Avraham "Avram" Grant (Hebrew: אברהם "אברם" גרנט; born 6 May 1955) is an Israeli football manager who currently works as technical advisor for Indian Super League club NorthEast United FC. Grant has spent the majority of his career coaching and managing in Israel, winning a number of national league and cup victories with different teams, and also managing the Israeli national team for four years.
Grant in 2012
|Full name||Avraham Grant|
|Date of birth||6 May 1955|
|Place of birth||Petah Tikva, Israel|
|NorthEast United (technical advisor)|
|1972–1986||Hapoel Petah Tikva (youth)|
|1986–1991||Hapoel Petah Tikva|
|1991–1995||Maccabi Tel Aviv|
|1996–2000||Maccabi Tel Aviv|
|2010–2011||West Ham United|
|2014||BEC Tero Sasana (technical director)|
|2018||NorthEast United (technical advisor)|
Grant moved to England in 2006 to become Technical Director of Portsmouth before being appointed director of football at Chelsea in July 2007. Two months later, in September 2007, following the departure of José Mourinho, Grant was appointed as Chelsea's manager. Despite steering the team into the Champions League and League Cup finals, as well as contesting the Premier League title to the last day, his contract was terminated at the end of the season.
Grant returned to Portsmouth as director of football in October 2009, and was made manager the following month. After the club's relegation to the Football League Championship Grant resigned and, on 3 June 2010, was appointed as manager of West Ham United, a role he held up until 15 May 2011, when he was sacked after the club was relegated to the Football League Championship.
After one championship season managing Partizan Belgrade and one season as the technical director for Thai club BEC Tero Sasana, Grant was appointed coach of the Ghana national football team in 2014. He stepped down from the position after a defeat in the semi-finals of the 2017 Africa Cup of Nations.
Avraham Granat was born in Petah Tikva, Israel. His father, Meir Granat, was born into a firmly Orthodox Jewish family in Mława, Poland. Meir's family fled to the Soviet Union in 1941, during the Holocaust; there they were exiled to Kolyma, Siberia, where most of the family died. In a 2008 interview his father recalled burying his grandfather, Avraham Granat—after whom Grant was named—with his own hands. After being repatriated to Poland after the war's end in 1945, Meir emigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine in violation of the policy of that time, and was arrested and detained in Cyprus. He ultimately settled in Petah Tikva, where he and Grant's mother Aliza Nisan, an Iraqi-Jewish immigrant to Israel, met.
Grant shortened his surname from Granat in the late 1980s. He was married to Israeli television personality Tzufit Grant. They have a son and a daughter. The couple has announced their relationship is over in September 2014.
In October 2009, Grant's father died aged 82 from complications following surgery to remove a kidney stone. Grant had flown to Israel and was by his side.
On 20 February 2008, Chelsea Football Club announced that Grant had received anti-Semitic death threats from unknown sources. One of the packages sent to Grant's home was said to have contained a white powder that, after investigation, proved to be harmless.
On 13 June 2016, following extensive research into his father's Polish-Jewish heritage, Avram Grant received his Polish passport from the Polish Embassy in London. He said afterwards: "Feeling Polish comes natural to me."- His Polish passport has his name written as Abraham Grant.
Grant's professional coaching career started at age 18, in 1972, as youth coach of his home-town team, Hapoel Petah Tikva. In 1986, after a 14-year spell in this job, he was promoted to first team coach, leading the club to two Toto Cup victories, in 1990 and 1991, thus bringing Hapoel Petah Tikva back to the top of Israeli football after nearly 25 years. During this era Petah Tikva fought regularly for the championship against Shlomo Scharf's Maccabi Haifa. In his last season in Petah Tikva, Grant lost both the championship and the Israel State Cup within 3 days to Maccabi Haifa, in a chain of events which is commonly known in Israel as "the Double robbery". The next year the club won its first major title in 30 years, by winning its second-ever Israeli Cup.
The following season Grant moved to coach Maccabi Tel Aviv winning Liga Leumit (then the top division) in his first season with them, with a 13-point advantage over the second place team. Maccabi Tel Aviv lost out closely in the final of the Israeli Cup and was thus denied a historic double. The cup was won by Maccabi Tel Aviv under Grant's control, however, in 1994, followed with another championship in 1995.
Following this, Grant moved to Hapoel Haifa for what has been described as a short and unsuccessful spell, finishing fourth in the Israeli championship. Grant returned to Maccabi Tel Aviv between 1997 and 2000, although this period was less successful than his previous one at the club, winning just the Toto Cup in 1999.
