of the hotel. The show is hosted by The Gazillionaire, played by actor and former Cirque du Soleil clown Voki Kalfayan and his assistant, Penny Pibbets, portrayed by actress Anais Thomassian. The show is performed outside in a Spiegeltent on a 9 feet (2.7 m) diameter stage. The tent accommodates 600 persons who are seated on folding chairs circled around the stage.
The Pussycat Dolls Lounge, an adjunct of the Pure Nightclub, opened at Caesars Palace in 2005. The lounge was patterned after a vintage strip club. The club's center was a stage where dancers called the Pussycat Girls clad in fishnet hose and corsets, began a new dance show every half hour. Celebrities like Paris Hilton and Christina Aguilera occasionally danced as "guest pussycats". In 2007, Caesars Palace opened a Pussycat Dolls Casino directly across from the Pussycat Dolls Lounge. It had an oval pit at the casino's center, where two go-go dancers in cages performed in response to the music. At the end of February 2010, the Pussycat Dolls left the Pure nightclub for a new lounge at the Chateau nightclub, which is part of Paris Las Vegas.
The Omnia (Latin for "[the sum of] all things") nightclub, opened in March 2015, replacing the Pure nightclub which operated there for over a decade. The $107 million expansion and redesign incorporates both the 34,000 square feet (3,200 m2) Pure facility and the adjacent World of Poker tournament room to create a 75,000 square feet (7,000 m2) space that can accommodate 3,500 people. Designed by the Rockwell Group, the club is outfitted with theatrical lighting, sound, and climate-control systems, along with rigging and catwalks for aerial performers. It is operated by the Hakkasan Group.
The replica of Cleopatra's Barge houses a bar and lounge that opened at Caesars Palace in 1970. Rat Pack members Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin often visited the Barge, with Sinatra occasionally singing there after his own shows. Matt Goss has worked at the Barge since 2010.
The New Yorker writes that Caesars Palace was "dubbed the Home of Champions after hosting decades of events like boxing matches, auto races, and volleyball tournaments". The Caesars Palace Grand Prix car race (a Formula One World Championship event) was held at the car park of Caesars Palace in 1981 and 1982. The new race proved to be a financial disaster, and was not popular among the drivers, primarily because of the desert heat and its counter-clockwise direction, which put a tremendous strain on the drivers' necks. When Nelson Piquet clinched his first World Championship by finishing fifth in 1981, it took him fifteen minutes to recover from heat exhaustion. The 1982 race was won by Michele Alboreto in a Tyrrell, but the race was not renewed for the following season due to poor attendance. The following two years a CART (IndyCar) event was run, with Mario Andretti and Tom Sneva winning, before the open-wheel event was permanently dropped. In 2013 it hosted a round of the Stadium Super Trucks.
Many boxing matches have been held in Caesars Outdoor Arena since the late 1970s. It hosted fights between George Foreman and Ron Lyle in January 1976, Roberto Durán and Esteban de Jesús in January 1978, Larry Holmes and Muhammad Ali in October 1980, Holmes and Gerry Cooney in June 1982 as well as Wilfredo Gomez versus Juan Antonio Lopez at the same date; Gomez's bout with Salvador Sanchez on August 21, 1981 and an amateur fight between Shane Mosley and Shannan Taylor in March 1984 In April 1987, the 15,356-seat arena at Caesars Palace hosted "The Super Fight" boxing match between Sugar Ray Leonard and Marvin Hagler. Two bouts between Evander Holyfield and Riddick Bowe were contested here, including Evander Holyfield vs. Riddick Bowe in November 1992, and a revenge match a year later in which Holyfield took the title, and he had several bouts with Michael Moorer at Caesars Palace, including Evander Holyfield vs. Michael Moorer in April 1994 for the WBA, IBF and Lineal Heavyweight Championships. In 2004 boxing returned to the Palace, when Wladimir Klitschko and former Olympian Jeff Lacy headlined a card televised on Showtime at the Palace's new outdoor amphitheatre.
