Arabian Peninsula

(Redirected from Arabian)

The Arabian Peninsula[1] (/əˈrbiən .../; Arabic: شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَة الْعَرَبِيَّة, shibhu l-jazīra l-ʿarabiyya, "Arabian Peninsula" or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, jazīratu l-ʿarab, "Island of the Arabs"),[2] or Arabia, is a peninsula in West Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi), comparable in size to India, the Arabian Peninsula is the largest peninsula in the world.[3][4][5][6][7]

Arabian Peninsula
ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة (Arabic)
شِبْه ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة (Arabic)
Area3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi)
Population95,000,000 (2023 estimate )
Population density29.0/km2
HDI0.788 (2018)
DemonymArab, Arabian
Largest cities
Satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula

Geographically, the Arabian Peninsula includes Bahrain,[a] Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Yemen, as well as southern Iraq and Jordan.[8] The largest of these is Saudi Arabia.[9] In the classical era, the Sinai Peninsula was also considered a part of Arabia.

The Arabian Peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the northeast, the Levant and Mesopotamia to the north and the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. The peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Arab world and globally due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas.

Before the modern era, the region was divided into primarily four distinct regions: the Central Plateau (Najd and Al-Yamama), South Arabia (Yemen, Hadhramaut and Oman), Al-Bahrain (Eastern Arabia or Al-Hassa), and the Hejaz (Tihamah for the western coast), as described by Ibn al-Faqih.[10]



In antiquity, the term "Arabia" encompassed a larger area than the current term "Arabian Peninsula" and included the Arabian desert and large parts of the Syrian-Arabian desert. During the Hellenistic period, the area was known as Arabia or Aravia (Greek: Αραβία). The Romans named three regions with the prefix "Arabia".

  • Arabia Petraea ("Stony Arabia"[11]): it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom in the southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula. It was the only one that became a province, with Petra (in Jordan) as its capital.
  • Arabia Deserta ("Desert Arabia"): signified the desert lands of Arabia. As a name for the region, it remained popular into the 19th and 20th centuries, and was used in Charles M. Doughty's Travels in Arabia Deserta (1888).
  • Arabia Felix ("Fortunate Arabia"): was used by geographers to describe the southern part of the Arabian peninsula, mostly what is now Yemen, which enjoys more rainfall, is much greener than the rest of the peninsula and has long enjoyed much more productive fields.

The Arab inhabitants used a north–south division of Arabia: Al Sham-Al Yaman, or Arabia Deserta-Arabia Felix. Arabia Felix had originally been used for the whole peninsula, and at other times only for the southern region. Because its use became limited to the south, the whole peninsula was simply called Arabia. Arabia Deserta was the entire desert region extending north from Arabia Felix to Palmyra and the Euphrates, including all the area between Pelusium on the Nile and Babylon. This area was also called Arabia and not sharply distinguished from the peninsula.[12]

The Arabs and the Ottoman Empire considered the west of the Arabian Peninsula region where the Arabs lived 'the land of the Arabs' – Bilad al-'Arab (Arabia), and its major divisions were the bilad al-Sham (Levant), bilad al-Yaman (Yemen), and Bilad al-'Iraq (Iraq).[13] The Ottomans used the term Arabistan in a broad sense for the region starting from Cilicia, where the Euphrates river makes its descent into Syria, through Palestine, and on through the remainder of the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas.[14]

The provinces of Arabia were: Al Tih, the Sinai peninsula, Hejaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadramaut, Mahra and Shilu, Oman, Hasa, Bahrain, Dahna, Nufud, the Hammad, which included the deserts of Syria, Mesopotamia and Babylonia.[15][16]



The Arabian Peninsula is located in the continent of Asia and is bounded by (clockwise) the Persian Gulf on the northeast, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman on the east, the Arabian Sea on the southeast, the Gulf of Aden, and the Guardafui Channel on the south, and the Bab-el-Mandeb strait on the southwest and the Red Sea, which is located on the southwest and west.[2] The northern portion of the peninsula merges with the Syrian Desert with no clear borderline, although the northern boundary of the peninsula is generally considered to be the northern borders of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, also southern regions of Iraq and Jordan.[2]

The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest, there are mountain ranges, which receive greater rainfall than the rest of the peninsula. Harrat ash Shaam is a large volcanic field that extends from northwestern Arabia into Jordan and southern Syria.[17]

