Abbotsford, British Columbia
Abbotsford is a city located in British Columbia, adjacent to the Canada–United States border, Greater Vancouver and the Fraser River. Abbotsford is located on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Stó:lō Nation. With an estimated population of 141,397 people it is the largest municipality in the province outside Metro Vancouver. Abbotsford-Mission has the third highest proportion of visible minorities among census metropolitan areas in Canada, after the Greater Toronto Area and the Greater Vancouver CMA. It is home to Tradex, the University of the Fraser Valley, and Abbotsford International Airport.
|City of Abbotsford|
Eastern Abbotsford looking towards Mission
"Abby", City in the Country, Raspberry Capital of Canada
"Unus Cum Viribus Duorum" (Latin)
"One with the strength of two"
|Region||Fraser Valley, Lower Mainland|
|Regional district||Fraser Valley|
|• Mayor||Henry Braun|
|• MPs||Ed Fast (Conservative)|
Brad Vis (Conservative)
|• City||375.55 km2 (145.00 sq mi)|
|Elevation||38 m (124 ft)|
|• Density||376.5/km2 (975/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 (PST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−7 (PDT)|
|Forward sortation area|
|Area code(s)||604, 778|
As of the 2016 census, it is the largest municipality of the Fraser Valley Regional District and the fifth-largest municipality of British Columbia. The Abbotsford–Mission metropolitan area of around 180,518 inhabitants as of the 2016 census is the 23rd largest census metropolitan area in Canada. It has also been named by Statistics Canada as Canada's most generous city in terms of charitable donations for nine straight years.
The community of 375.55 square kilometres (145.00 sq mi) is the largest city by area in British Columbia. The municipality's southern boundary is the Canada–United States border. In Canada, it is bordered by the Township of Langley to the west, the District of Mission to the north, and the City of Chilliwack to the east. Abbotsford borders the town of Sumas, Washington, to the south. Much of Abbotsford has views of Mount Baker (to the southeast, in Washington) and the Coast Mountains (to the north).
Prior to colonization, the Stó:lō people were the first inhabitants of the region that is now known as Abbotsford. Throughout history and the current state of the Stó:lō Nation, their traditional territory was “never ceded through treaty, war, or surrender”. The traditional land of the Stó:lō Nation extends beyond the Fraser River and into the Fraser Canyon. The term “S'ólh Téméxw” is used to describe the Stó:lō Nation's traditional and ancestral territory, and the Stó:lō people are known to have lived in this territory since “time immemorial”. An archaeological estimate of the time period in which the Stó:lō people have inhabited the land is roughly 8,000 to 10,000 years.
Many of the lifestyle traditions of the Stó:lō people involved reliance on local plant life, as well as fishing and hunting. The Stó:lō people also maintained trading relations with various other Coast Salish peoples and communities. Stó:lō communities were organized into villages along the banks of the Fraser River. These communities lived in large, wooden structures known as longhouses, which were passed down from each generation onto the next. Each longhouse was usually inhabited by an entire extended family. Stó:lō family structures include complex relationships between immediate family, ancestors, neighbours, and the land.
Abbotsford's colonial development began when the Royal Engineers surveyed the area in response to the gold rush along the Fraser River in 1858. This led to the building of Yale Road (today Old Yale Road), the first transportation route to link the Fraser Valley. The settlement grew and the production of butter, milk and tobacco began by the late 1860s. In 1889, former Royal Engineer John Cunningham Maclure applied for a Crown grant to obtain the 160 acres (0.65 km2) that would become Abbotsford.
The Gur Sikh Temple, located on 33089 South Fraser Way, is the oldest Sikh temple in North America. Being built from 1908 to 1911, it is now over 100 years old, outlasting the now demolished 2nd Avenue temple in Vancouver.