Caesars Palace has played host to a number of professional wrestling events throughout the 1990s, the most notable of which is WWE's WrestleMania IX in April 1993 which capitalized on the Roman theme of the venue. Billed as the "Worlds Largest Toga Party" it remains to this day the only WrestleMania with a particular theme. World Championship Wrestling also held a series of events at Caesars Palace, including Clash of the Champions XXX in January 1995 as well as Clash of the Champions XXXII and an episode of WCW Monday Nitro, each in January 1996.
The arena also held one of its more interesting events during the summer of 1991: a pre-season game between the New York Rangers and Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. A rink was laid out over the parking lot and held firm despite 95-degree temperatures. Behind a goal from Wayne Gretzky, the Kings came back from a 2–0 deficit to win 5–2 before a crowd of over 13,000. The game served as a predecessor to both the Frozen Fury (the Kings' annual preseason game in Las Vegas that began in 1997) and the Winter Classic (the annual regular season game played outdoors on New Year's Day that began in 2008).
The casino houses multiple restaurants. Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill is an English pub, a type of restaurant Ramsay felt was "missing on the strip". The Nobu Restaurant is an Asian restaurant. The Old Homestead Steakhouse is the first west-coast location of a New York restaurant chain. Rao's opened in 2006, the second branch of the restaurant after New York City to open. Flay's first restaurant venture outside New York, Bobby Flay's Mesa Grill was opened at Caesars in 2004 and features southwestern cuisine. Chef Brian Malarkey opened Searsucker Las Vegas – the fourth branch of the restaurant after San Diego, Del Mar, California, and Austin, Texas – in March 2015. The 7,500 square feet (700 m2) dining area has a "retro Americana" theme, with "cowboy culture" motifs reflected throughout the furnishings and paintings designed by Thomas Schoos. Beijing Noodle No. 9 is a Chinese restaurant with an overhead metal-cut white screen and large aquariums filled with goldfish are all backlit by LED bulbs. Serendipity 3 was a 1950s style diner, featuring burgers, fries and ice cream delicacies. The ice cream parlor themed restaurant, which was a branch of the New York City Serendipity 3 establishment, opened in 2009. In addition to seating in the dining area and counter seating, there was a patio with views of the Strip and the Caesars Palace fountains. It closed on January 2, 2017. Hell's Kitchen opened in its place in January 2018 and will be used as the studio for the filming of the American television show Hell's Kitchen in 2019 and 2020. The major restaurant of the Augustus Tower is the Guy Savoy, namesake of the three-star Michelin chef. When Savoy was approached to open a second restaurant in Vegas, he initially said no, until Caesars told him they wanted him to recreate what he had done in Paris. His request was that to maintain quality, the restaurant must be limited to service five days a week, to which the management agreed. The restaurant opened in 2006 and in 2008, Savoy brought his executive chef from the Paris restaurant to Vegas.
Under the direction of pastry chef and chocolatier François Payard, Payard Pâtisserie & Bistro at Caesars Palace encompasses a pastry shop, chocolate shop, and restaurant serving breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The interior of the 46-seat bistro was designed by the Rockwell Group. In 2008 the bistro installed a 16 feet (4.9 m) high "chocolate clock" that releases three chocolate truffles every quarter-hour. In 1992 Wolfgang Puck was the first celebrity chef to open an upscale restaurant in a Las Vegas gambling resort with Spago at Caesars Palace. Located in The Forum Shops arcade, the restaurant is divided into a cafe facing the shopping mall serving lighter, lower-cost dishes, and a more formal dining room to the rear.
Central Michel Richard was a 24-hour restaurant situated in the hotel lobby from 2011 to 2014. In addition to a bar, it featured indoor and outdoor dining, with menu offerings varying by the time of day. Established in 2011, it cost US$4.5 million to build-out and measured 10,000 square feet (930 m2) in size. Todd Harrington, executive chef, was chosen by Michel Richard, himself a James Beard Foundation Award-winning chef, to run the kitchen. Harrington had been the executive chef of Augustus Café, the restaurant which had previously operated in that location. Harrington left in December 2013, and in July 2014, the restaurant filed for bankruptcy protection. The restaurant closed in late 2014.