Political boundaries

The constituent countries of Arabia

The Peninsula's constituent countries are (clockwise from north to south) Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on the east, Oman on the southeast, Yemen on the south, and Saudi Arabia at the center. The island country of Bahrain lies just off the east coast of the Peninsula.[2] Due to Yemen's jurisdiction over the Socotra Archipelago, the Peninsula's geopolitical outline faces the Guardafui Channel and the Somali Sea to the south.[18]

The six countries of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).[19]

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the Peninsula. The majority of the population of the Peninsula lives in Saudi Arabia and Yemen.[20] The Peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of oil. Saudi Arabia and the UAE are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, the only peninsular country in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home to the Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera and its English-language subsidiary Al Jazeera English. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, is an important country strategically, forming one of the main staging grounds for coalition forces mounting the United States–led 2003 invasion of Iraq.


Historical population
1950 9,481,713—    
1960 11,788,232+24.3%
1970 15,319,678+30.0%
1980 23,286,256+52.0%
1990 35,167,708+51.0%
2000 47,466,523+35.0%
2010 63,364,000+33.5%
2014 77,584,000+22.4%
2018 86,221,765+11.1%
Political Definition: Gulf Cooperation Council and Yemen
Sources:1950–2000[21] 2000–2014[22]
Historical population (Gulf 4)
1950 356,235—    
1970 1,329,168+273.1%
1990 4,896,491+268.4%
2010 11,457,000+134.0%
2014 17,086,000+49.1%
2018 18,675,440+9.3%
Population of 4 smallest (in area) GCC states with their coastline in the Persian Gulf: UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait
Sources:1950–2000[23] 2000–2014[22]

Despite its historically sparse population, political Arabia stands out for its rapid population growth, driven by both significant inflows of migrant labor and persistently high birth rates. The population is characterized by its relative youth and a heavily skewed gender ratio favoring males. In several states, the number of South Asians surpasses that of the native population. The four smallest states (by area), with coastlines entirely bordering the Persian Gulf, showcase the world's most extreme population growth, nearly tripling every two decades. In 2014, the estimated population of the Arabian Peninsula was 77,983,936 (including expatriates).[24] The Arabian Peninsula is known for having one of the most uneven adult sex ratios in the world, with females in some regions (especially the east) constituting only a quarter of people aged between 20 and 40.[25]


Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the most populous city in the Arabian Peninsula

The eleven most populous cities on the Arabian Peninsula are:

Rank City Population
1   Riyadh 7,538,200
2   Jeddah 4,780,740
3   Kuwait City 3,238,523
4   Sanaa 3,181,655
5   Dubai 2,964,382
6   Mecca 2,114,675
7   Sharjah 1,785,684
8   Muscat 1,622,620
9   Medina 1,545,420
10   Abu Dhabi 1,539,830
11   Basra 1,485,000
Source: 2022[26]


A caravan crossing Ad-Dahna Desert in central Saudi Arabia
Ras al-Jinz in southeastern Arabia (Oman), also known as the 'Turtle Beach'
AR-Arabian Plate, velocities with respect to Africa in millimeters per year

The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf. Perhaps the best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail Ophiolite, lies exposed in the mountains of the UAE and northern Oman.

The peninsula consists of:

  1. A central plateau, the Najd, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep and other livestock
  2. A range of deserts: the Nefud in the north,[27] which is stony; the Rub' al Khali or Great Arabian Desert in the south, with sand estimated to extend 600 ft (180 m) below the surface; between them, the Dahna Mountains[28][29][30]
  3. Stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red Sea side (Tihamah)
  4. Oases and marshy coast-land in Eastern Arabia, the most important of which are those of the Al Ain emirate (Tawam region) and Hofuf/Al-Ahsa (in modern-day Saudi Arabia), according to an author[30]
  5. The southwest monsoon coastline of Dhofar and Eastern Yemen (Mahra).

Arabia has few lakes or permanent rivers. Most areas are drained by ephemeral watercourses called wadis, which are dry except during the rainy season. Plentiful ancient aquifers exist beneath much of the peninsula, however, and where this water surfaces, oases form (e.g. Al-Hasa and Qatif, two of the world's largest oases) and permit agriculture, especially palm trees, which allowed the peninsula to produce more dates than any other region in the world. In general, the climate is extremely hot and arid, although there are exceptions. Higher elevations are made temperate by their altitude, and the Arabian Sea coastline can receive cool, humid breezes in summer due to cold upwelling offshore. The peninsula has no thick forests. Desert-adapted wildlife is present throughout the region.

