Amb (princely state)

Amb (امب) or Kingdom of Amb, also known as Feudal Tanawal was a princely state which covered over the Hazara Division and the permanent territory of Kashmir. It was disappearing from time to time[1][2] by fighting against the Sikh and Durrani empire of that region. The Tanoli then submitted to British colonial rule in the 1840s.[3][4][5] Following Pakistani independence in 1947, and for some months afterwards, the Nawabs of Amb remained unaligned. At the end of December 1947, the Nawab of Amb state acceded to Pakistan while retaining internal self-government. Amb continued as a princely state of Pakistan until 1969, when it was incorporated into the North West Frontier Province (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa).

Kingdom of Amb
مملكة الامب (Arabic)
Mamlakat al-Amb
Princely state of Pakistan
1507–28 July 1969
Flag of Amb
Flag
CapitalDarband (now submerged under Tarbela Dam)
Shergarh (summer residence)
Area 
• State area on Kashmir and Hazara when alliance with Durrani Empire in the region of Suba Khan Tanoli.
24,985 km2 (9,647 sq mi)
• State Captured by Sikh and Durrani empire in the region of Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli and hence again created by his son Mir Painda Khan.
290 km2 (110 sq mi)
• In the Region of Muhammad Akram Khan the area of state recorded in 1901.
555 km2 (214 sq mi)
• In the region of Muhammad Farid Khan the area of state recorded in 1958.
1,520 km2 (590 sq mi)
Government
 • TypeMonarchy
 • Motto""این سیستم خداست"" This system of God بادشاہت اللہ کی*نظام خدا دا*
Historical erasince 1507-1969
• Established
1507
• Pakhli Sultanate (Karluks Turks)
1507
• Tanoli
1647
• Submitted to Durrani Rule
1755
• Submitted to Sikh Rule
1830
• Submitted to British Rule
1840
• Disestablished
28 July 1969
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Timurid Empire
West Pakistan
Today part ofKhyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

The state was named after the town of Amb. After the death of the last Nawab, Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli, the fighting between the descendants of the state of Amb for power continued, which ended in 1971, when the Pakistani army ended or occupied the integration. In 1972, the recognition of their royal status was ended by the Government of Pakistan.[citation needed] In 1974, the Tarbela Dam completely destroyed the capital of Amb and the palaces of the Amb state.[citation needed]

Letter written by Kings of that timeEdit

The Amb was a powerful and considered most important state of India since the period of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.[citation needed]

List of Nawabs of AmbEdit

Image Titular Name Personal Name Date of birth Nawab From Nawab

Until

Date of death
Muhammad Anwar Khan Tanoli

انور خان تنولی

Anwar Khan Tanoli 1688 1710 1730 1730
Muhammad Bahadur Khan Tanoli

بہادر خان

Bahadur Khan Tanoli 23 June 1712 1730-1740 8 August 1755 8 August 1755
Sultan Zaburdust Khan Tanoli
صوبہ خان تنولی
Sultan Zaburdust Khan Tanoli 1 May 1736 8 August 1755 2 November 1783
Mir Haibat Khan Tanoli
ہیبت خان
Mir Haibat Khan Tanoli 6 April 1740 1783 12 December 1798
Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli
نواب خان
Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli 12 April 1792 1800-1810 13 October 1818
Mir Painda Khan Tanoli
پائنداخان
Mir Painda Khan Tanoli 6 May 1805 1818 1819-1822 completely

Rule ended and hence again conquered and started in 1823

12 September 1844
Mir Jehandad Khan Tanoli
جہانداد خان
Mir Jehandad Khan Tanoli 6 February 1820 1844 1868
Muhammad Akram Khan Tanoli
اکرم خان
Muhammad Akram Khan Tanoli 1859 1868 1907
Khan-e-Zaman Khan Tanoli
زمان خان
Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan Tanoli 6 November 1880 1907 12 September 1936
Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli
فرید خان
Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli 1 January 1904 1936 17 September 1947
(Alliance with Pakistan but continued rule)
28 July 1969

(Rule end due to fighting between the Descendents of Amb Pakistan Army occupied integration)

Wealth and Military StatusEdit

 
Right from Fourth Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia when he was the Governor of Mecca right from third Qatar Rulers somewhere or Left from Third Syed Abdul Jabbar Shah Prime Minister of Amb State Left from Second Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah Left from first Safiullah Khan Tanoli and Governor of Madina at Sethana Palace Darband in 1923.