Café Americano occupies the former premises of Central Michel Richard. It was in May 2015, in partnership with the V&E Restaurant Group of Miami. The 3,585 square feet (333.1 m2) restaurant and bar in the hotel lobby serves pizza, soups, sandwiches, burgers. A Mr. Chow restaurant opened at the hotel in 2015. The 277-seat Chinese fine dining establishment occupies the second floor of the hotel and has a view of the Garden of the Gods pool area.
In popular cultureEdit
Caesars Palace has been a location in numerous films. It has appeared in films such as Hells Angels on Wheels (1967),Where It's At (1969), The Only Game in Town (1970), The Electric Horseman (1979), Rocky III (1982), Oh, God! You Devil (1984), You Ruined My Life (1987), Rain Man (1988), Hearts Are Wild (1992), Fools Rush In (1997), The Strip (1999), Ocean's Eleven (2001), Intolerable Cruelty (2003), Dreamgirls (2006), Iron Man (2008), The Hangover (2009), 2012 (2009), The Hangover Part III (2013) and Step Up: All In (2014). In television it has appeared in series such as The Partridge Family, the Viva Ned Flanders episode of The Simpsons, The Sopranos, Friends and Keeping Up With the Kardashians.
- Germain 1998, p. 68.
- Rich 2005, p. 201.
- "Caesars Palace". Casinotop10.net. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Vanderwilt 2007, p. 107.
- Land & Land 2004, p. 159.
- Chapman, Sabrina (March 4, 2014). "The Missing Apostrophe cocktail is inspired by Caesars Palace lore". Las Vegas Weekly. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Schwartz 2013, p. 133.
- Hess 1993, p. 84.
- Land & Land 2004, p. 160.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 249.
- Papa 2009, p. 92.
- Gordon 2015, p. 18.
- Land & Land 2004, p. 162.
- Earley 2000, p. 66.
- Karasik, Ellen (April 28, 1979). "Getting a N.J. gambling license is not easy". Montreal Gazette. Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Jones, Chris (July 21, 2004). "Caesars Earns Niche in Gaming Pantheon". Casino City Times. Gaming Wire. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Browning, Norma Lee (July 21, 1969). "Hollywood Today". Chicago Tribune. p. 7. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Sheridan 2011, p. 54.
- Snyder, Jimmy "the Greek" (July 3, 1975). "Jimmy Despises Casino Gambling". San Antonio Express. p. 8. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Ex-Casino Executive Carl Cohen; Noted for Punching Frank Sinatra". Los Angeles Times. December 30, 1986. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- New York. New York Magazine Company. 1974.
- "At Gunpoint Sinatra Ousted". The Odessa American (Odessa, Texas). September 7, 1970. p. 11. Retrieved October 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Caesars Palace Boss Arrested for Pulling Gun on Sinatra". The Evening Times (Sayre, Pennsylvania). September 8, 1970. p. 5. Retrieved October 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "No Charges Will be Filed in Sinatra Gun Incident". The Bridgeport Telegram (Bridgeport, Connecticut). September 17, 1970. p. 45. Retrieved October 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kelley 1986, p. 436.
- Goldstein 1982, p. 123; Turner 2004, p. 173.
- Kelley 1986, p. 505.
- "Trustees Award". Grammy.org. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Gaming License In Nevada Goes to Sinatra With Praise". The New York Times. February 20, 1981. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Orleck 2005, p. 1.
- Orleck 2005, p. 245.
- Volume Feeding Institutions. Cahners. 1973. p. 27.
- "Three Injured In Vegas Fire Are Still Hospitalized". Santa Cruz Sentinel (Santa Cruz, California). April 2, 1981. p. 45. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lyall, Sarah (January 6, 1988). "Stuart Perlman, 60, Co-Founder Of Caesars World With Brother". New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 256.