Grant moved to Maccabi Haifa in 2000, where he coached until 2002. There, he led the team to great success, winning the Israeli Premier League in 2001 and 2002, as well as the Toto Cup in 2002, whilst narrowly missing out on the Israeli Cup, to miss winning the treble. In 2001 the club participated in the 2nd qualifying round of the UEFA Champions League competition against the Finnish team FC Haka. Despite winning both legs (1–0 and 4–0) with an aggregate score of 5–0 the club did not progress further. The use of Walid Badir as a substitute in the final ten minutes of the second leg while under suspension caused disqualification on the grounds of "culpable negligence" and FC Haka proceeded to the next round against Liverpool.
Israeli national team
After leaving Haifa in 2002, Grant became the youngest team coach of Israel, replacing the former Denmark coach Richard Møller Nielsen. The team participated in Group 1 of the UEFA Euro 2004 qualifying round but finished third and so did not take part in the finals in Portugal.
Although not qualifying for the 2006 World Cup, Israel finished third in their qualifying group behind winners France and runners-up Switzerland. Israel missed on qualification to the finals, despite remaining undefeated in the group with four wins and six draws.
Grant is known in Israel for giving a chance to young players in almost every club he coached, such as Alon Hazan and goalkeeper Raffi Cohen at Petah Tikva, Avi Nimni and Itzik Zohar at Maccabi Tel Aviv, Gal Alberman in the Israeli team, and many more. Grant famously did not include Israeli star Eyal Berkovic in the national squad during 2005, saying he wanted to create "a younger team", but, nonetheless, retaining 34-year-old Avi Nimni. In 2007, Berkovic described the way Grant became Chelsea's manager as "disgusting" and "disrespectful". Another known critic of Grant in Israel is Shlomo Scharf, who was Israel's coach during most of the 1990s.
Grant, as is also the case with another coach from Petah Tikva, past Israel coach Dror Kashtan, is considered one of the most successful Israeli coaches. He has a reputation of a lucky winner in Israel, which caused the invention of the frequently used humorous term 'Hatachat shel Avram'. This means 'Avram's Ass', a reference to the allegedly large amount of luck Grant enjoyed during the 2006 World Cup campaign.
Congolese forward Lomana LuaLua, presently with Blackpool of the English Premier League, stated that it was Grant's encouragement and emotional support that kept him from ending his career after the loss of his son Yoshuha to pneumonia. Grant was director of football at Portsmouth during LuaLua's stint at the club.
In October 2005, Grant announced that he would step down from the national team as his contract was due to expire in June of the following year. Subsequently, he took up the position of Technical Director at Portsmouth in June 2006, overseeing Harry Redknapp's side.
A personal friend of Roman Abramovich, on 8 July 2007 Avram Grant was appointed Director of Football at Chelsea FC. After the departure of José Mourinho from Chelsea on 20 September 2007, Grant was assigned the manager's role, with Steve Clarke, and later Henk ten Cate (on 11 October 2007) as his assistants, and becoming the first Israeli to manage an English football club.
When he took the helm at Chelsea, Grant did not hold the required top-flight coaching certification from UEFA. In fact, he had never received the lower-level coaching cerfications from UEFA for "B" and "A" level coaching in Europe. Many Chelsea fans did not take well to Grant's appointment. They protested Mourinho's departure, holding banners at games, which read "Mourinho – The Special One", and chanting Mourinho's name. Chelsea stated that some of the protests directed towards Grant constituted abuse of a racist nature. Bruce Buck, chairman of Chelsea, claimed they had received points of view which are racist and anti-semitic. Buck stated: "[This] unfairly smears the reputation of the vast majority of the Chelsea fans who rightly do not want to be associated with such activity." . However, many Chelsea fans felt their objections against Grant being appointed as the team's manager are justified, citing his "lack of expertise at the highest levels of football" and Grant's lack of a formal UEFA qualification as manager.
Several unnamed Chelsea players were quoted as saying Grant's methods were "25 years behind the times" and "Chelsea deserve a bigger coach than him. Grant does not have the quality to coach a team like this. When we play big opponents we will suffer because of him." At least one of Grant's staff told friends that they considered leaving the club.
Grant faced his first game only 3 days after taking up the manager's role, losing 2–0 to Manchester United on 24 September. At his first UEFA Champions League match as a coach (with Chelsea and in general) he led Chelsea to a 2–1 away win over Valencia, replicating one of Mourinho's most celebrated wins. Chelsea went on to register a 16-game unbeaten run under Grant, including beating Manchester City 6–0 in one of Chelsea's biggest wins. Subsequently, Grant was offered and signed a four-year contract with Chelsea in December 2007.