Amb was considered a powerful and important state during Durrani, Mughal and British Raj.[citation needed] The total revenue of the state in 1901 was 36-42 lakhs when the price of 1 tola gold is 20 British Rupee.[citation needed] In 1901, state's income was 6 lakhs and second part of its revenue was the collection of tax from other state's Nawabs and Maharajahs, who used the routes of Tanawal and Attock for visiting other countries. This tax was also collected by Traders and Merchants who used that routes.[citation needed] In this way, Nawab of Amb fought many wars with British, Durrani and Sikh this is the main cause of war.[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

Amb state, once known as Mulk-e-Tanawal (country/area of Tanawal), was the home of the Tanoli.[4][5] The region's early history dates back to the Mughal Empire, when around year 1647, the Tanoli tribe conquered and settled by the Indus River, surrounded by wide area, which came to be known as Tanawal. Before Tanawal, it was known as the Pakhli Sultanate (Karluks Turk), which ruled over Hazara, who came to Timur around 1380 to 1390. This was the only state of the Mughal Empire which did not pay tax to Delhi. The rule of the Karluks ended when the Swatis arrived. The last Karluks ruler was Sultan Mehmood Khurd,[citation needed] accordingly the start of Tanoli's rule.[6][7] The ancestry can be traced back to the Barlas Turks, who are the descendents of Timur.[8] When the Durrani tribe arrived in India, the Tanoli chieftain Suba Khan Tanoli accepted Durrani rule in 1755 and helped the empire during the Third Battle of Panipat.[9][citation needed]

In 1854, the British frontier officer General James Abbott postulated that Aornos was located on the Mahaban range, south of modern Buner District.[citation needed] In 1839, he proposed to recognise Embolina, as had Ranjit Singh's mercenary General Claude Auguste Court, as the village of Amb situated on the right bank of the Indus eight miles east of Mahaban.[citation needed] This became the location from which it is thought that the Nawabs of Amb took their title in later years.[10]

Descent and ruling dynastyEdit

The Tanoli describe themselves as Pashtuns[5] from the Ghazni area, or as Barlas Turks.[11] The Tanoli submitted to British colonial rule in the 1840s.[3][4][5][12]

 
In this picture seated (left to right): Sahibzada Mohammad Khurshid (first Pakistani Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan), Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Liāqat Alī Khān) (Urdu: لیاقت علی خان) listen (help·info) (2 October 1896 – 16 October 1951) the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawab Sir Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli (Nawab of Amb) and Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan (wife of Liaquat Ali Khan. Darband, Amb State, 1949.
 
Nawabzada Mohammad Ismail Khan Tanoli, Son of Nawab Sir Mohammad Akram Khan Tanoli, at Delhi Durbaar, Delhi 1911.
 
Nawab Muhammad Saeed Khan Tanoli

Nawab Khan TanoliEdit

Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli was the ruler of The Tanawal valley and the Chief of the Hazara region from circa 1810 until he died in 1818. During his rule, he faced many attacks from the Sikh Empire and Durrani Empire, resulting in a significant loss of territory. He was 26 years old, when he was assassinated by Azim Khan on October 13, 1818 in the Stratagem of Peshawar.[citation needed]

The main reason for the war is that Mir Nawab Khan defied Durrani and the other main reason was that, when Azim Khan's mother was traveling to Kashmir via Tanwal, Nawab Khan's soldier collected the taxes from her. Azim Khan then traveled through Tanwal and then Nawab Khan's soldiers collected taxes through Azim Khan as well. After Azim Khan took the complaint to the Afghan court, the Afghan Ruler of that time immediately sent his army.[citation needed]

Nawab Khan Tanoli's sons, Painda Khan and Maddad Khan began the series of rebellion against the Sikhs and Durrani, which continued throughout his lifetime.[citation needed]

Painda Khan TanoliEdit

From about 1813, Painda Khan Tanoli is famed for his staunch rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's governors of Hazara. He was the son of Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli.[citation needed]

From about 1813, Painda Khan Tanoli engaged in a lifelong rebellion against the Sikhs, who, realizing the potential dangers of his rebellion, set up forts at strategic locations to keep him in check. Hari Singh Nalwa took this initiative during his governorship. To consolidate his hold on Tanawal and to unite the Tanoli people, Tanoli first had to contend with his major rivals within the tribe itself, that is, the chiefs of the Suba Khani/Pallal Khel section, whom he subdued after a bitter struggle.