There is some controversy over the origin of the Abbotsford name. The most commonly cited origin is that Maclure named the land "Abbotsford" after family friend Henry Braithwaite Abbott, the western superintendent of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Maclure's sons later stated that the property had actually been named for Sir Walter Scott's home, Abbotsford, and pronounced it with the accent on ford, while in his later years Maclure himself claimed that the naming had been "a combination of two ideas". The Akriggs say that Maclure in an 1844 letter said that when the town was laid out in 1844, the town was named for Henry Abbott, general superintendent of the CPR and brother of Sir John Abbott, prime minister.:1
The title passed hands to Robert Ward, who filed a townsite subdivision on July 9, 1891. Also in 1891, the CPR built a railway line through the area that connected Mission with the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway at Sumas, Washington. This route was the only rail connection between Vancouver and Seattle until 1904. The Village of Abbotsford was incorporated in 1892. At that time Robert Ward sold many of the lots to private investors, but also sold off a significant portion to the Great Northern Railway's subsidiary company the Vancouver, Victoria and Eastern Railway. The British Columbia Electric Railway (BCER) arrived in 1910. The Interurban, as the BCER tram linking Abbotsford with Vancouver and Chilliwack was called, was discontinued in 1950, but BCER's successor BC Hydro retains the right to re-introduce passenger rail service. Service to Vancouver runs from neighbouring Mission by way of the West Coast Express.
The most notable natural disaster to hit Abbotsford was a major flood of the Fraser River in 1948.
The amalgamation of the Village of Abbotsford and the District of Sumas into the District of Abbotsford occurred in 1972. The District of Abbotsford amalgamated with the District of Matsqui in 1995 to become the City of Abbotsford, raising the population significantly.
In June 2013, the City of Abbotsford spread chicken manure on a homeless camp located in the city. Abbotsford Mayor Bruce Banman publicly apologized for the incident. A lawsuit was launched on behalf of some of the homeless, stating that a bylaw which prevents overnight camping in Abbotsford parks is against their right to shelter. The city has formed a homelessness action plan, and has approved a proposal for a supportive housing facility.
Abbotsford City Council comprises a council-manager form of local government. The mayor and council were last elected in 2018. The current mayor Henry Braun, was re-elected with 56.91% of the popular vote. Councillors elected in 2018 were: Patricia Ross (9.8%), Les Barkman (6.42%), Moe Gill (6.15%), Ross Siemens (6.04%), Brenda Falk (5.72%), Dave Loewen (5.59%), Kelley Chahal (5.21%), and Sandy Blue (5.16%). School trustees elected are: Cindy Schafer (9.72%), Stan Petersen (9.39%), Shirley Wilson (9.04%), Rhonda Pauls (8.89%), Preet S. Rai (8.74%), Freddy Latham (8.29%), and Phil Anderson (7.55%).
The Abbotsford flag and coat of arms are the same, featuring straight, diagonal crosses representing Abbotsford as at a "crossroads". At the centre is a strawberry blossom to symbolize the local berry industry. The flag of Abbotsford was originally blue in colour. The change to green was initiated in 1995 when the District of Abbotsford and the District of Matsqui amalgamated to create the City of Abbotsford.
|Sources: Statistics Canada|
According to the 2011 Census, 65.74% of Abbotsford's population have English as mother tongue; Punjabi is the mother tongue of 18.71% of the population, followed by German (4.32%), Dutch (1.12%), Korean (1.00%), French (0.83%), Spanish (0.74%), Vietnamese (0.47%), Chinese, n.o.s. (0.45%), and Tagalog (0.44%).
|Canada 2016 Census||Population||% of total population|
|Visible minority group
|Other visible minority||230||0.2%|
|Mixed visible minority||755||0.5%|
|Total visible minority population||46,635||33.7%|
|Total Aboriginal population||6,595||4.8%|
Ethnic South AsiansEdit
The Abbotsford metropolitan area has Canada's highest proportion of ethnic South Asians. In 2016, the City of Abbotsford had 35,310 South Asians, while the Abbotsford CMA had 38,250. Indo-Canadians in Abbotsford have worked in berry farms and in area businesses. Members of the ethnic group first arrived in the 1920s.
Ethnic origin (Abbotsford CMA)Edit
The largest ethnic group is European, comprising approximately 64% of the population. This group includes German, Dutch, British, Irish, Scandinavian and Slavic ethnic origins. The next largest ethnic group in Abbotsford is South Asian (countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka) comprising 21.7% of the population. This is followed by Aboriginals at 6.2% of the population (which includes indigenous peoples from other parts of Canada and the United States) and Chinese at 1.4%.
