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List of princely states of British India (by region)

  (Redirected from List of Indian princely states)

British administered India in red and the princely states coloured green

Before the Partition of India in 1947, 584 Princely States, also called Native States, existed in India,[1] which were not fully and formally part of British India, the parts of the Indian subcontinent which had not been conquered or annexed by the British but under indirect rule, subject to subsidiary alliances.

Things moved quickly after the partition of British India in 1947. By the end of 1949, all of the states had chosen to accede to one of the newly independent states of India or Pakistan or else had been conquered and annexed.

Contents

OutlineEdit

 
Chamber of Princes meeting in 1941

In principle, the princely states had internal autonomy, while by treaty the British Crown had suzerainty and was responsible for the states' external affairs. In practice, while the states were indeed ruled by potentates with a variety of titles, such as Maharaja, Raja, Nizam, Raje, Deshmukh, Nawab, Mirza, Baig, Chhatrapati, Khan, Thakur Sahab, Darbar saheb or specially Jam for Jadeja/Samma. the British had considerable influence.

By the time of the departure of the British in 1947, only four of the largest of the states still had their own British Resident, a diplomatic title for advisors present in the states' capitals, while most of the others were grouped together into Agencies, such as the Central India Agency, the Deccan States Agency, and the Rajputana Agency.

From 1920, the states were represented in the Chamber of Princes, which held its meetings in New Delhi.

The most important states were ranked as salute states, whose rulers were entitled to a given number of salute guns.

By the Indian Independence Act 1947, the British gave up their suzerainty of the states and left each of them free to choose whether to join one of the newly independent countries of India and Pakistan or to remain outside them. For a short time, some of the rulers explored the possibility of a federation of the states separate from either, but this came to nothing. Most of the states then decided to accede to India or to Pakistan, such as Junagadh (1947–1948), Hyderabad on 18 September 1948, Bilaspur on 12 October 1948, and Bhopal on 1 May 1949. Travancore also chose to remain an independent country.

In Jammu and Kashmir, a state with a Muslim majority but a Hindu ruler, the Maharaja hoped to remain independent but acceded to India on 27 October 1947 at the outset of the invasion of Jammu and Kashmir by Pakistan — leading to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.

On 31 March 1948, Kalat acceded to Pakistan, although the brother of the Khan led a rebellion against this decision.

Princely States at the time of independence on 14 August 1947Edit

Individual residenciesEdit

Name of state British Resident Now part of Last or present ruler
  Hyderabad Individual residency   Telangana, Maharashtra and Karnataka, India Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII
  Jammu and Kashmir Individual residency   Jammu and Kashmir, India;

  Azad Kashmir, Pakistan;
Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan;
  Two prefectures of Xinjiang, China

Shriman Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir Hari Singh Indar Mahindar Bahadur, Sipar-i-Sultanat-e-Inglisia, Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir
  Mysore Individual residency   Karnataka, India Shri Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar
  Benares Individual residency   Uttar Pradesh, India Udit Narayan Singh, Sir Prabhu Narayan Singh, Aditya Narayan Singh, Vibhuti Narayan Singh
  Travancore Individual residency (individual residency status under Madras Presidency)   Kerala and 5 taluks (Kanyakumari district) of Tamil Nadu, India Shri Padmanabha Dasa Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma Vanchi Pala Maharaja Martanda Varma V Shri Uthradom Thirunal Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Bahadur Shamsher Jung, Maharaja of Travancore

Baluchistan AgencyEdit

Princely States of the Baluchistan Agency.

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Kalat Princely State Balochistan, Pakistan Beglar Begi Mir Agha Suleiman Jan, Khan of Kalat
  Kharan Princely State Balochistan, Pakistan Habibullah Khan
  Las Bela Princely State Balochistan, Pakistan Mir Muhammad Yusuf Khan, The Amir and Jam of Las Bela
  Makran Princely State Balochistan, Pakistan Bai Khan Baloch Gikchi

Deccan States Agency and Kolhapur Residency (Maratha)Edit

Princely States of Deccan States Agency and Kolhapur Residency (Maratha).