A plateau more than 2,500 feet (760 m) high extends across much of the Arabian Peninsula. The plateau slopes eastwards from the massive, rifted escarpment along the coast of the Red Sea, to the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. The interior is characterized by cuestas and valleys, drained by a system of wadis. A crescent of sand and gravel deserts lies to the east.


The Haraz Mountains in the west of present-day Yemen include Arabia's highest mountain, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb or Jabal Hadhur[31][32][33] near Sanaa[28][29]

There are mountains at the eastern, southern and northwestern borders of the peninsula. Broadly, the ranges can be grouped as follows:

From the Hejaz southwards, the mountains show a steady increase in altitude westward as they get nearer to Yemen, and the highest peaks and ranges are all located in Yemen. The highest, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb or Jabal Hadhur[31][32][33] of the Haraz subrange of the Sarawat range, is 3,666 metres (12,028 ft) high.[28][29] By comparison, the Tuwayr, Shammar and Dhofar generally do not exceed 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in height.[30]

Not all mountains in the peninsula are visibly within ranges. Jebel Hafeet in particular, on the border of the UAE and Oman, measuring between 1,100 and 1,300 m (3,600 and 4,300 ft),[39][40] is not within the Hajar range, but may be considered an outlier of that range.

Land and sea

Coconut palms line corniches of Al-Hafa, Oman
Red Sea coral reefs

Most of the Arabian Peninsula is unsuited to agriculture, making irrigation and land reclamation projects essential. The narrow coastal plain and isolated oases, amounting to less than 1% of the land area, are used to cultivate grains, coffee and tropical fruits. Goat, sheep, and camel husbandry is widespread elsewhere throughout the rest of the Peninsula. Some areas have a summer humid tropical monsoon climate, in particular the Dhofar and Al Mahrah areas of Oman and Yemen. These areas allow for large scale coconut plantations. Much of Yemen has a tropical monsoon rain influenced mountain climate. The plains usually have either a tropical or subtropical arid desert climate or arid steppe climate. The sea surrounding the Arabian Peninsula is generally tropical sea with a very rich tropical sea life and some of the world's largest, undestroyed and most pristine coral reefs. In addition, the organisms living in symbiosis with the Red Sea coral, the protozoa and zooxanthellae, have a unique hot weather adaptation to sudden rise (and fall) in sea water temperature. Hence, these coral reefs are not affected by coral bleaching caused by rise in temperature as elsewhere in the indopacific coral sea. The reefs are also unaffected by mass tourism and diving or other large scale human interference. The Persian gulf has suffered significant loss and degradation of coral reefs with the biggest ongoing threat believed to be coastal construction activity altering the marine environment.[41]

The fertile soils of Yemen have encouraged settlement of almost all of the land from sea level up to the mountains at 10,000 feet (3,000 m). In the higher elevations, elaborate terraces have been constructed to facilitate grain, fruit, coffee, ginger and khat cultivation. The Arabian peninsula is known for its rich oil, i.e. petroleum production due to its geographical location.[42]

According to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data (2003–2013) analysed in a University of California, Irvine (UCI)-led study published in Water Resources Research on 16 June 2015, the most over-stressed aquifer system in the world is the Arabian Aquifer System, upon which more than 60 million people depend for water.[43] Twenty-one of the thirty seven largest aquifers "have exceeded sustainability tipping points and are being depleted" and thirteen of them are "considered significantly distressed".[43]



Stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic age along with fossils of other animals discovered at Ti's al Ghadah, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, might imply that hominins migrated through a "Green Arabia" between 300,000 and 500,000 years ago.[44] 200,000-year-old stone tools were discovered at Shuaib Al-Adgham in the eastern Al-Qassim Province, which would indicate that many prehistoric sites, located along a network of rivers, had once existed in the area.[45] Acheulean tools found in Saffaqah, Riyadh Region reveal that hominins lived in the Arabian Peninsula around 188,000 years ago.[46] Human habitation in Arabia may have occurred as early as 130,000 years ago.[47] A fossilized Homo sapiens finger bone found at Al Wusta in the Nefud Desert dates to approximately 90,000 years ago and is the oldest human fossil discovered outside of Africa and the Levant. This indicates human migrations from Africa to Arabia occurred around this time.[48] The Arabian Peninsula may have been the homeland of a 'Basal Eurasian' population, which diverged from other Eurasians soon after the Out-of-Africa migration, and subsequently became isolated, until it started to mix with other populations in the Middle East since around 25,000 years ago. These different Middle Eastern populations would later spread Basal Eurasian ancestry via the Neolithic Revolution to all of Western Eurasia.[49]