More than a quarter (26.1%) of the city's population was born outside Canada. Of that percentage, a majority is from South Asia, followed by groups from China, South Korea, Southeast Asia and Latin America. English is the primary language spoken, with 78.7% of the population having it as their first language.
|Ethnic groups in Abbotsford CMA (2016)
|Visible minority, n.i.e.||270||0.2%|
|Ethnic origin||Population (2006)||Percent of 156,640*||Comments|
|misc. British Isles, n.i.e.**||2,265||1.45%|
|North American Indian||5,335||3.41%||incl. First Nations, Native Americans and Alaska Natives|
|Aboriginal from Central/South America||40||0.03%|
|Misc. Latin, Central or South American, n.i.e.**||160||0.01%|
|Dutch (Netherlands)||16,645||10.63%||% not incl. Frisians or Flemish|
|Misc. Scandinavian, n.i.e.**||310||0.20%||may include Sami and Kven|
|Misc. Slav (European)||40||0.03%|
|Ethnic groups in Europe, n.i.e.**||260||0.17%|
|Misc. African, n.i.e.**||130||0.08%|
|Misc. Arab, n.i.e.||75||0.05%|
|Misc. South Asian, n.i.e.**||820||0.52%|
|East or Southeast Asian, n.i.e.**||85||0.05%|
|*Percentages total more than 100% due to multiple responses e.g. German-East Indian, Norwegian-Irish-Polish|
|**Not included elsewhere|
|***Not otherwise specified|
|Ethnic origin by regional grouping||Population||Percent of 156,640|
|British Isles origins||65,495||41.81%|
|Other North American origins3||31,870||20.34%|
|Latin, Central and South American origins4||2,070||1.32%|
|Western European origins5||46,395||29.62%|
|Northern European origins6||12,140||7.75%|
|Eastern European origin7||21,765||13.89%|
|Southern European origins||7,470||4.77%|
|Other European origins8||840||00.54%|
|West Asian origins11||410||00.26%|
|South Asian origins||25,800||16.47%|
|East and Southeast Asian origins||7,375||4.71%|
|Footnotes to ethnic Origin by regional grouping|
|1Census Canada does not distinguish between European and North American French origins. This category includes Acadians; Québécois-only (not multiple responses) are in North American origins.|
|2Métis, First Nations, Inuit, Native Americans, Alaska Natives|
|3American, Canadian, Québécois, Newfoundlander, does not include aboriginal peoples|
|4Including aboriginal people of South and Central America|
|5Germany, Austria, Benelux, Switzerland|
|6Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland|
|7Slavic and Baltic countries, plus Romania, Hungary and Albania|
|8Roma (Gypsy), Jewish, Basque, misc. Slav|
|9Excluding Arab countries of the Maghreb, including Afrikaners and other white South Africans|
|10Including the Maghreb/North Africa|
|11Afghan, Iranian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Turkish, Georgian, Armenian|
|12Pacific Islands, Australia, New Zealand|
The majority of Abbotsford's population is Christian, with 61.4% of the population. The Lutheran and Anabaptist (Mennonite Brethren and Mennonite Church) denominations make up the largest congregations. The next largest religious group is Sikh, comprising 13.4% of the population. The city contains the first Sikh Gurdwara built in Canada (in 1911), and the oldest in North America. A National Historic Site, located in the Clearbrook neighbourhood, it is now over 100 years old.
Abbotsford has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate type Cfb), with just enough summer precipitation not to be classified as warm-summer mediterranean. Summers are generally warm and drier than at other times of the year and winters are rainy and very mild by Canadian standards.