Tanoli set the tone for regional resistance in Upper Hazara against Sikh rule. In 1828, he created and gifted the smaller neighbouring state of Phulra to his younger brother Maddad Khan Tanoli.

Painda Khan briefly took over the valley of Agror in 1834. Agror was restored to Ata Muhammad Khan, the chief of that area, a descendant of Akhund Ahmed Sad-ud-din.[13][citation needed]

Jehandad Khan TanoliEdit

He was the son of Mir Painda Khan Tanoli. In 1852, Jehandad Khan Tanoli was summoned by the President of the Board of Administration about a murder enquiry of two British officers, supposedly on his lands.[citation needed] In fact, this was related to the murder of two British salt tax collectors by some tribesmen in the neighbouring Kala Dhaka or Black Mountain area, which eventually led to the punitive First Black Mountain campaign/expedition of 1852.[citation needed] The Board of Administration President was Sir John Lawrence (later the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab), and he visited Haripur, in Hazara, where he invited many Hazara chiefs to see him on various matters, at a general Durbar.[citation needed][14] Jehandad Khan Tanoli succeeded in establishing his innocence and consolidated his position.[citation needed]

Jahandad Khan Tanoli's relationship with British India is summed in the following lines in a letter dated 8 January 1859 from R. Temple, Secretary to the Punjab Chief Commissioner, addressed to the Punjab Financial Commissioner: "'5.[citation needed] The term "Jagir" has never appeared to me applicable in any sense to this [Jehandad Khan's] hereditary domain [Upper Tannowul], for it was never granted as such by the Sikhs or by our Government; we upheld the Khan as we found him in his position as a feudal lord and large proprietor.'

Jehandad's son, Nawab Bahadur Sir Muhammed Akram Khan Tanoli, was given the title of Nawab (Sovereign Ruler) in perpetuity by the British.[citation needed]

Muhammad Akram Khan TanoliEdit

The next chief of the Tanoli, a son of Jahandad Khan Tanoli, was Akram Khan Tanoli KCSI 68–1907). He was a popular chief. During his tenure, the fort at Shergarh was built along with forts in Dogah and Shahkot. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal. He opposed construction of schools in the state, on advice given by British.[citation needed]

Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan TanoliEdit

Khan Zaman Khan Tanoli succeeded his father, taking over the reins of power in Tanawal in Amb. He helped the British in carrying out the later Black Mountain (Kala Dhaka/Tor Ghar) expeditions.[citation needed]

Muhammad Farid Khan TanoliEdit

Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli had good relations with Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaqat Ali Khan. His contributions to the Pakistan movement have been acknowledged by letters from Jinnah.[15][16] In 1947, he acceded his state to Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession in favour of Pakistan. In 1969, the state was incorporated into the North West Frontier Province (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) and in 1972, the Government of Pakistan ceased to recognise the royal status of the Nawab.[citation needed]

Muhammad Saeed Khan TanoliEdit

Muhammad Saeed Khan Tanoli, son of Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli, the last nawab of Amb, studied at the Burn Hall School in Abbottabad (now the Army Burn Hall College) and the Gordon College in Rawalpindi.[17] Nawab Saeed Khan Tanoli ruled for a period of three years.

