Amb (princely state)
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Amb (امب) or Kingdom of Amb, also known as Feudal Tanawal was a princely state which covered over the Hazara Division and the permanent territory of Kashmir. It was disappearing from time to time by fighting against the Sikh and Durrani empire of that region. The Tanoli then submitted to British colonial rule in the 1840s. Following Pakistani independence in 1947, and for some months afterwards, the Nawabs of Amb remained unaligned. At the end of December 1947, the Nawab of Amb state acceded to Pakistan while retaining internal self-government. Amb continued as a princely state of Pakistan until 1969, when it was incorporated into the North West Frontier Province (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa).
|Kingdom of Amb|
مملكة الامب (Arabic)
|Princely state of Pakistan|
|1507–28 July 1969|
|Capital||Darband (now submerged under Tarbela Dam)|
Shergarh (summer residence)
|24,985 km2 (9,647 sq mi)|
|290 km2 (110 sq mi)|
• In the Region of Muhammad Akram Khan the area of state recorded in 1901.
|555 km2 (214 sq mi)|
• In the region of Muhammad Farid Khan the area of state recorded in 1958.
|1,520 km2 (590 sq mi)|
|• Motto||""این سیستم خداست"" This system of God بادشاہت اللہ کی*نظام خدا دا*|
|Historical era||since 1507-1969|
• Submitted to Durrani Rule
• Submitted to Sikh Rule
• Submitted to British Rule
|28 July 1969|
|Today part of||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan|
The state was named after the town of Amb. After the death of the last Nawab, Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli, the fighting between the descendants of the state of Amb for power continued, which ended in 1971, when the Pakistani army ended or occupied the integration. In 1972, the recognition of their royal status was ended by the Government of Pakistan. In 1974, the Tarbela Dam completely destroyed the capital of Amb and the palaces of the Amb state.
Letter written by Kings of that timeEdit
List of Nawabs of AmbEdit
|Image||Titular Name||Personal Name||Date of birth||Nawab From||Nawab
|Date of death|
|Muhammad Anwar Khan Tanoli
انور خان تنولی
|Anwar Khan Tanoli||1688||1710||1730||1730|
|Muhammad Bahadur Khan Tanoli
|Bahadur Khan Tanoli||23 June 1712||1730-1740||8 August 1755||8 August 1755|
|Sultan Zaburdust Khan Tanoli
صوبہ خان تنولی
|Sultan Zaburdust Khan Tanoli||1 May 1736||8 August 1755||2 November 1783|
|Mir Haibat Khan Tanoli
|Mir Haibat Khan Tanoli||6 April 1740||1783||12 December 1798|
|Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli
|Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli||12 April 1792||1800-1810||13 October 1818|
|Mir Painda Khan Tanoli
|Mir Painda Khan Tanoli||6 May 1805||1818||1819-1822 completely
Rule ended and hence again conquered and started in 1823
|12 September 1844|
|Mir Jehandad Khan Tanoli
|Mir Jehandad Khan Tanoli||6 February 1820||1844||1868|
|Muhammad Akram Khan Tanoli
|Muhammad Akram Khan Tanoli||1859||1868||1907|
|Khan-e-Zaman Khan Tanoli
|Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan Tanoli||6 November 1880||1907||12 September 1936|
|Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli
|Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli||1 January 1904||1936||17 September 1947
(Alliance with Pakistan but continued rule)
|28 July 1969
(Rule end due to fighting between the Descendents of Amb Pakistan Army occupied integration)
Wealth and Military StatusEdit
Amb was considered a powerful and important state during Durrani, Mughal and British Raj. The total revenue of the state in 1901 was 36-42 lakhs when the price of 1 tola gold is 20 British Rupee. In 1901, state's income was 6 lakhs and second part of its revenue was the collection of tax from other state's Nawabs and Maharajahs, who used the routes of Tanawal and Attock for visiting other countries. This tax was also collected by Traders and Merchants who used that routes. In this way, Nawab of Amb fought many wars with British, Durrani and Sikh this is the main cause of war.
Amb state, once known as Mulk-e-Tanawal (country/area of Tanawal), was the home of the Tanoli. The region's early history dates back to the Mughal Empire, when around year 1647, the Tanoli tribe conquered and settled by the Indus River, surrounded by wide area, which came to be known as Tanawal. Before Tanawal, it was known as the Pakhli Sultanate (Karluks Turk), which ruled over Hazara, who came to Timur around 1380 to 1390. This was the only state of the Mughal Empire which did not pay tax to Delhi. The rule of the Karluks ended when the Swatis arrived. The last Karluks ruler was Sultan Mehmood Khurd, accordingly the start of Tanoli's rule. The ancestry can be traced back to the Barlas Turks, who are the descendents of Timur. When the Durrani tribe arrived in India, the Tanoli chieftain Suba Khan Tanoli accepted Durrani rule in 1755 and helped the empire during the Third Battle of Panipat.