|Climate data for Abbotsford International Airport (1981–2010)|
|Record high humidex||18.8||20.0||24.8||31.2||39.5||38.6||46.2||43.4||40.1||31.2||21.0||18.9||46.2|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.1
|Average high °C (°F)||6.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.6
|Average low °C (°F)||0.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−21.1
|Record low wind chill||−26.6||−29.6||−19.7||−7.3||−4||0.0||0.0||0.0||−5.4||−13.9||−27.6||−33.3||−33.3|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||211.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||193.6
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||18.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||20.1||16.2||19.1||16.3||14.4||13.0||7.3||7.1||9.6||15.8||20.8||19.8||179.5|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||18.2||15.4||18.6||16.3||14.4||13.0||7.3||7.1||9.6||15.8||20.2||18.2||174.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||3.7||1.9||1.4||0.3||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.3||3.6||12.2|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 3pm)||73.3||62.9||59.9||56.0||56.5||57.1||54.5||53.2||56.4||66.1||74.3||74.5||62.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||68.3||99.0||131.5||171.5||208.7||213.7||276.7||263.2||201.9||122.6||64.7||64.9||1,886.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||25.2||34.6||35.7||41.8||44.1||44.2||56.7||59.1||53.3||36.5||23.4||25.2||40.0|
|Source: Environment Canada|
Some 62% of residents in Abbotsford work in the City of Abbotsford itself. Most of the remaining 38% commute to Mission, Chilliwack or Vancouver and its suburbs (primarily Surrey and Langley). More than 25% of Abbotsford's work force commutes to Abbotsford from other municipalities.
The Conference Board of Canada has identified the local economy as one of the most diverse in the country. Abbotsford's main industries are agriculture, transportation, manufacturing and retail. The city earns the highest dollar per acre of agricultural land in the country, greater than the Niagara Region and the North Okanagan.
Abbotsford Regional Hospital and Cancer Centre and community health services make Fraser Health the city's largest employer with about 2,500 staff. The city is also home to three federal prisons, each of which employs between 200 and 500 officers and support staff. There is also a growing aerospace industry led by Cascade Aerospace and Conair Group Inc.
Forty-six public elementary, middle, and secondary schools are administered by the Abbotsford School District. This includes a virtual school called the "Abbotsford Virtual School" that offers more than 30 semestered online courses. This school offers a unique animation and modeling program that teaches students aspects of the video game industry.
Post-secondary institutions in the city include the University of the Fraser Valley, religious institutions such as Columbia Bible College and Summit Pacific College, as well as career colleges such as Career Gate Community College, Sprott Shaw College, Vancouver Career College, Métis Skills and Employment Centre, and CDI College.
Arts, culture and heritageEdit
The Abbotsford Arts Council hosts a number of free local events including music in Mill Lake Park, the Arty Awards and more recently, the Christmas Artisan Gift Fair. It has been involved in projects such as the Abbotsford "Unity Statue", Abbotsford Christmas Craft Fair, Art in the Park, Abbotsford's Art and Heritage Unity Festival, and the Historical Downtown Art Bench Project. As well as maintaining the Kariton Art Gallery which features and hosts exhibitions from local artists of all mediums residing in the Lower Mainland.
The Reach Gallery Museum features exhibitions from across Canada and around the world, as well as the work of local artists. It houses a heritage archive, runs special events, programs and courses and seeks to promote local arts and culture.
Trethewey House Heritage Site features a restored 1920s Craftsman-style house built by J.O. Trethewey, one of the owners of the lumber and shingle mill that gave Mill Lake Park its name. The municipally designated heritage house and adjacent gallery are open to the public for special events, educational programming, and drop-in tours.
Gallery 7 Theatre and Performing Arts has been one of Abbotsford only performing arts organizations since 1991 and operates out of Mennonite Educational Institute. They produce four mainstage productions every year.
Air links are provided by the Abbotsford International Airport. WestJet provides regular scheduled service from the airport, due to its proximity to Vancouver's eastern suburbs. The airport is also the home of the annual Abbotsford International Airshow.
Major transportation routes leading into Abbotsford are the Trans-Canada Highway (No. 1), the Abbotsford-Mission Highway (No.11) and the Fraser Highway (No. 1A). Access to the United States is via the Abbotsford-Huntingdon/Sumas border crossing.
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Due to its proximity to Vancouver, most Vancouver television and radio stations are also available in Abbotsford, although in a few cases there are repeater stations licensed to different centres in the region.
- The Abbotsford News
- The Abbotsford Times (ceased publication in December 2013)
- The Punjabi Patrika
- Abbotsford Today
Abbotsford Minor Hockey is one of the largest associations in British Columbia with more than 1000 players registered from the ages of 5 through 18 years old. This association is recognized by many as a model and a leader in the development of minor hockey programs, and several Abbotsford-raised players have gone on to the highest levels of this sport. In the 2005–2006 hockey season, Abbotsford's bantam AAA team were ultimately the Western Canadian Bantam Champions, and eight individual players from this team (the most ever) were selected in the 2006 WHL Bantam Draft.