- Pulley, Brett (March 19, 1998). "Gambler Learns She Can't Beat the House in Court". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Mall of the Roman Empire – Vegas as Shopping Destination? Welcome to Caesar's New. ." The Los Angeles Times. May 24, 1992. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "The Forum Shops at Caesars Palace". Business.simon.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Plunkett 2007, p. 218.
- "Harrah's Entertainment Inc. changes name to Caesars Entertainment Corp". Las Vegas Sun. November 23, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- "Harrah's opts to hail name of Caesars". Las Vegas Review-Journal. April 10, 2008. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- "Card table dance costs Caesars Palace $250K". AP Worldstream, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). August 26, 2010. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Fincen Reaches $8 Million Settlement with Caesars Palace for Lax Anti-Money Laundering Controls on High Rollers". States News Service, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). September 8, 2015. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Vici Properties Inc., completes spin-off from Caesars Entertainment Operating Company" (Press release). Vici Properties. October 6, 2017 – via NewsBank.
- Form 424B4: Prospectus (Report). Vici Properties. February 2, 2018. p. 3 – via EDGAR.
- Campbell 2008, p. 812.
- Malamud 2009, p. 238.
- Carey, William C. (April 9, 1967). "Caesar's Palace Latest Addition on Las Vegas' Fabulous Gaming Strip". The Post-Crescent (Appleton, Wisconsin). p. 7. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. [dead link]
- TOUR BOOK. 2003. p. 232.
- Ewing, McGowan & Speed 2010, p. 27.
- The Brahma Shrine at Caesars Palace, Markslasvegas.com, retrieved December 11, 2015
- Curtis, Anthony (November 6, 2015). "Vegas: Caesars tower gets $75 million renovation". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Piercea, Kimberley (October 23, 2015). "Caesars Palace getting $75 million update despite bankruptcy". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace Las Vegas Introduces New $75 Million Julius Tower". Entertainment Close-Up, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). October 30, 2015. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Las Vegas Hotels / Casinos: By Name". University of Nevada, Las Vegas Libraries. August 23, 2012. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Oskar Garcia (March 7, 2011). "Caesars Palace to revamp 180-room tower as Nobu". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Potter, Heather. "Types of Rooms Available at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas". USA Today. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- 100 Hotels and Resorts: Destinations That Lift the Spirit. Images Publishing. p. 296. ISBN 1864701609.
- Smith, Rod (October 27, 2004). "The $289 million 949-room Augustus Tower Will Boost Caesar Palace's Room Count to 3,349; Part of a Refurbishing Plan for the 37-year-old Megaresort". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Las Vegas, Nevada. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Bickford 2006, p. 11.
- "Caesars Palace's New Luxury Tower Opens On The Strip". Forbes. January 17, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Garden of the Gods Pool Oasis". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace". LinkedIn. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Moran, Lee (March 18, 2015). "world's largest spiral escalator". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- "Fall of Atlantis at Caesars Forum Shops Details & Tips". Vegas.com. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Esquire: The Magazine for Men. Esquire, Incorporated. November 2008. p. 106.
- Benson 2008, p. 115.
- Newman, Rick (June 26, 2009). "America's Most Profitable Malls". U.S. & World Report News. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Simon Property Group and Park Place Entertainment Announce Expansion of the Forum Shops At Caesars". Business Wire. April 22, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Jaschke & Ötsch 2003, p. 122.
- "Cleopatra's Barge". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- "David". Statue of David plaque at Caesars Palace, Flickr photograph. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 254.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 255.
- "Table games". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace Poker Room Reopens". Uspoker.com. June 6, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Poker". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Slots". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. July 15, 1974. p. 36. ISSN 0028-7369.
- Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. February 1976. p. 156. ISSN 0012-9011.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. July 2011. p. 3. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Herczog 2008, p. 248.
- Pyron 2013, p. 378.
- Balboni & Edwards 2006, p. 77.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. May 15, 2004. p. 18. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Epstein 2011, p. 183.
- Bluestein, p. 240.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. June 1, 1974. p. 49. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. November 11, 1972. p. 13. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Figueroa 2004, p. 5.