In 1854, the British frontier officer General James Abbott postulated that Aornos was located on the Mahaban range, south of modern Buner District. In 1839, he proposed to recognise Embolina, as had Ranjit Singh's mercenary General Claude Auguste Court, as the village of Amb situated on the right bank of the Indus eight miles east of Mahaban. This became the location from which it is thought that the Nawabs of Amb took their title in later years.
The army of Amb state get trained by Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan Tanoli, Nawab of Amb. At Darband, Amb State, 1923
This picture is from 1917, Darband. In this photo: Nawab Sir Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan Tanoli (seated second from left), Sir George Roos-Keppel (seated third from left), Sahibzada Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan (seated first from right). (Sitting ground centre) Nawabzada Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli (son and successor of Nawab Sir Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan of Amb)
Descent and ruling dynastyEdit
Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli was the ruler of The Tanawal valley and the Chief of the Hazara region from circa 1810 until he died in 1818. During his rule, he faced many attacks from the Sikh Empire and Durrani Empire, resulting in a significant loss of territory. He was 26 years old, when he was assassinated by Azim Khan on October 13, 1818 in the Stratagem of Peshawar.
The main reason for the war is that Mir Nawab Khan defied Durrani and the other main reason was that, when Azim Khan's mother was traveling to Kashmir via Tanwal, Nawab Khan's soldier collected the taxes from her. Azim Khan then traveled through Tanwal and then Nawab Khan's soldiers collected taxes through Azim Khan as well. After Azim Khan took the complaint to the Afghan court, the Afghan Ruler of that time immediately sent his army.
From about 1813, Painda Khan Tanoli engaged in a lifelong rebellion against the Sikhs, who, realizing the potential dangers of his rebellion, set up forts at strategic locations to keep him in check. Hari Singh Nalwa took this initiative during his governorship. To consolidate his hold on Tanawal and to unite the Tanoli people, Tanoli first had to contend with his major rivals within the tribe itself, that is, the chiefs of the Suba Khani/Pallal Khel section, whom he subdued after a bitter struggle.
He was the son of Mir Painda Khan Tanoli. In 1852, Jehandad Khan Tanoli was summoned by the President of the Board of Administration about a murder enquiry of two British officers, supposedly on his lands. In fact, this was related to the murder of two British salt tax collectors by some tribesmen in the neighbouring Kala Dhaka or Black Mountain area, which eventually led to the punitive First Black Mountain campaign/expedition of 1852. The Board of Administration President was Sir John Lawrence (later the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab), and he visited Haripur, in Hazara, where he invited many Hazara chiefs to see him on various matters, at a general Durbar. Jehandad Khan Tanoli succeeded in establishing his innocence and consolidated his position.
Jahandad Khan Tanoli's relationship with British India is summed in the following lines in a letter dated 8 January 1859 from R. Temple, Secretary to the Punjab Chief Commissioner, addressed to the Punjab Financial Commissioner: "'5. The term "Jagir" has never appeared to me applicable in any sense to this [Jehandad Khan's] hereditary domain [Upper Tannowul], for it was never granted as such by the Sikhs or by our Government; we upheld the Khan as we found him in his position as a feudal lord and large proprietor.'
Jehandad's son, Nawab Bahadur Sir Muhammed Akram Khan Tanoli, was given the title of Nawab (Sovereign Ruler) in perpetuity by the British.
The next chief of the Tanoli, a son of Jahandad Khan Tanoli, was Akram Khan Tanoli KCSI 68–1907). He was a popular chief. During his tenure, the fort at Shergarh was built along with forts in Dogah and Shahkot. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal. He opposed construction of schools in the state, on advice given by British.
Khan Zaman Khan Tanoli succeeded his father, taking over the reins of power in Tanawal in Amb. He helped the British in carrying out the later Black Mountain (Kala Dhaka/Tor Ghar) expeditions.
Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli had good relations with Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaqat Ali Khan. His contributions to the Pakistan movement have been acknowledged by letters from Jinnah. In 1947, he acceded his state to Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession in favour of Pakistan. In 1969, the state was incorporated into the North West Frontier Province (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) and in 1972, the Government of Pakistan ceased to recognise the royal status of the Nawab.
