The Sarawat Mountains (Arabic: جِبَال ٱلسَّرَوَات, romanized: Jibāl as-Sarawāt), also known as the Sarat, is a mountain range in the western part of the Arabian Peninsula. In a broad sense, it runs parallel to the eastern coast of the Red Sea, and thus encompasses the Asir and Hijaz Mountains, which can be seen as including the Midian Mountains. In a narrow sense, the Sarawat start in Asir in southern Saudi Arabia, and extend to the Gulf of Aden in the south, running along the entire western coast of Yemen, in what used to be North Yemen, and extend eastwards into part of what used to be South Yemen, thus running parallel to the Gulf of Aden.
|Peak||Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb (Yemen)|
|Elevation||3,666 m (12,028 ft)|
|Native name||جِبَال ٱلسَّرَوَات (in Arabic)|
|Countries||Yemen and Saudi Arabia|
These mountains are mainly rocky though some contain vegetation. Many of the peaks are fairly young and jagged, but some are smoother from weathering. Nearing the Yemeni border, the Sarawat begin to spread into individual peaks, and the Hejaz turns from a cliff to a gradual ascent up to the Yemeni Plateau. In Yemen, the Sarawat are divided into the western and central highlands, where the western highlands receive plenty of precipitation, more than anywhere else in the peninsula, and the central highlands have the highest mountains in the peninsula. A very dramatic part of the Yemeni Sarawat are the Haraz Mountains, where a few peaks top 3,000 metres (9,800 feet), but the descents and views from the mountains are staggering; some foots of mountains are only at 500 metres (1,600 feet) above sea level yet their peaks are at 2,800–3,300 metres (9,200–10,800 feet). All of the mountains over 3,000 metres (9,800 feet) are located in Yemen, the highest of which is Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb near the capital Sana'a. At 3,666 metres (12,028 feet), Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb is also the highest peak in Arabia.
Geologically, the Sarawat are part of the Arabian Shield, and are made up mostly of volcanic rock. The western slopes end abruptly near the Red Sea coast, while the eastern side of the mountain range slopes downward more gently and is intersected by wadis that support agriculture, especially in the southern reaches of the Sarawat, where the mountains face the monsoons. Among the cities located within the Sarawat is the Yemeni capital, San'a, located near some of the Sarawat's highest peaks.
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