- Schechter 2006, p. 344.
- Rothman 2015, p. 43.
- Architectural Digest. John C. Brasfield Publishing Corporation. November 2007. p. 72.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. October 2, 2004. p. 17. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Bennett 2012.
- Hispanic network magazine. Olive Tree Publishing, Incorporated. 2003. p. 177.
- "Johnny Mathis, Ike & Tina Turner Caesars Palace, Las Vegas" (PDF). Billboard: 26. May 29, 1971.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 6. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. November 28, 1970. p. 8. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Market Watch. M. Shanken Communications. 1991. p. 77.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. May 15, 2004. p. 18. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Biography". Deanamartin.com. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- "Timeline". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Pilita Corrales brings classic hits to US". ABS-CBN News. October 10, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Smith 2011.
- "Michael Ammar". Michaelammar.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Jon Armstrong". Magician-directory.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "How I created Thunderbird: The Modern Ace Production". Leeasher.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Whit Haydn interview". Insidemagic.com. November 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Jeff McBride" (PDF). Mcbridemagic.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Alain Nu, The Man Who Knows: Biography". themanwhoknows.tv. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- "Caesars Magical Empire". Magic Times. December 3, 2002. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Guest Star: Estefan's 'Live & Unwrapped' production visits Caesars". Las Vegas Sun. October 9, 2003. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Céline Dion opened floodgates for pop stars in Las Vegas". Montreal Gazette. August 28, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "New Performance Venue at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas Boosts Company's Revenue". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). February 21, 2004. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Midler Replacing Dion At Caesars Palace". Billboard. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Weatherford, Mike (February 8, 2008). "Cher's got Vegas, babe, for three years at Caesars". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (May 26, 2009). "Obama to attend Harry Reid fundraiser at Caesars Palace amid tight security". Vegas Deluxe. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Celine Dion". Caesarspalace.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Pibbets, Penny (July 7, 2011). "Penny Pibbets' Las Vegas includes magic, clowns and 'Absinthe'". The Las Vegas Sun. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Domanick, Andrea (April 1, 2012). "A day in the life of the Gazillionaire and Penny Pibbets of 'Absinthe'". The Las Vegas Sun. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Katsilometes, John (November 5, 2011). "Skating skirmish, too much anatomy raise eyebrows at returning 'Absinthe'". The Las Vegas Sun.
- Pibbets, Penny (July 2, 2013). "Penny Pibbets: 'Absinthe' = 'Cosby Show' – sweaters + more unicorns". The Las Vegas Sun. Archived from the original on August 18, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Katsilometres, John (November 28, 2015). "It's a spin through the circus as Jerry Lewis hits 'Absinthe'". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Weatherford, Mike (April 8, 2011). "Raunchy 'Absinthe" doubles as Cirque parody". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Night Club & Bar. Opportunities Publishing. July 2007. p. 138.
- "Pussycat Dolls Lounge". Best of Vegas. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Caesars Palace Loosens Its Buttons With New Pussycat Dolls Casino (January 17, 2007), PR Newswire. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (February 15, 2010). "Pussycat Dolls Are Leaving Pure for Paris". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (March 12, 2015). "Preview: $107 million Omnia Nightclub opens with Calvin Harris, Justin Bieber". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (January 20, 2015). "Afrojack, Van Buuren to deejay at Omnia at Caesars Palace Las Vegas move over from Light Nightclub". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Simoneau, Ryan (October 5, 2015). "Haute Spots: OMNIA Reinvents The Las Vegas Strip Nightclub Experience". Haute Living. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "OMNIA Night Club – Caesars Palace". Braun Productions. 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Omnia Nightclub at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas | Hakkasan Group". Hakkasan Group. March 1, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
- Katsilometes, John (January 28, 2010). "Livin' Large at the Barge; Matt Goss sets sights on Caesars Palace". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Moreton, Cole (September 11, 2010). "How Matt Goss went from Bros to being Las Vegas' new Frank Sinatra". Daily Mail. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- The New Yorker. F-R Publishing Corporation. 2007. p. 142.