Muhammad Saeed Khan TanoliEdit
Muhammad Saeed Khan Tanoli, son of Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli, the last nawab of Amb, studied at the Burn Hall School in Abbottabad (now the Army Burn Hall College) and the Gordon College in Rawalpindi. Nawab Saeed Khan Tanoli ruled for a period of three years.
Salahuddin Saeed Khan Tanoli is the present chief of Tanolis and the titular Nawab of Amb. He is the son of Nawab Muhammad Saeed Khan Tanoli. He holds the record as the youngest parliamentarian ever elected to the Pakistan National Assembly, and then went on to be elected five times to the Pakistan National Assembly (from 1985 to 1997), a feat achieved by only seven other Pakistani parliamentarians, including the former Pakistani prime minister, Nawaz Sharif.
|Tenure||Chiefs of Tanawal and later Rulers of Amb (Tanawal)|
|1772–1803||(Mir) Haibat Khan Tanoli|
|1803–1809||(Mir) Hashim Ali Khan Tanoli (son of Mir Haibat Khan Tanoli and brother to Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli, following)|
|1809–1818||(Mir) Nawab Khan Tanoli|
|1818–1844||(Mir) Painda Khan Tanoli , Maddad Khan Tanoli|
|1844–1868||Nawab Jahandad Khan Tanoli – Amb State founded in 1858 by British government recognition|
|1868–1907||Nawab Muhammad Akram Khan Tanoli|
|1907 – 26 February 1936||Nawab Khanizaman Khan Tanoli|
|26 February 1936 – 1971||Nawab Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli – Amb State ended and merged with NWFP Pakistan in 1971–72|
Amb State Postal Service and PassportEdit
Existing alongside British India were hundreds of princely states, some 565 in all, but most of them did not issue postage stamps. Only around forty of the states issued their own postage stamps, and Amb State was one of them, having its own postal service. The rest used the stamps of the All India Postal Service.
The Mansehra and Torghar districts include Bandi Shungli, Shergarh, Karorri, Nika Pani, Darband, Dara Shanaya, Swan Miara, Lassan Nawab, Perhinna, Phulrraa, Jhokan, and Palsala. The Haripur district includes Baitgali, Nara AmaNara Amazz, Kalinjar, and Beer.[dubious ]
- Letter of Ahmad Shah Abdal in his letter stated about giving Kashmir and upper Hazara in the region of Timur Shah Durrani, to Suba Khan Tanoli as the new governor. Letter of Abadali
- Letter of Mughal emperor Rangeela Giving land ( Hazara ) and Kashmir to Bahadur Khan Tanoli Latter Mughal Emperor Rangeela
- Allen, Charles (2012). Soldier Sahibs: The Men Who Made the North-West Frontier. Hachette. p. 96.
- Syed Murad Ali,"Tarikh-e-Tanawaliyan"(Urdu), Pub. Lahore, 1975, pp.84
- Ghulam Nabi Khan"Alafghan Tanoli"(Urdu), Pub. Rawalpindi, 2001, pp.244
- Swati invasion vre
- Pakhli. Imperial Gazette of India rule
- Y-chromosome Genetic family Sub.division Tanoli own history and DNA analysis ( Indo-European family) classify
- Dr SB Panni 'Tareekh i Hazara' (Urdu:History of Hazara) pub Peshawar, 1969, pp. 340-341
- Stein, Aurel (1929). On Alexander's Track to the Indus. Asian Publications. p. 125.
- "Herald". Vol. 37 no. 4–6. 2006. p. 101.
The Tanolis' own history classifies them conflictingly as either Pakhtuns from the vicinity of Ghazni or Turks of the Barlas sub-clan.Cite magazine requires
- Scott (1929), pp. 71–72. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFScott1929 (help)
- Hazara Gazetteer
- See The Hazara District Gazetteer 1883-8 (Lahore, 1884); and H. Lee, Brothers in the Raj: The Lives of John and Henry Lawrence (Karachi: Oxford UP, 2002)
- Quaid-I-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah Papers: First Series, Volume III: On the Threshold of Pakistan, 1–25 July 1947 By Mahomed Ali Jinnah, Z. H. Zaidi Contributor Z. H. Zaidi (Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-969-8156-07-7, ISBN 978-969-8156-07-7, 1120 pages, digitized 29 August 2008)
- Sana Haroon, Frontier of faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan Borderland (Columbia University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-231-70013-9, ISBN 978-0-231-70013-9, 254 pages)
- Sack, John (1959). Report from Practically Nowhere. New York: Curtis Publishing Company. p. 199.
- Pakistan Election Commission – Unique Stats: http://www.ecp.gov.pk/content/uniquestats.html Archived 8 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
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