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Pre-Islamic Arabia in 1000 BC

There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 106,000 to 130,000 years ago.[50] The harsh climate historically[when?] prevented much settlement in the pre-Islamic Arabian Peninsula, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements, such as Mecca and Medina, located in the Hejaz in the west of the peninsula.[51]

Archaeology has revealed the existence of many civilizations in pre-Islamic Arabia (such as the Thamud), especially in South Arabia.[52][53] South Arabian civilizations include the Himyarite Kingdom, the Kingdom of Awsan, the Kingdom of Ma'īn, and the Sabaean Kingdom (usually considered to be the biblical land of Sheba). From 106 AD to 630 AD northwestern Arabia was under the control of the Roman Empire, which renamed it Arabia Petraea.[54] Central Arabia was the location of the Kingdom of Kinda in the 4th, 5th and early 6th centuries. Eastern Arabia was home to the Dilmun civilization. The earliest known events in Arabian history are migrations from the peninsula into neighbouring areas.[55]

The Arabian Peninsula has long been accepted as the original Urheimat of the Semitic languages by a majority of scholars.[56][57][58][59]

Rise of Islam

The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

The seventh century saw the rise of Islam as the peninsula's dominant religion. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in about 570 and first began preaching in the city in 610, but migrated to Medina in 622. From there he and his companions united the tribes of Arabia under the banner of Islam and created a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the Arabian Peninsula.

Muhammad established a new unified polity in the Arabian peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees.

With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[60]

The Middle East, c. 1190. Saladin's empire and its vassals shown in red

On his death in 634, he was succeeded by Umar as caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. The period of these first four caliphs is known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn: the Rashidun or "rightly guided" Caliphate. Under the Rashidun Caliphs, and, from 661, their Umayyad successors, the Arabs rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim control outside of Arabia. In a matter of decades Muslim armies decisively defeated the Byzantine army and destroyed the Persian Empire, conquering huge swathes of territory from the Iberian peninsula to India. The political focus of the Muslim world then shifted to the newly conquered territories.[61][62]

Nevertheless, Mecca and Medina remained the spiritually most important places in the Muslim world. The Qur'an requires every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it, as one of the five pillars of Islam, to make a pilgrimage, or Hajj, to Mecca during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah at least once in his or her lifetime.[63] The Masjid al-Haram (the Grand Mosque) in Mecca is the location of the Kaaba, Islam's holiest site, and the Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet's Mosque) in Medina is the location of Muhammad's grave; as a result, from the 7th century, Mecca and Medina became the pilgrimage destinations for large numbers of Muslims from across the Islamic world.[64]

Middle Ages

Portuguese colonies in Arabia.

Despite its spiritual importance, in political terms Arabia soon became a peripheral region of the Islamic world, in which the most important medieval Islamic states were based at various times in such far away cities as Damascus, Baghdad, and Cairo. However, from the 10th century (and, in fact, until the 20th century) the Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca maintained a state in the most developed part of the region, the Hejaz. Their domain originally comprised only the holy cities of Mecca and Medina but in the 13th century it was extended to include the rest of the Hejaz. Although, the Sharifs exercised at most times independent authority in the Hejaz, they were usually subject to the suzerainty of one of the major Islamic empires of the time. In the Middle Ages, these included the Abbasids of Baghdad, and the Fatimids, Ayyubids, and Mamluks of Egypt.[65]

Modern history

Expansion of the first Saudi State from 1744 to 1814
The Arabian Peninsula in 1914
The Arabian Peninsula in 1923

The provincial Ottoman Army for Arabia (Arabistan Ordusu) was headquartered in Syria, which included Palestine, the Transjordan region in addition to Lebanon (Mount Lebanon was, however, a semi-autonomous mutasarrifate). It was put in charge of Syria, Cilicia, Iraq, and the remainder of the Arabian Peninsula.[66][67] The Ottomans never had any control over central Arabia, also known as the Najd region.