- Lovell 2009, p. 214.
- "F1 Vegas Grand Prix". F1.co.uk. February 7, 2014. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Las Vegas". F1pulse.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Woron 1983, p. 86.
- "Caeser's Palace". Champcarstats.com. October 8, 1983. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "1983 Caesars Palace Grand Prix III". Champcarstats.com. October 8, 1983. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "1984 Caesars Palace Grand Prix IV". Champcarstats.com. November 11, 1984. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "AutoMatters: Stadium SUPER Trucks at Caesars Palace". Del Mar Times. November 22, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Duran KO's Dejesus in 12th, claims undisputed title". The Mercury (Pottstown, Pennsylvania). January 23, 1978. p. 24. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Holmes Batters Ali for 10 rounds". The Salina Journal (Salina, Kansas). October 3, 1980. p. 15. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Holmes hopes to silence his critics". The Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania). June 11, 1982. p. 9. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Boxing". The Indiana Gazette (Indiana, Pennsylvania). February 24, 1984. p. 16. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Leonard Attempting To Get Fulfilled". The Index-Journal (Greenwood, South Carolina). April 4, 1987. p. 18. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bowe bags title belt". Santa Cruz Sentinel (Santa Cruz, California). November 14, 1992. p. 15. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Holyfield regains title from Bowe". Del Rio News Herald, (Del Rio, Texas). November 8, 1992. p. 6. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Moorer, Holyfield unsure about their boxing futures". The Index-Journal, (Greenwood, South Carolina). April 24, 1994. p. 34. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "SHOWTIME Championship Boxing to Feature Wladimir Klitschko & Two World Title Fights at Opening of Caesars Palace's New Outdoor Amphitheatre". PR Newswire. September 13, 2004. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Albano & Sugar 2000, p. 209.
- "Clash of the Champions". Prowrestlinghistory.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "WCW @ Atlanta, GA – Omni – January 1, 1996 (6,000; 3,619 paid)". Thehistoryofwwe.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "1991–1992 N.H.L. SEASON; Gamble Works: Rangers Play In Las Vegas". The New York Times. September 29, 1991. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Frozen (Fury) In Time". Los Angeles Kings. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Recent outdoor games". Nhl.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill at Caesars Palace and Gordon Ramsay BurGR at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino Opens". Entertainment Close-Up, accessed via HighBeam Research(subscription required). January 20, 2013. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Olmsted, Larry (February 13, 2013). "Hotel Test Drive: First Look At Nobu Hotel Las Vegas". Forbes. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (December 22, 2011). "Old Homestead Steakhouse is Now Open at Caesars Palace". Haute Living. Miami, Florida. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Metzelthin 2006, p. 4.
- "Bobby Flay's Mesa Grill Opens at Caesars Palace; Celebrity Chef Unveils First New Restaurant Outside New York City". BusinessWire. October 6, 2004. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (March 3, 2015). "Brian Malarkey rides into Las Vegas with a cowboy-themed Searsucker". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Kelemen, Matt (April 17, 2015). "Q&A: Brian Malarkey is ready to wow with Searsucker". Las Vegas Magazine. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- "Beijing Noodle Company No. 9 Las Vegas, NV". Lighting Design Alliance. 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Rough Guides 2015, p. 103.
- "The take out window of Serendipity 3". Las Vegas Weekly. Las Vegas, Nevada. April 16, 2009. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Storch, Alex (November 16, 2015). "Where to Enjoy a $1,000 Ice Cream Sundae In Vegas". Haute Living. Miami, Florida. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Serendipity 3 Finally OUT at Caesars Palace". Eater Vegas. January 5, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Katsilometes, John (March 2, 2019). "Gordon Ramsay bringing 'Hell's Kitchen' to Las Vegas Strip". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- Sandler 2007, p. 54.