In February, Chelsea reached the 2008 League Cup Final, their first competition final under Grant's management. They lost 2–1 to Tottenham Hotspur at Wembley Stadium on 24 February, with an extra time winner from centre-back Jonathan Woodgate. On 8 March, at Barnsley, Chelsea were eliminated from the FA Cup 1–0. On 23 March, Grant secured his first win against one of the other big four clubs when Chelsea came from behind after two substitutions that were ridiculed by Chelsea fans to beat Arsenal 2–1. On 26 April, Grant got his second big win when Chelsea beat Manchester United 2–1, to move Chelsea into second place in the Premier League level on points with first place Manchester United with two games remaining in the season. They eventually finished the season in second place, as the team had done the previous year.
Grant was chosen as Premier League Manager of the Month in April in his first season as Chelsea's manager.
On 30 April 2008, Grant's Chelsea beat Liverpool 3–2 (4–3 on aggregate) to advance to the 2008 UEFA Champions League Final, something they failed to achieve under former manager José Mourinho. Chelsea drew 1–1 with Manchester United in the final, only to lose out on the European Cup in a penalty shootout which United won 6–5. In the heavy rain, John Terry slipped on his team's fifth penalty, clipping the ball off the post and wide. Had he scored, Chelsea would have won the tournament.
Three days later, at around 6 pm on 24 May 2008, Chelsea announced in a statement on its website that Grant's contract had been terminated with immediate effect. Grant later revealed that he turned down the opportunity to return to the club in his former role as director of football. Just as his predecessor José Mourinho had done, Grant completed his period as Chelsea manager without losing a single home game in the Premier League.
On 7 October 2009, Grant returned to Portsmouth as their new Director of football, following the purchase of the club by Ali al-Faraj. On 26 November 2009, following the release of Paul Hart, Grant was confirmed as the new manager of the club. His first game as manager was a 4–1 defeat at home to Manchester United on 28 November 2009. This was followed by a 4–2 home defeat to Aston Villa in the League Cup. His first win with Pompey arrived in the Premier League on 5 December 2009, with a 2–0 win over Burnley Following this he led Portsmouth to a 2–0 win over Liverpool to bring his new side level on points at the foot of the table. Although Portsmouth went into administration in March 2010 and had nine points deducted as a result (contributing to their eventual relegation in bottom place), Grant oversaw a run to the FA Cup final which saw them narrowly beaten by his old club Chelsea at Wembley Stadium. On 20 May 2010, Grant resigned as the manager of Portsmouth. He announced his decision to leave in an open letter to fans on the club's website, stating that "it was the hardest decision I have ever had to make". He went on to say that Portsmouth's fans had brought tears to his eyes with their loyalty, devotion and passion for the club.
West Ham United
On 3 June 2010, Grant signed a four-year deal with West Ham subject to a work permit which was secured on 8 June. Grant said: "I am proud and honoured to be the manager of West Ham. It will be an exciting challenge and I'm ready to do my best". On 5 June 2010, Thomas Hitzlsperger became Grant's first signing at the club on a free transfer. At the beginning of the 2010–11 season, Grant led West Ham to its worst-ever start in the Premier League. Their first point being gained on 18 September with Grant unable to take charge of the team for a game at Stoke City in respect to his Jewish holy day, Yom Kippur and assistant coach Paul Groves, Kevin Keen and assistant manager Željko Petrović taking charge of the game.
A dismal start to the 2010–11 season saw Grant come under fire after the Hammers had won just two Premier League games by the end of November and stood bottom of the table. However, there was some much needed cause for celebration on 30 November 2010 when his side beat Manchester United 4–0 in the Football League Cup quarter-final. West Ham became the first side to beat Sir Alex Ferguson's team in any competition this season, and were semi-finalists in the competition for the first time since the 1989–90 season.
However, the dismissal of Blackburn Rovers manager Sam Allardyce on 13 December 2010 was followed by media reports that West Ham were on the verge of dismissing Grant and offering Allardyce his job. Indeed, it was reported Grant was handed an unusual ultimatum: win one of the next three games or face losing his job.
A 3–1 win at Fulham on Boxing Day—West Ham's first away win of the season—appeared to ease the pressure on Grant, as did a 2–0 home win over fellow strugglers Wolverhampton Wanderers on New Year's Day, which lifted the Hammers out of the relegation zone. However, a 5–0 defeat at Newcastle United on 5 January put Grant's position in further doubt as the Hammers slid back to the bottom of the table. The pressure became intense with another defeat on 15 January, as many media sources reported that Martin O'Neill would replace him as manager, only to later find that O'Neill ruled himself out of the job.