The emergence of what was to become the Saudi royal family, known as the Al Saud, began in Najd in central Arabia in 1744, when Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, founder of the Wahhabi movement, a strict puritanical form of Sunni Islam.[68] The Emirate of Diriyah established in the area around Riyadh rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, sacking Karbala in 1802, and capturing Mecca in 1803.[69]

The Damascus Protocol of 1914 provides an illustration of the regional relationships. Arabs living in one of the existing districts of the Arabian peninsula, the Emirate of Hejaz, asked for a British guarantee of independence. Their proposal included all Arab lands south of a line roughly corresponding to the northern frontiers of present-day Syria and Iraq. They envisioned a new Arab state, or confederation of states, adjoining the southern Arabian Peninsula. It would have comprised Ciliciaİskenderun and Mersin, Iraq with Kuwait, Syria, Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Jordan, and Palestine.[70]

In the modern era, the term bilad al-Yaman came to refer specifically to the southwestern parts of the peninsula. Arab geographers started to refer to the whole peninsula as 'jazirat al-Arab', or the peninsula of the Arabs.[13]

Late Ottoman rule and the Hejaz Railway


The railway was started in 1900 at the behest of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II and was built largely by the Turks, with German advice and support. A public subscription was opened throughout the Islamic world to fund the construction. The railway was to be a waqf, an inalienable religious endowment or charitable trust.[71]

The Arab Revolt and the foundation of Saudi Arabia

Physical and political elements of Arabia in 1929
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia

The major developments of the early 20th century were the Arab Revolt during World War I and the subsequent collapse and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Empire and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen. During World War I, the Sharif Hussein entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the Ottomans in June 1916.

These events were followed by the foundation of Saudi Arabia under King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud. In 1902, Ibn Saud had captured Riyadh. Continuing his conquests, Abdulaziz subdued Al-Hasa, Jabal Shammar, Hejaz between 1913 and 1926 founded the modern state of Saudi Arabia. The Saudis absorbed the Emirate of Asir, with their expansion only ending in 1934 after a war with Yemen. Two Saudi states were formed and controlled much of Arabia before Ibn Saud was even born. Ibn Saud, however, established the third Saudi state.

Oil reserves


The second major development has been the discovery of vast reserves of oil in the 1930s. Its production brought great wealth to all countries of the region, with the exception of Yemen.

North Yemen Civil War


The North Yemen Civil War was fought in North Yemen between royalists of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen and factions of the Yemen Arab Republic from 1962 to 1970. The war began with a coup d'état carried out by the republican leader, Abdullah as-Sallal, which dethroned the newly crowned Muhammad al-Badr and declared Yemen a republic under his presidency. The Imam escaped to the Saudi Arabian border and rallied popular support.

The royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, while the republicans were supported by Egypt and the Soviet Union. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved. The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the republicans with as many as 70,000 troops. Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egypt's commitment to the war is considered to have been detrimental to its performance in the Six-Day War of June 1967, after which Nasser found it increasingly difficult to maintain his army's involvement and began to pull his forces out of Yemen.

By 1970, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia recognized the republic and a truce was signed. Egyptian military historians refer to Egypt's role in the war in Yemen as analogous to the United States' role in the Vietnam War.[72]

Gulf War


In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait.[73] The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces led to the 1990–91 Gulf War. Egypt, Qatar, Syria, and Saudi Arabia joined a multinational coalition that opposed Iraq. Displays of support for Iraq by Jordan and Palestine resulted in strained relations between many of the Arab states. After the war, a so-called "Damascus Declaration" formalized an alliance for future joint Arab defensive actions between Egypt, Syria, and the GCC member states.[74]

2014 Yemen civil war


The Arab Spring reached Yemen in January 2011.[75] People of Yemen took to the street demonstrating against three decades of rule by President Ali Abdullah Saleh.[76] The demonstration led to cracks in the ruling General People's Congress (GPC) and Saleh's Sanhani clan.[77] Saleh used tactics of concession and violence to save his presidency.[78] After numerous attempts, Saleh accepted the Gulf Cooperation Council's mediation. He eventually handed power to Vice President Hadi, who was sworn in as President of Yemen on 25 February 2012. Hadi launched a national dialogue to address new constitutional, political and social issues. The Houthi movement, dissatisfied with the outcomes of the national dialogue, launched an offensive and stormed the Yemeni capital Sanaa on 21 September 2014.[79] In response, Saudi Arabia launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015.[80] The civil war and subsequent military intervention and blockade caused a famine in Yemen.[81]


See also


Explanatory notes

  1. ^ a b As an island country, Bahrain is technically not a part of the Arabian Peninsula, but a part of the slightly larger geopolitical region called Arabia.
  2. ^ a b Southern region only.


