Iram of the Pillars
Iram of the Pillars (Arabic: إرَم ذَات ٱلْعِمَاد, Iram dhāt al-ʿimād), also called "Irum", "Irem", "Erum", "Ubar", or the "City of the pillars," is a lost city, region or tribe mentioned in the Qur'an.
There are several explanations for the reference to "Iram – who had lofty pillars". Some see this as a geographic location, either a city or an area, others as the name of a tribe. Those identifying it as a city have made various suggestions as to where or what city it was, ranging from Alexandria or Damascus to a city which actually moved or a city called Ubar. As an area it has been identified with the biblical Aram, son of Shem and the biblical region known as Aram. It has also been identified as a tribe, possibly the tribe of ʿĀd, with the pillars referring to tent pillars.
"The identification of Wadi Rum with Iram and the tribe of ‘Ad, mentioned in the Qur’an, has been proposed by scholars who have translated Thamudic and Nabataean inscriptions referring to both the place Iram and the tribes of ‘Ad and Thamud by name."
According to some Islamic beliefs, King Shaddad defied the warnings of the prophet Hud and Allah smote the city, driving it into the sands, never to be seen again. The ruins of the city are thought to lie buried somewhere in the sands of Al-Rub' al Khali (The Empty Quarter). Iram became known to Western literature with the translation of the story "The City of Many-Columned Iram and Abdullah Son of Abi Kilabah" in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights.
Juris Zarins and its identification as UbarEdit
In 1992 Ranulph Fiennes wrote a book called Atlantis of the Sands about a legendary lost city in the southern Arabian sands, claimed to have been destroyed by a natural disaster or as a punishment by God. Various names have been given to it including Iram.
Archaeologist Juris Zarins discussed Ubar in a 1996 interview saying “There's a lot of confusion about that word. If you look at the classical texts and the Arab historical sources, Ubar refers to a region and a group of people, not to a specific town. People always overlook that. It's very clear on Ptolemy’s second century map of the area. It says in big letters "Iobaritae". And in his text that accompanied the maps, he's very clear about that. It was only the late medieval version of One Thousand and One Nights, in the fourteenth or fifteenth century, that romanticised Ubar and turned it into a city, rather than a region or a people."
By 2007, following further research and excavation, a study authored in part by Zarins could be summarised as follows:
- As far as the legend of Ubar was concerned, there was no evidence that the city had perished in a sandstorm. Much of the fortress had collapsed into a sinkhole that hosted the well, perhaps undermined by ground water being taken to irrigate the surrounding oasis.
- Rather than being a city, interpretation of the evidence suggested that "Ubar" was more likely to have been a region—the “Land of the Iobaritae” identified by Ptolemy. The decline of the region was probably due to a reduction in the frankincense trade caused by the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity, which did not require incense in the same quantities for its rituals. Also, it became difficult to find local labour to collect the resin. Climatic changes led to desiccation of the area, and sea transport became a more reliable way of transporting goods.
There are many Hadiths about Iram, with one being the story of 'Abdullah bin Qalabah, who lost his camel and found Iram of the Pillars while searching for his camel. The story has been rejected by some Islamic scholars who said that the story is an Isra'iliyyat Hadith and that is because Ka’b al-Ahbar was Jewish before he converted to Islam and he was accused by some scholars of narrating Isra'iliyyat stories.
- Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception explores Iram of the Pillars in the city of Ubar.
- Irem is featured as a port of call in Sunless Sea, having been transported underground to a subterranean ocean.
- H. P. Lovecraft places it somewhere near "The Nameless City" in his stories (1921). In "The Call of Cthulhu" (1926) it is the supposed base of the Cthulhu Cult. Lovecraft and other Cthulhu Mythos authors have settled on the spelling Irem.
- Iram is the theme of Daniel Easterman's novel The Seventh Sanctuary (1987).
- Bayard Taylor's poem The Garden of Irem.
- Glassé, Cyril; Huston Smith (2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam (Revised ed.). AltaMira Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7591-0190-6.
- "Surat Al-Fajr [89:6–14] The Noble Qur'an – القرآن الكريم". Quran.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- The Qur'an. Center for Muslim–Jewish Engagement, University of Southern California. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017.
- Noegel, Scott B (2010). The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-8108-7603-3.
- Al-Tabari (1999). Charles Edmund Bosworth (ed.). The History of Al-Tabari: The Sassanids, the Lakhmids, and Yemen. State University of New York Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7914-4356-9.
- "Wadi Rum (Jordan)." International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Evaluation Report. May 2011. 11. http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/1377.pdf
- "Surat Al-Fajr [89:6–14] - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم". Quran.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- Interview with Dr J. Zarins, Nova Online, Sept. 1996
- Blom, R., Crippen, R., Elachi, C., Clapp, N., Hedges, G., Zarins, J., “Southern Arabian Desert Trade Routes, Frankincense, Myrrh, and the Ubar Legend” in Remote Sensing in Archaeology, Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology (2007).
- Lawton, John (May–June 1983). "Oman: Frankincense". Aramco World. 34 (3): 26–27. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- "Chapter 54: Shaddad and his Paradise, those who had very long life-spans". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 2018-07-28.
- Haldūn, 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhammad Ibn; Haldun, Ibn; Khaldūn, Ibn; Khaldun, Ibn; Ibn-Ḫaldūn, ʿAbd-ar-Raḥmān Ibn-Muḥammad; Khaldun, Khaldun Ibn; Ibn; Ḫaldūn, `Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad Ibn (1958). The Muqaddimah : an introduction to history ; in three volumes. 1. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691017549.
- "The Nameless City". Mythos Tomes. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- https://www.poetrynook.com/poem/garden-irem>The Garden of Irem
- Nicholas Clapp, The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands, Houghton Mifflin (1999) ISBN 0-395-95786-9.
- Ranulph Fiennes, Atlantis of the Sands: The Search for the Lost City of Ubar, Bloomsbury (1992), ISBN 0-7475-1327-9.
- Charles R. Pellegrino, Return to Sodom & Gomorrah: Bible Stories from Archaeologists, Random House (1994), ISBN 0-679-40006-0.
- Lost City of Arabia, Nova On-line on the discovery of Ubar
- The Search for Ubar: How Remote Sensing Helped Find a Lost City, from a NASA Website
- The Frankincense Route Emerges From the Desert, New York Times, April 21, 1992
- Entry on Irem in Dan Clore's A Necronomicon Glossary
- Space Technology And The Discovery Of The Lost City Of Ubar