The Abbotsford Pilots of the Pacific International Junior Hockey League (junior B level) play at MSA Arena, which is Abbotsford's second largest arena at just over 400 seats. Abbotsford was considered as a possible home for the Chilliwack Chiefs (junior A), who were forced to move in 2006 when the Chilliwack Bruins (a WHL expansion team) took over their arena, Prospera Centre. Abbotsford would have become the home of the Chiefs if the city had supported them in building a new arena; instead, the Chiefs moved to Langley. Construction has now been completed in Abbotsford on a far bigger sports and entertainment centre (with 7,500 seats).
Abbotsford's Jane and Gerry Swan Track at Rotary Stadium is home to the Valley Royals Track & Field Club, who have produced numerous Olympians including two for the 2008 Olympics. Rotary Stadium was also home to the now-defunct Canadian Junior Football League's Abbotsford Air Force.
Abbotsford has a superior youth soccer program, winning two national titles, and numerous provincial titles. It is also home of soccer all-stars Sophie Schmidt, Brad Petoom and Adam Lang. Abbotsford is home to the Abbotsford Mariners of the United Soccer Leagues Premier Development League, the highest level of amateur soccer in North America.
Abbotsford is home to many high school sports, with Abbotsford Collegiate, W.J. Mouat Secondary, Rick Hansen Secondary, Robert Bateman Secondary, St. John Brebeuf Secondary, Yale Secondary, and the Mennonite Educational Institute, among others, doing very well in track and field, volleyball, basketball, and football. These schools have consistently ranked among the highest in the province. The Yale Secondary senior boys basketball team, under Coach Al Friesen, won the 2008 'AAA' provincial boys' basketball championship.
Abbotsford's rugby club supports three men's teams, two women's teams, U19 men's and women's, U15 U16 and U17 men's, and a great mini rugby program. Many of Abbotsford's players have gone on to play for Canada, such as Erin Lockwood, Ryan McWhinney, Scott Hunter and Brodie Henderson.
In Olympic sports, Abbotsford's Alana Kraus has won medals in short-track speed skating.
In 2005, the Abbotsford–Mission metropolitan area had the highest property crime rate and the second highest violent crime rate for cities with a population of 100,000 to 500,000 in Canada.
The metropolitan area had the highest rate of homicides nationally for two years running (2008 and 2009) with a rate of 5.22 homicides per 100,000 population, compared with the national average of 1.81. In 2010, the rate was 2.3.
The City of Abbotsford has its own municipal police force, one of eleven municipal police forces in British Columbia. It is the third largest municipal police force in British Columbia (behind Vancouver and Victoria). As of 2006[update], the Abbotsford Police Department employed nearly 200 officers and 80 civilian employees.
The Abbotsford Police Department was officially formed in 1995 when the District of Matsqui and the District of Abbotsford amalgamated to become the City of Abbotsford. Prior to the amalgamation, the District of Matsqui was patrolled by the Matsqui police and the District of Abbotsford by the RCMP. During the referendum citizens elected to keep a municipal police force.
These places represent parts of the city that have more than one neighbourhood in them.
- Abbotsford East
- Abbotsford West
- Central Abbotsford
- Sumas Mountain
- Sumas Prairie
- Karen Lee Batten
- Chase Claypool
- Ryan Craig
- Kyle Cumiskey
- Frank Davey
- Sunny Dhinsa
- Dianne Doan
- Brian Doerksen
- Burkely Duffield
- Victoria Duffield
- Jared Falk
- Michael Funk
- Amy Gough
- Adam Hadwin
- Charles Hill-Tout
- Jacob Hoggard
- Chad Kroeger
- Evangeline Lilly
- Brad Moran
- Greg Neufeld
- Larry Nickel
- Gladys Powers
- Jordan Pritchett
- Nathan Lieuwen
- Mauro Ranallo
- Sophie Schmidt
- Jared Slingerland
- Devon Toews
- David Van der Gulik
- Jake Virtanen
- Shane Wiebe
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- In 1995, the amalgamation with the District of Matsqui raised the population.
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- [dead link]
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