  1. ^ Hopkins, Daniel J.; 편집부 (2001). Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary (Third ed.). Merriam-Webster. p. 61. ISBN 978-0877795469. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d Nijim, Basheer K. "Arabia | peninsula, Asia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  3. ^ Niz, Ellen Sturm (10 April 2006). Peninsulas. Capstone. p. 19. ISBN 9780736861427.
  4. ^ McColl, R. W. (14 May 2014). Encyclopedia of World Geography. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9780816072293. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  5. ^ Condra, Jill (9 April 2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313376375. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  6. ^ Dodge, Christine Huda (1 April 2003). The Everything Understanding Islam Book: A Complete and Easy to Read Guide to Muslim Beliefs, Practices, Traditions, and Culture. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781605505459. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  7. ^ "15 Largest Peninsulas in the World". WorldAtlas. Archived from the original on 17 March 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  8. ^ Cohen, Saul Bernard (2003). Geopolitics of the World System. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 337. ISBN 9780847699070. Archived from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  9. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Buitenlandse (14 May 2017). "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – Doing business in the Gulf region –". Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  10. ^ Ibn al-Faqih (c. 903). Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  11. ^ "Arabia Petraea". Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  12. ^ See Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt Archived 1 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, David Frankfurter, BRILL, 1998, ISBN 90-04-11127-1, page 163
  13. ^ a b Salibi, Kamal Suleiman (1988). A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. University of California Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-520-07196-4. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  14. ^ See for example Palestine: The Reality, Joseph Mary Nagle Jeffries, Published by Longmans, Green and co., 1939, Page 11
  15. ^ see Review of Reviews and World's Work: An International Magazine, Albert Shaw ed., The Review of Reviews Corporation, 1919, page 408]
  16. ^ "New International Encyclopedia – 2nd Edition, Dodd, Mead, Co., 1914". 1914. p. 795. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  17. ^ Weinstein, Y. (1 January 2007). "A transition from strombolian to phreatomagmatic activity induced by a lava flow damming water in a valley". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 159 (1–3): 267–284. Bibcode:2007JVGR..159..267W. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.06.015.
  18. ^ McLaughlin, Rob (2015). "The Continuing Conundrum of the Somali Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone". The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 30.2. 305–334.
  19. ^ A.S. Alsharhan, Z. A. Rizk, A. E. M. Nairn [et al.], 2001, Waterology of an Arid Region, Elsevier.
  20. ^ "Arabian Peninsula Countries 2021". Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  21. ^ "International Programs". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Asia: Population Statistics in Maps and Charts for Cities, Agglomerations and Administrative Divisions of all Countries in Asia". Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  23. ^ "International Programs". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  24. ^ "The World Fact book". Central Intelligence Agency. 7 August 2007. Archived from the original on 12 August 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
  25. ^ Alrouh, Hekmat, Awatef Ismail, and Sohaila Cheema. "Demographic and health indicators in Gulf Cooperation Council nations with an emphasis on Qatar." Journal of Local and Global Health Perspectives (2013): p 4
  26. ^ "World City Populations 2022". Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  27. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 15. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  28. ^ a b c d Robert D. Burrowes (2010). Historical Dictionary of Yemen. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 5–340. ISBN 978-0-8108-5528-1. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d McLaughlin, Daniel (2008). "1: Background". Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-8416-2212-5. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Cavendish, Marshall (2007). "Geography and climate". World and Its Peoples. Vol. 1. Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 8–19. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.