- Leach, Robin (November 5, 2015). "Guy Savoy: After 28 years, a new palace for reigning king of cuisine". Las Vegas Sun. Las Vegas, Nevada. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Bruno, Antoinette (July 2008). "An Interview with Chef Guy Savoy of Restaurant Guy Savoy – Las Vegas, NV". Star Chefs. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Payard Patisserie & Bistro". Las Vegas Sun. 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Payard Patisserie & Bistro – Caesars Palace". Gayot. 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Payard Chocolate Clock". Food Paper. January 25, 2010. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Las Vegas' best chocolate shops and patisseries". USA Today. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Rossant 2004, pp. 22–23.
- Rough Guides 2015, p. 101.
- Turk, Heather (August 8, 2012). "Top Chefs Heating Up The Culinary Scene In Las Vegas". CBS. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Martin, Bradley (July 23, 2014). "Central Michel Richard Files for Bankruptcy Protection". Las Vegas Eatery. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (September 29, 2014). "Is The End Near for Vegas' Central Michel Richard?". Las Vegas Eater. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Martin, Bradley (July 27, 2015). "Caesars Palace Moves Closer to Acknowledging Cafe Americano". Las Vegas Eater. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Mancini, Al (August 18, 2015). "Café Americano Sets Itself Apart". Vegas Seven. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Knapp Rinella, Heidi (December 4, 2015). "Mr. Chow to open at Caesars Palace on Dec. 15". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (November 11, 2015). "Q+A: Mr. Chow arrives at Caesars Palace after 48 years of global restaurant success". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Knight 2014, p. 145.
- Filmfacts. American Film Institute. 1969. p. 224.
- Taraborrelli 2007, p. 272.
- Block 2011, p. 46.
- Luce, Henry Robinson (1984). Time. Time Incorporated. p. 79.
- TV Guide. Triangle Publications. 1987. p. 26.
- Mediaweek. A/S/M Communications. 1991. p. 136.
- Television Guide. Triangle Publications. 1997.
- Tanner 2014, p. 36.
- Albano, Lou; Sugar, Bert Randolph (2000). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Pro Wrestling. Alpha Books. ISBN 978-0-02-863961-1.
- Balboni, Alan Richard; Edwards, Jerome E. (2006). Beyond the Mafia: Italian Americans and the Development of Las Vegas. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-681-0.
- Bennett, Tony (December 25, 2012). The Good Life: The Autobiography Of Tony Bennett. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4711-0929-4.
- Benson, Sara (2008). Las Vegas. Con Pianta. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-677-9.
- Bickford, Jim (2006). Las Vegas Dreams. Las Vegas, Nevada: American Dreams. ISBN 978-1-59975-141-2.
- Block, Marcelline (2011). World Film Locations: Las Vegas. Intellect Books. ISBN 978-1-84150-588-6.
- Bluestein, Steve. It's So Hard to Type With a Gun In My Mouth. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-105-34326-1.
- Campbell, Jeff (2008). USA. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-675-5.
- Curtas, John; Jacobson, Max; Mancini, Al (November 18, 2011). Eating Las Vegas 2012: The 50 Essential Restaurants. Huntington Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-935396-95-6.
- Earley, Pete (January 1, 2000). Super Casino: Inside the "new" Las Vegas. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-09502-9.
- Epstein, Lawrence J. (October 5, 2011). George Burns: An American Life. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-8793-6.
- Ewing, Suzanne; McGowan, Jeremie Michael; Speed, Chris (October 18, 2010). Architecture and Field/Work. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-88467-2.
- Figueroa, Acton (October 1, 2004). Julio Iglesias and Enrique Iglesias. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4042-0260-3.
- Germain, Georges-Hebert (September 1, 1998). Céline: The Authorized Biography. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-4597-1465-6.
- Gleeson, Bridget (August 1, 2015). Lonely Planet Pocket Las Vegas. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74360-430-4.
- Goldstein, Norm (November 1, 1982). Frank Sinatra, ol' blue eyes. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. ISBN 978-0-03-061921-2.
- Gordon, Billy (April 16, 2015). FUN CYCLE: Special Edition for The 75th Anniversary of America's Leading Motorcycle Rally. ISBN 978-1-78301-722-5.