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Akalkot Princely State Maharashtra, India Shrimant Rani Sumitra Bai Raje Bhonsle, Rani Saheb of Akalkot
  Aundh Princely State Maharashtra, India Meherban Shrimant Bhawanrao Shriniwasrao Pant Pratinidhi
  Bhor Princely State Maharashtra, India Raja Shrimant Sir Raghunathrao Shankarrao Pandit Pant Sachiv, Raja of Bhor
  Jamkhandi Princely State Karnataka, India Raja Saheb Shrimant Raja Pranay Rao Parshuram Rao Patwardhan
  Janjira Princely State Maharashtra, India Nawab Sidi Muhammed Khan II Sidi Ahmad Khan, Nawab of Janjira
  Jath Princely State Maharashtra, India Lt. Shrimant Raja Vijaysinghrao Ramrao Babasaheb Dafle
  Kolhapur Princely State Maharashtra, India Shrimant Rajashri Shahu II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kolhapur
  Kurundvad Senior Princely State Maharashtra, India Raja Shrimant Bhalchandrarao Chintamanrao Patwardhan, Raja of Kurundwad Sr.
  Kurundvad Junior Princely State Maharashtra, India Raja Shrimant Hariharrao Raghunathrao [Bapusaheb] Patwardhan, Raja of Kurundwad Jr.
  Miraj Junior Princely State Maharashtra, India Raja Meherban Shrimant Sir Madhavrao Hariharrao Patwardhan
  Miraj Senior Princely State Maharashtra, India Narayan Rao Jatya Sahib Patwardhan
  Mudhol Princely State Karnataka, India Shrimant Raja Bhairavsinhrao Malojirao Ghorpade II
  Phaltan Princely State Maharashtra, India Major Raja Bahadur Shrimant Ram raje Naik Nimbalkar
  Sangli Princely State Maharashtra, India Capt. Shrimant Raja Saheb Sir Chintamanrao II Dhundirajrao Appasaheb Patwardhan
  Savanur Princely State Karnataka, India Nawab of Savanur, Abdul Majid Khan II
  Sawantvadi Princely State Maharashtra, India Bhonsale clan

Gwalior Residency (Maratha)Edit

Princely States of the Gwalior Residency.

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Gwalior Princely State Madhya Pradesh, India Maharaja Jivaji Rao Scindia
  Garha Princely State Madhya Pradesh, India
  Khaniyadhana Princely State Madhya Pradesh, India
  Ramgadi Princely State Uttar Pradesh, India Diwan Mahadev Mishra[2]
  Rajgarh Princely State Madhya Pradesh, India Maharani Shushila Sinha Rudrani
  Rampur Princely State Uttar Pradesh, India Raza Ali Khan of Rampur

Madras PresidencyEdit

Princely States of the Madras Presidency.

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Banganapalle Princely State Andhra Pradesh, India Nawab Sayyid Fazl-i-'Ali Khan IV Bahadur, Nawab of Banganapalle
  Cochin Princely State Kerala, India Kerala Varma
  Pudukkottai Princely State Tamil Nadu, India Rajagopala Tondaiman, Maharaja of Pudukkottai
  Sandur Princely State Karnataka, India Yeshwantrao Ghorpade

North-west Frontier States AgencyEdit

Princely States of the North-West Frontier States Agency (all in present Pakistan). Agencies included the Dir Swat and Chitral Agency and the Deputy Commissioner of Hazara acting as the Political Agent for Amb and Phulra.

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Amb Princely State Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Nawab Muhammad Saeed Khan
  Chitral Princely State Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Mehtar Saif-ul-Mulk Nasir
  Dir Princely State Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Muhammad Shah Khosru Khan
  Phulra Princely State Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Khan Ata Muhammed Khan
  Swat Princely State Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Miangul Abdul-Haqq Jahanzib

Gilgit AgencyEdit

The States of Hunza and Nagar and many feudal Jagirs (Puniyal, Shigar, etc.) in the Gilgit Agency were tributary to the Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir.

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Hunza Gilgit Agency Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan Mohammad Jamal Khan
  Nagar Gilgit Agency Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan Showkat `Ali Khan

Province of SindEdit

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Khairpur Princely State Sindh, Pakistan George Ali Murad Khan
  Umerkot Princely State Sindh, Pakistan Rana Hamir Singh

Punjab state agencyEdit

States of the Punjab States Agency (Punjab).