  31. ^ a b زبارة, محمد بن محمد بن يحيى اليمني/الصنعاني (1 January 1998). نيل الوطر من تراجم رجال اليمن في القرن الثالث عشر 1–2 ج1 (in Arabic). Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah (دار الكتب العلمية). ISBN 978-2-7451-2623-8. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  32. ^ a b Gazetteer of Arabia. Vol. II [1044] (81/688). Qatar Digital Library. 1917. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  33. ^ a b "Jabal an-Nabī Shu'ayb, Bani Matar, Sanaa, Yemen". Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  34. ^ a b c Scoville, Sheila A. (2006). Gazetteer of Arabia: a geographical and tribal history of the Arabian Peninsula. Vol. 2. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. pp. 117–288. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  35. ^ Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Fisher, Martin (17 April 2013). "1–2". Vegetation of the Arabian Peninsula. Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 27–55. ISBN 978-9-4017-3637-4. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  36. ^ Overstreet, William Courtney (1977). Tertiary laterite of the As Sarat Mountains, Asir Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Vol. 2. Directorate General of Mineral Resources. pp. iii–2. Archived from the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  37. ^ Mandal, Ram Bahadur (1990). "VI: A Regional Geography". Patterns of Regional Geography: World regions. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company. p. 354. ISBN 978-8-1702-2292-7. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  38. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2013). "1: The Holiest Cities of Islam". Mecca the Blessed, Medina the Radiant: The Holiest Cities of Islam. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-1365-7. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  39. ^ Gardner, Andrew Somerville (January 2004). "The reptiles of Jebel Hafeet". ADCO and Emirates Natural History Group. pp. 149–168. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  40. ^ Lieth, Helmut; Al Masoom, A. A., eds. (6 December 2012). "Reclamation potentials of saline degraded lands in Abu Dhabi eastern region using high salinity-tolerant woody plants and some salt marsh species". Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants: Vol 2: Agriculture and forestry under marginal soil water conditions. Vol. 2: Agriculture and forestry under marginal soil water conditions. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 271–274. ISBN 978-9-4011-1860-6. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  41. ^ Riegl, Bernhard; Purkis, Samuel (2011). "Persian/Arabian Gulf Coral Reefs". In Hopley, D (ed.). Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs. Springer. pp. 790–798. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2639-2_123. ISBN 978-90-481-2639-2.
  42. ^ Sorkhabi, Rasoul (June 2008). "The Emergence of the Arabian Oil Industry". Geoexpro. Archived from the original on 1 June 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  43. ^ a b "Study: Third of Big Groundwater Basins in Distress", NASA, 16 June 2015, archived from the original on 27 June 2015, retrieved 26 June 2015
  44. ^ Roberts, Patrick; Stewart, Mathew; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Breeze, Paul; Candy, Ian; Drake, Nick; Groucutt, Huw S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Louys, Julien; Zalmout, Iyad S.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya S. A.; Zech, Jana; Alsharekh, Abdullah M.; al Omari, Abdulaziz; Boivin, Nicole; Petraglia, Michael (29 October 2018). "Fossil herbivore stable isotopes reveal middle Pleistocene hominin palaeoenvironment in 'Green Arabia'". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2 (12). Nature: 1871–1878. Bibcode:2018NatEE...2.1871R. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0698-9. hdl:10072/382068. PMID 30374171. S2CID 53099270. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  45. ^ "Saudi Arabia's Qassim stone axe find points to prehistoric 'crossroads'". Arab News. 2 January 2021.
  46. ^ Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Shipton, Ceri; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Frouin, Marine; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Groucutt, Huw S.; Breeze, Paul S.; Parton, Ash; Blinkhorn, James; Drake, Nick A.; Jennings, Richard; Cuthbertson, Patrick; Al Omari, Abdulaziz; Alsharekh, Abdullah M.; Petraglia, Michael D. (29 November 2018). "The expansion of later Acheulean hominins into the Arabian Peninsula". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 17165. Bibcode:2018NatSR...817165S. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35242-5. PMC 6265249. PMID 30498259.
  47. ^ Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Usik, Vitaly I.; Parker, Adrian G.; Marks, Anthony E.; Jasim, Sabah A.; Armitage, Simon J. (28 January 2011). "The Southern Route "Out of Africa": Evidence for an Early Expansion of Modern Humans into Arabia". Science. 331 (6016): 453–456. Bibcode:2011Sci...331..453A. doi:10.1126/science.1199113. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21273486. S2CID 20296624.
  48. ^ "First human migration out of Africa more geographically widespread than previously thought". Eurek Alert. 9 April 2018. Archived from the original on 2 December 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  49. ^ Vallini, Leonardo; Zampieri, Carlo; Shoaee, Mohamed Javad; Bortolini, Eugenio; Marciani, Giulia; Aneli, Serena; Pievani, Telmo; Benazzi, Stefano; Barausse, Alberto; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Petraglia, Michael D.; Pagani, Luca (25 March 2024). "The Persian plateau served as hub for Homo sapiens after the main out of Africa dispersal". Nature Communications. 15 (1): 1882. Bibcode:2024NatCo..15.1882V. doi:10.1038/s41467-024-46161-7. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 10963722. PMID 38528002.