- Green, Patrick (2007). Chabria, Anita (ed.). Night + Day Las Vegas. Pulse Guides Cool Cities. San Francisco, California: ASDavis Media Group. ISBN 978-0-9759022-8-8.
- Herczog, Mary (November 3, 2008). Las Vegas For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-43801-5.
- Hess, Alan (July 1, 1993). Viva Las Vegas: After-Hours Architecture. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-0111-9.
- Jaschke, Karin; Ötsch, Silke (2003). Stripping Las Vegas: A Contextual Review of Casino Resort Architecture. Verl.d. Bauhaus-Universität. ISBN 978-3-86068-192-3.
- Joshel, Sandra R.; Malamud, Margaret; McGuire, Jr., Donald T. (August 9, 2005). Imperial Projections: Ancient Rome in Modern Popular Culture. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8268-5.
- Kelley, Kitty (1986). His Way: The Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Bantam Books Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-553-38618-9.
- Knight, Gladys L. (August 11, 2014). Pop Culture Places: An Encyclopedia of Places in American Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-39883-4.
- Land, Barbara; Land, Myrick (2004). A Short History of Las Vegas. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-564-6.
- Lovell, Terry (September 7, 2009). Bernie Ecclestone – King of Sport. John Blake Publishing, Limited. ISBN 978-1-78219-262-6.
- Malamud, Margaret (March 30, 2009). Ancient Rome and Modern America. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-0508-1.
- Metzelthin, Pearl Violette Newfield (2006). Gourmet. Condé Nast Publications.
- Orleck, Annelise (July 1, 2005). Storming Caesars Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-9721-2.
- Papa, Paul W. (October 1, 2009). It Happened in Las Vegas: Remarkable Events that Shaped History. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7627-5819-7.
- Plunkett, Jack W. (January 2007). Plunkett's Entertainment & Media Industry Almanac 2007. Plunkett Research, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-59392-066-1.
- Pyron, Darden Asbury (April 26, 2013). Liberace: An American Boy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-11712-6.
- Rich, Jason (August 1, 2005). The Everything Family Travel Guide To Las Vegas: Hotels, Casinos, Restaurants, Major Family Attractions – And More!. Adams Media. ISBN 1-4405-3803-4.
- Rothman, Hal (October 15, 2015). Neon Metropolis: How Las Vegas Started the Twenty-First Century. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-95852-9.
- Rough Guides (September 1, 2015). Pocket Rough Guide Las Vegas. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-0-241-24392-3.
- Rossant, Juliette (2004). Super Chef: The Making of the Great Modern Restaurant Empires. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743241711.
- Sandler, Corey (2007). Econoguide Las Vegas: Also Includes Reno, Lake Tahoe, and Laughlin (5 ed.). Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-4168-7.
- Sehlinger, Bob; Ridge, Menasha; Castleman, Deke; Stevens, Muriel (2011). The Unofficial Guide to Las Vegas 2012. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-14345-2.
- Sheridan, John Harris (September 6, 2011). Howard Hughes: The Las Vegas Years: The Women, the Mormons, the Mafia. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4634-0693-6.
- Schechter, Scott (August 25, 2006). Judy Garland: The Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Legend. Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4616-3555-0.
- Schwartz, David (2013). Suburban Xanadu: The Casino Resort on the Las Vegas Strip and Beyond. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-75740-2.
- Smith, Scott (May 31, 2011). Moon Nevada. Avalon Travel. ISBN 1-59880-943-1.
- Tanner, Adam (September 2, 2014). What Stays in Vegas. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-419-2.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2007). Elizabeth. Pan. ISBN 978-0-330-43390-7.
- Turner, John Frayn (January 1, 2004). Frank Sinatra. Taylor Trade Publications. ISBN 978-1-58979-145-9.
- Vanderwilt, Dirk (October 2007). Las Vegas: A Comprehensive Guide to Resorts, Casinos, and Attractions. Channel Lake, Inc. ISBN 978-0-9792043-5-7.
- Woron, Walter A. (1983). Motor Trend. Petersen Publishing Company.