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Bahawalpur Princely State Punjab, Pakistan Nawab Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
  Bilaspur Princely State Himachal Pradesh, India Raja Kirti Chand, Raja of Bilaspur
  Faridkot Princely State Punjab, India Colonel H.H. Farzand-i-Saadat-i-Nishan-i-Hazrat-i-Kaiser-i-Hind Raja Sir Harinder Singh Brar Bans Sahib Bahadur, Raja of Faridkot
  Jind Princely State Punjab and Haryana, India Maharaja Satbir Singh ["Prince Sunny"], Maharaja of Jind
  Kalsia. Princely State Haryana, India Raja Himmat Sher Singh Sahib Bahadur
  Kangra Princely State Himachal Pradesh, India Raja Aditya Dev Chand Katoch
  Kapurthala Princely State Punjab, India Brig. Maharaja Sri Sukhjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala
  Loharu State Princely State Haryana, India Nawab Mirza Alauddin Ahmad Khan II (alias Parvez Mirza), Nawab of Loharu
  Malerkotla Princely State Punjab, India H.H. Nawab Muhammad Iftikhar 'Ali Khan Bahadur(last nawab)
  Mandi Princely State Himachal Pradesh, India
  Nabha Princely State Punjab, India Sir Pratap Singh Sir Hira Singh
  Patiala Princely State Punjab, India Maharajadhiraj Sir Yadavindra Singh Mahendra Bahadur
  Rajgarh Princely State Madhya Pradesh, India Maharani Sushila Sinha
  Sirmur Princely State Himachal Pradesh, India Lt. Maharaja Rajendra Prakash Bahadur
  Suket/ Sundernagar Princely State Himachal Pradesh, India Raja Hari Sen, Raja of Suket
  Siba Princely State Himachal Pradesh, India Raja Dr.Ashok K. Thakur, Raja of Siba & Tantpalan
  Tehri Garhwal Princely State (Zamindari) Uttarakhand, India Maharaja Manujendra Shah Sahib Bahadur

States of the Rajputana AgencyEdit

States of the Rajputana Agency.

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Alwar Princely State Rajasthan, India Raj Rishi Shri Sawai Maharaja Jitendra Pratap Singhji Veerendra Shiromani Dev Bharat Prabhakar Bahadur Jitendra Singh, Maharaja of Alwar.
  Banswara Princely State Rajasthan, India Rai Rayan Mahimahendra Maharajadhiraj Maharawalji Sahib Shri Jagmalji II Sahib Bahadur, Naresh Rajya, Maharawal of Banswara.
  Bharatpur Princely State Rajasthan, India Maharaja Brijendra Singh
  Bikaner Princely State Rajasthan, India Sri Raj Rajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Narendra Sawai Maharaja Shiromani Ravi Raj Singhji Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner and Head of the Royal House of Bikaner.
  Bundi Princely State Rajasthan, India Col. Maharao Raja Shri Bahadur Singhji Bahadur
  Dholpur Princely State Rajastsan, India His Highness Maharajadhiraja

Shri Sawai Maharaj Rana Shri Hemant Singh, Lokendra Bahadur, Diler Jang Jai Deo, Maharaj Rana of Dholpur

  Dungarpur Princely State Rajasthan, India Rai-i-Rayan, Mahimahendra, Maharajadhiraj Maharawal Shri Mahipal Singhji II Sahib Bahadur, Maharawal of Dungarpur.
  Jaipur Princely State Rajasthan, India HH Saramad-i-Rajahai Hindustan Raj Rajendra Shri Maharajadhiraj Sir Sawai Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II
  Jaisalmer Princely State Rajasthan, India Maharajadhiraj Maharawal Sir Jawahir Singh Bahadur
  Jhalawar Princely State Rajasthan, India Maharajadhiraj Maharaj Rana Shri Chandrajit Singh Dev Bahadur, Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar.
  Jodhpur Princely State Rajasthan, India Raj Rajeshwar Saramad-i-Rajha-i-Hindustan Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Shri Gaj Singhji II Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Jodhpur.
  Karauli Princely State Rajasthan, India Maharaja Shri Ganesh Pal Deo Bahadur Yadakul Chandra Bhal
  Kishangarh Princely State Rajasthan, India Umdae Rajhae Buland Makan Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sumer Singhji Bahadur
  Kotah Princely State Rajasthan, India Maharao Shri Bhim Singh II Bahadur
  Kushalgarh Princely State Rajasthan, India Rao Harendra Singh
  Sardargarh (formerly Lawa), thikana in Udaipur Princely State Rajasthan, India
  Mewar Princely State Rajasthan, India Maharana Sir Bhupal Singh
Patan, Rajasthan Princely State Rajasthan, India Rao Bir Bikram Singh
  Pratabgarh Princely State Rajasthan, India Raja Ajit Pratap Singh
 

Shekhawati

Princely State Rajasthan, India Shri Maharao Sheoraj Singh
  Shahpura Princely State Rajasthan, India Rajadhiraj Sudershan Singh
  Sirohi Princely State Rajasthan, India Maharao Raghubir Singh
  Tonk Princely State Rajasthan, India Nawab Muhammad Faruq Ali Khan

Gujarat States Agency and Baroda ResidencyEdit

 
The Majestic Laxmi Vilas Palace of Baroda, built by the Maratha Maharaja H. H. Sayajirao Gaekwad III