  50. ^ Saudi Embassy (US) Website Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 20 January 2011
  51. ^ Gordon, Matthew (2005). The Rise of Islam. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-313-32522-9.
  52. ^ Robert D. Burrowes (2010). Historical Dictionary of Yemen. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 319. ISBN 978-0810855281.
  53. ^ Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (2003). On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 116. ISBN 978-0802849601.
  54. ^ Taylor, Jane (2005). Petra. London: Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 25–31. ISBN 9957-451-04-9.
  55. ^ Philip Khuri Hitti (2002), History of the Arabs, Revised: 10th Edition
  56. ^ Gray, Louis Herbert (2006) Introduction to Semitic Comparative Linguistics
  57. ^ Courtenay, James John (2009) The Language of Palestine and Adjacent Regions
  58. ^ Kienast, Burkhart. (2001). Historische semitische Sprachwissenschaft.
  59. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995) The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
  60. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.57
    • Hourani (2003), p.22
    • Lapidus (2002), p.32
    • Madelung (1996), p.43
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
  61. ^ See: Holt (1977a), p.57, Hourani (2003), p.22, Lapidus (2002), p.32, Madelung (1996), p.43, Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
  62. ^ L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
  63. ^ Farah, Caesar (1994). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (5th ed.), pp.145–147 ISBN 978-0-8120-1853-0
  64. ^ Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur; Lawrence Davidson (2005). A Concise History of the Middle East (8th ed.), p.48 ISBN 978-0-8133-4275-7
  65. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online: History of Arabia Archived 3 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 18 January 2011
  66. ^ see History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 1977, ISBN 0-521-29166-6, page 85
  67. ^ The Politics of Interventionism in Ottoman Lebanon, 1830–1861, by Caesar E. Farah Archived 14 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, explains that Mount Lebanon was in the jurisdiction of the Arabistan Army, and that its headquarters was briefly moved to Beirut.
  68. ^ Harris, Ian; Mews, Stuart; Morris, Paul; Shepherd, John (1992). Contemporary Religions: A World Guide. Longman. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-582-08695-1.
  69. ^ "The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam Archived 16 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  70. ^ As cited by R, John and S. Hadawi's, Palestine Diary, pp. 30–31, the 'Damascus Protocol' stated: "The recognition by Great Britain of the independence of the Arab countries lying within the following frontiers: North: The Line Mersin_Adana to parallel 37N. and thence along the line Birejek-Urga-Mardin-Kidiat-Jazirat (Ibn 'Unear)-Amadia to the Persian frontier; East: The Persian frontier down to the Persian Gulf; South: The Indian Ocean (with the exclusion of Aden, whose status was to be maintained). West: The Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea back to Mersin. The abolition of all exceptional privileges granted to foreigners under the capitulations. The conclusion of a defensive alliance between Great Britain and the future independent Arab State. The grant of economic preference to Great Britain." see King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz Archived 22 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, By Randall Baker, Oleander Press, 1979, ISBN 0-900891-48-3, pages 64–65
  71. ^ King Hussein and the Kingdom of Hejaz, Randall Baker, Oleander Press 1979, ISBN 0-900891-48-3, page 18
  72. ^ Aboul-Enein, Youssef (1 January 2004). "The Egyptian-Yemen War: Egyptian perspectives on Guerrilla warfare". Infantry Magazine. No. Jan–Feb, 2004. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
  73. ^ see Richard Schofield, Kuwait and Iraq: Historical Claims and Territorial. Disputes, London: Royal Institute of International Affairs 1991, ISBN 0-905031-35-0 and The Kuwait Crisis: Basic Documents, By E. Lauterpacht, C. J. Greenwood, Marc Weller, Published by Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-521-46308-4
  74. ^ Egypt's Bid for Arab Leadership: Implications for U.S. Policy, By Gregory L. Aftandilian, Published by Council on Foreign Relations, 1993, ISBN 0-87609-146-X, pages 6–8
  75. ^ BBC World News, Arab Uprising:Country by Country -Yemen
  76. ^ Cornell University Library. Arab Spring:A Research & Study Guide:Yemen guides. Last Updated: May 9, 2019
  77. ^ "Yemen Uprising of 2011–12". Written By:The editors of Encyclopedia Britannica.
  78. ^ University Library. University of Illinois at Urbana-champaign. Arab Spring Workshop:Yemen
  79. ^ Kasinof, Laura (2015). "How the Houthis Did It". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  80. ^ Wintour, Patrick (3 September 2019). "UK, US and France may be complicit in Yemen war crimes – UN report". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  81. ^ Kristof, Nicholas (31 August 2017). "The Photos the U.S. and Saudi Arabia Don't Want You to See". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2020.

Further reading


23°N 46°E / 23°N 46°E / 23; 46