West Ham won only seven Premier League games, under Grant, from 37 played in a season where they won more cup games than league fixtures. During an away game to Wigan Athletic on 15 May 2011 (a match which West Ham had to win to have any chance of avoiding relegation) a plane flew over the ground trailing a banner reading "Avram Grant – Millwall legend", a sarcastic reference to West Ham's fierce local rivalry with Millwall. West Ham lost 3–2 ensuring their relegation from the Premier League. Grant was sacked that day, hours after the end of the match.
On 13 January 2012, Partizan Belgrade's board of directors announced in an official statement to the public that Avram Grant was named the new manager of the club. As Grant was set to have his first match as manager of Partizan in a friendly match against Sepahan Isfahan, the friendly match was cancelled because Grant is Israeli. This was due to the fact that the Iranian government does not recognise Israel as a country and refers to its government as the 'Zionist regime'. Grant's response was:
After guiding Partizan to their fifth consecutive Serbian championship, Grant resigned on 14 May 2012, making use of the release clause in his 18-month contract.
On 27 November 2014, Grant was appointed as coach of the Ghana national football team. At the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, he led Ghana to the final, where they were beaten on a penalty shoot-out by Ivory Coast, ending the tournament as runners-up.
This section of a biography of a living person does not include any references or sources. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Grant joined Indian Super League side NorthEast United FC as a technical advisor on 4 January 2018 and later became the head coach. Under him, NorthEast won their first home match of the season, thus, ending their losing streak. Under him, NorthEast scored their first hat-trick. He is also the first head coach from an Asian country in the history of Indian Super League.
This section of a biography of a living person does not include any references or sources. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- As of 5 February 2018
|Hapoel Petah Tikva||1986||1991||158||72||52||34||45.57|
|Maccabi Tel Aviv||1991||1995||193||125||31||37||64.77|
|Maccabi Tel Aviv||1996||2000||172||87||29||56||50.58|
|Chelsea||20 September 2007||24 May 2008||54||36||12||6||66.67|
|Portsmouth||26 November 2009||21 May 2010||33||10||7||16||30.30|
|West Ham United||3 June 2010||16 May 2011||47||15||12||20||31.91|
|Partizan||13 January 2012||14 May 2012||16||11||2||3||68.75|
|Ghana||27 November 2014||6 February 2017||27||12||8||7||44.44|
|NorthEast United||4 January 2018||5||2||1||2||40.00|
Hapoel Petah Tikva
Maccabi Tel Aviv
- Liga Leumit: 1991–92, 1994–95
- Israel State Cup: 1993–94
- Toto Cup Leumit: 1992–93, 1998–99
- "Grant: Avraham Grant: Manager". BDFutbol. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- Grant sacked as Chelsea manager BBC Sport Retrieved 24 May 2008
- "Grant to be boss". Portsmouth football club. Archived from the original on 29 November 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
- "Avram Grant resigns as Portsmouth manager". BBC. 21 May 2010. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- "Avram Grant confirmed as West Ham United manager". BBC. 3 June 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- "Relegated West Ham part company with Grant". Mirror Football. 15 May 2011. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Ghana: Avram Grant appointed new Black Stars coach". 27 November 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
- FIFA.com (7 February 2017). "Grant to step down as Ghana head coach".
- "Avram Grant ends reign as Ghana coach to seek new challenge". 7 February 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Avram Grant leaves post as Ghana head coach after AFCON semi-final exit".
- "Avram Grant to leave role as coach of Ghana after African Nations Cup".
- "Grants takes up technical advisor job at NorthEast United". NorthEast United FC(twitter).
- Viner, Brian (3 May 2008). "Avram Grant: Out of the blue". The Independent. London. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
- Griver, Simon (11 January 2008). "Avram Grant's family haunted by Holocaust". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- Adar, Shaul (23 September 2007). "I didn't stab Jose Mourinho in the back, says Avram Grant". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Roberts, Glenys (25 September 2007). "The weird one: Wife of new Chelsea boss is a Wag like no other". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "אוי לא: צופית ואברם גרנט נפרדו". 18 September 2014 – via Ynet.
- "Avram Grant's father dies". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 25 December 2009.