Salahuddin Saeed Khan TanoliEdit

Salahuddin Saeed Khan Tanoli is the present chief of Tanolis and the titular Nawab of Amb.[citation needed] He is the son of Nawab Muhammad Saeed Khan Tanoli. He holds the record as the youngest parliamentarian ever elected to the Pakistan National Assembly, and then went on to be elected five times to the Pakistan National Assembly (from 1985 to 1997), a feat achieved by only seven other Pakistani parliamentarians, including the former Pakistani prime minister, Nawaz Sharif.[18]

Tenure Chiefs of Tanawal and later Rulers of Amb (Tanawal)[citation needed]
1772–1803 (Mir) Haibat Khan Tanoli
1803–1809 (Mir) Hashim Ali Khan Tanoli (son of Mir Haibat Khan Tanoli and brother to Mir Nawab Khan Tanoli, following)
1809–1818 (Mir) Nawab Khan Tanoli
1818–1844 (Mir) Painda Khan Tanoli , Maddad Khan Tanoli
1844–1868 Nawab Jahandad Khan Tanoli – Amb State founded in 1858 by British government recognition
1868–1907 Nawab Muhammad Akram Khan Tanoli
1907 – 26 February 1936 Nawab Khanizaman Khan Tanoli
26 February 1936 – 1971 Nawab Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli – Amb State ended and merged with NWFP Pakistan in 1971–72

Amb State Postal Service and PassportEdit

Existing alongside British India were hundreds of princely states, some 565[citation needed] in all, but most of them did not issue postage stamps. Only around forty of the states issued their own postage stamps, and Amb State was one of them, having its own postal service. The rest used the stamps of the All India Postal Service.[citation needed]

 
Amb State postal stamps

Present geographyEdit

The state consists of the following present day Union Councils of Mansehra, Torghar, and Haripur Districts:

The Mansehra and Torghar districts include Bandi Shungli, Shergarh, Karorri, Nika Pani, Darband, Dara Shanaya, Swan Miara, Lassan Nawab, Perhinna, Phulrraa, Jhokan, and Palsala. The Haripur district includes Baitgali, Nara AmaNara Amazz, Kalinjar, and Beer.[dubious ]

Also readEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Letter of Ahmad Shah Abdal in his letter stated about giving Kashmir and upper Hazara in the region of Timur Shah Durrani, to Suba Khan Tanoli as the new governor. Letter of Abadali
  2. ^ Letter of Mughal emperor Rangeela Giving land ( Hazara ) and Kashmir to Bahadur Khan Tanoli Latter Mughal Emperor Rangeela
  3. ^ a b Allen, Charles (2012). Soldier Sahibs: The Men Who Made the North-West Frontier. Hachette. p. 96.
  4. ^ a b c Syed Murad Ali,"Tarikh-e-Tanawaliyan"(Urdu), Pub. Lahore, 1975, pp.84
  5. ^ a b c d Ghulam Nabi Khan"Alafghan Tanoli"(Urdu), Pub. Rawalpindi, 2001, pp.244
  6. ^ Swati invasion vre
  7. ^ Pakhli. Imperial Gazette of India rule
  8. ^ Y-chromosome Genetic family Sub.division Tanoli own history and DNA analysis ( Indo-European family) classify
  9. ^ Dr SB Panni 'Tareekh i Hazara' (Urdu:History of Hazara) pub Peshawar, 1969, pp. 340-341
  10. ^ Stein, Aurel (1929). On Alexander's Track to the Indus. Asian Publications. p. 125.
  11. ^ "Herald". Vol. 37 no. 4–6. 2006. p. 101. The Tanolis' own history classifies them conflictingly as either Pakhtuns from the vicinity of Ghazni or Turks of the Barlas sub-clan. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  12. ^ Scott (1929), pp. 71–72.
  13. ^ Hazara Gazetteer
  14. ^ See The Hazara District Gazetteer 1883-8 (Lahore, 1884); and H. Lee, Brothers in the Raj: The Lives of John and Henry Lawrence (Karachi: Oxford UP, 2002)
  15. ^ Quaid-I-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah Papers: First Series, Volume III: On the Threshold of Pakistan, 1–25 July 1947 By Mahomed Ali Jinnah, Z. H. Zaidi Contributor Z. H. Zaidi (Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-969-8156-07-7, ISBN 978-969-8156-07-7, 1120 pages, digitized 29 August 2008)
  16. ^ Sana Haroon, Frontier of faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan Borderland (Columbia University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-231-70013-9, ISBN 978-0-231-70013-9, 254 pages)
  17. ^ Sack, John (1959). Report from Practically Nowhere. New York: Curtis Publishing Company. p. 199.
  18. ^ Pakistan Election Commission – Unique Stats: http://www.ecp.gov.pk/content/uniquestats.html Archived 8 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine

External linksEdit