Kathiawar AgencyEdit

Princely states of Kathiawar in Saurastra

Name of state British Resident or Agent Now part of Last or present ruler
  Dhrol State Princely State Kathiawar, India   Thakor Saheb Shri Shri Chandrasinhji Jadeja
  Nawanagar State Princely State Kathiawar, India   Jam saheb shri Shatrushaylsinhji Digvijaysinhji Jadeja
  Rajkot State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Thakor saheb Shri Pradhyumansinhji Jadeja
 Gondal State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Thakor Saheb Shri Bhagvatsinhji Jadeja
 Morvi State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Thakor Saheb Shri Lakhdhirsinhji Jadeja
 Porbandar State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Maharana Shri Natwarsinhji Jethwa
 Bhavnagar State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Maharaja Raol Shri Krishnakumarsinhji Gohil
 Wadhwan State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Maharaja Shri Suredrasinhji Jhala
 Junagadh State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Nawab sahib Mahabatkhanji 3rd.
  Jafarabad State Princely state Kathiawar, India   Mohammad Khan 2nd.
 
Kathiawar 1855 with its four prant districts: Halar, Jhalavad, Sorath and Gohelwad.
 
United Saurashtra (Kathiawar) State 1947-56

States of Central India AgencyEdit

 
Subhash Marg, Indore
 
Bhil tribe girls in Jhabua
 
Orchha Palace, Madhya Pradesh

States of the Eastern States AgencyEdit

 
Faiz Mahal, Khairpur
 
Palace in Cooch Behar
 
Girivilas Palace in Sarangarh

Orissa States AgencyEdit

Chhattisgarh States AgencyEdit

Bengal States AgencyEdit

Bihar States AgencyEdit

States of the Mahi Kantha AgencyEdit

Former Princely States annexed during the British RajEdit

Former kingdoms annexed during the British East India Company eraEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Indian Princely States before 1947 A-J". www.worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  2. ^ http://www.almanachdegotha.org/id242.html "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  3. ^ Ramusack, Barbara N. (2007). The Indian princes and their states (Digitally print. version. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0521039895. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
Sources
Further reading
  • The Relationship Between the Indian Princely States and the Indian Central Government, 1921-1933, by Harry Dunseth Wood. Published by University of Chicago, 1951.
  • The Paramount Power and the Princely States of India, 1858-1881, by Ajit K. Neogy. Published by K. P. Bagchi, 1974.
  • Rajahs and Prajas: An Indian Princely State, Then and Now, by S. Devadas Pillai. Published by Popular Prakashan, 1976.
  • Princely States and the Paramount Power, 1858-1876: A Study on the Nature of Political Relationship Between the British Government and the Indian State, by Mihir Kumar Ray. Rajesh Publications, 1981.
  • Documents and Speeches on the Indian Princely States, by Adrian Sever. Published by B.R. Pub. Corp., 1985.
  • The Late Pre-colonial Background to the Indian Princely States, by Richard B Barnett. Published by Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Punjab, 1988.
  • Indian Princely Medals: A Record of the Orders, Decorations, and Medals of the Indian Princely States, by Tony McClenaghan. Published by Spantech & Lancer, 1996. ISBN 1-897829-19-1.
  • British Policy Towards Princely States of India: Seminar Entitled "British Policy Towards North Indian Princely States" : Selected Papers, by R P Vyas. Published by Rajasthan-Vidya Prakashan, 1992.
  • The Princely States of India: A Chronological Checklist of Their Rulers, by David P. Henige. Published by Borgo Press, 1997. ISBN 0-89370-325-7.
  • Constitutional Development in the Indian Princely States, by Ranjana Kaul. Published by UBS Publishers Distributors, 1998. ISBN 81-259-0511-1.
  • The Maharaja & the Princely States of India, by Sharada Dwivedi. Published by Lustre Press, 1999. ISBN 81-7436-081-6.
  • Illustrated Encyclopaedia & Who's who of Princely States in Indian Sub-continent, by J. C. Dua. Published by Kaveri Books, 2000. ISBN 81-7479-036-5.
  • The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled or Decorated, of the Indian Empire, by Sir Roper Lethbridge. Adamant Media Corporation, 2001. ISBN 1-4021-9328-9.
  • True Tales of British India & the Princely States: & The Princely States, by Michael Wise. Published by In Print, 1993. ISBN 1-873047-06-1.
  • Princely States of India: A Guide to Chronology and Rulers, by David P. Henige. Published by Orchid Press, 2006. ISBN 974-524-049-4.
  • India's Princely States: People, Princes and Colonialism, by Waltraud Ernst, Biswamoy Pati. Published by Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0-415-41541-1.