- "Chelsea boss gets death threats". BBC. 20 February 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
- Rayner, Gordon (4 February 2010). "Avram Grant: Premier League boss's brothel visit". Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
- "Avram Grant accepts Polish passport after years of researching heritage". Jewish News. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Były trener Chelsea Avram Gran odebrał polski paszport". Sport.pl. 13 June 2016. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- "A history of matches between Hapoel Petah Tikva and Maccabi Haifa". The Hapoel Petah Tikva museum (Hebrew). Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Liverpool opponents expelled BBC Sport
- "Berkovic: Grant won Chelsea job in disgusting, disrespectful way". Tribalfootball.com. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- Collins, Roy (23 September 2007). "Poor view of Wayne Rooney". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- "Why Avraham Grant is the right man to succeed Mourinho". Sportingo.com. 20 September 2007. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- "Grant given position at Chelsea". BBC Sport. 8 July 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
- "Chelsea name Grant as new manager". BBC Sport. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
- "Ten Cate completes Chelsea switch". BBC Sport. 11 October 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2007.
- Hughes, Matt; Samuel, Martin (22 September 2007). "Avram Grants job under threat from lack of Uefa licence". The Times. London.
- Soni, Paresh (29 September 2007). "Chelsea 0–0 Fulham". BBC Sport. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- "Chelsea angry at Grant barracking". BBC Sport. 30 September 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- Castles, Duncan (30 September 2007). "Chelsea players: Grant 'not good enough'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- "Valencia 1 Chelsea 2". The Sun. London. Retrieved 4 October 2007.[dead link]
- "Chelsea extend Grant's contract". BBC Sport. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2007.
- Stevenson, Jonathan (24 February 2008). "Tottenham 2-1 Chelsea". BBC Sport. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Grant gracious after title blow". BBC Sport. 11 May 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Penalty miss will haunt me forever, says distraught Terry". Reuters. 25 May 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Grant Leaves Chelsea". chelseafc.com. Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- "Grant turned down old Chelsea job". BBC Sport. 27 May 2008. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
- "Grant seals return to Portsmouth". BBC Sport. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "Grant to be boss". Portsmouth F.C. Archived from the original on 29 November 2009.
- Soneji, Pranav (5 December 2009). "Portsmouth 2–0 Burnley". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009.
- Sanghera, Mandeep (19 December 2009). "Portsmouth 2 – 0 Liverpool". BBC News. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "West Ham United manager Avram Grant granted work permit". BBC News. 8 June 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Avram Grant confirmed as West Ham United manager". BBC News. 3 June 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- "West Ham 1–3 Chelsea: Sunday Mirror match report". mirrorfootball.co.uk. 11 September 2010. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Stoke City 1–1 West Ham United FT". Whufc.com. 18 September 2010. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- Orvice, Vikki (1 December 2010). "Fergie shouldve gone to Specsavers". The Sun. London. Archived from the original on 20 February 2011.
- "West Ham preparing to sack Avram Grant and appoint Sam Allardyce as manager - Goal.com". 13 December 2010.
- "Grant handed West Ham ultimatum". BBC Sport. 15 December 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- "Fulham 1–3 West Ham". BBC News. 26 December 2010.
- "West Ham 2–0 Wolves". BBC News. 1 January 2011.
- "Newcastle 5 West Ham 0". The Sun. London. 5 January 2011.
- "West Ham to miss out on Martin O'Neill as next manager". BBC Sport. 17 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- "West Ham Betting Odds | Club Details". Soccer Base. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Horoscopes (18 November 2010). "Grant pays the price as Hammers capitulate – Premier League, Soccer". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "West Ham part company with Avram Grant". BBC Sport. 15 May 2011. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Stanojević smenjen, Grant i zvanično trener Partizana! (eng. Stanojević sacked, Grant officially the head coach of Partizan!". Blic. Belgrade. 13 January 2012.
- "World Football – Grant fumes over 'shameful' cancellation". Yahoo! Eurosport. 21 February 2012. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 21 February. Check date values in:
- "Iranians cancel game due to Grant". ESPN Soccernet. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 21 February. Check date values in:
- "Avram exits Partizan after just five months in charge despite delivering title". Daily Mail. Belgrade. 14 May 2012.
- "Ghana: Avram Grant appointed new Black Stars coach". BBC. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "Ivory Coast 0-0 Ghana (Ivory Coast win 9-8 on penalties)". BBC. 8 February 2015.
- "Avram Grant as Ghana's technical adviser". Amen Supernews. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Avram Grant: profile". The Telegraph. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Lipton, Martin (23 February 2008). "Tragedies drive Chelsea boss Avram Grant to fulfil his ambitions". The Mirror. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Manager profile: Avram Grant". Premier League. Retrieved 19 September 2018.