1946 Philippine presidential election

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 1946 were held on April 23, 1946 (pursuant to Commonwealth Act No. 725).

1946 Philippine presidential election

← 1941 April 23, 1946 1949 →
  Manuel Roxas 2.jpg Sergio Osmena photo.jpg
Nominee Manuel Roxas Sergio Osmeña
Party Nacionalista (Liberal wing) Nacionalista
Running mate Elpidio Quirino Eulogio Rodriguez
Popular vote 1,333,392 1,129,996
Percentage 53.94% 45.71%

1946 Philippine presidential election results per province.png

President before election

Jose P. Laurel KALIBAPI and Sergio Osmeña

Elected President

Manuel Roxas
Nacionalista (Liberal wing)


Soon after the reconstitution of the Commonwealth government in 1945, Senators Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino and their allies called for an early national election to choose the president and vice president of the Philippines, as well as the members of Congress. In December 1945, the House Insular Affairs Committee of the United States Congress approved the joint resolution setting the date of the election on not later than April 30, 1946.

Prompted by this congressional action, President Sergio Osmeña called the Philippine Congress to a three-day special session. Congress enacted Commonwealth Act No. 725, setting the date of the election on April 23, 1946. The act was signed by President Osmeña on January 5, 1946.


Three parties presented their respective candidates for the different national elective positions. These were the Nacionalista Party, Conservative (Osmeña) Wing, the Liberal Wing of the Nacionalista Party, and the Partido Modernista. The Nacionalistas had Osmeña and Senator Eulogio Rodriguez as their candidates for president and vice president, respectively. The Modernistas chose Hilario Camino Moncado and Luis Salvador for the same positions. On the other hand, the standard bearers of the Liberals were Senators Manuel Roxas and Elpidio Quirino.

On January 3, 1946, President Osmeña announced his candidacy for President. On January 22, 1946, Eulogio Rodriguez was nominated as Osmeña's running mate for Vice President, in a convention held at Ciro's Club in Manila. According to the Manila Chronicle:

The convention opened at 10:15 in the morning when the acting secretary of the party, Vicente Farmoso, called the confab to order.

Congressman Jose C. Romero, who delivered the keynote speech accused Senate President Manuel Roxas and his followers of fanning the flames of discontent among the people, of capitalizing on the people's hardship, and of minimizing the accomplishment of the [Osmeña] Administration. These men with the Messiah complex have been the bane of the country and of the world. This is the mentality that produces Hitlers and Mussolinis, and in their desire to climb to power they even want to destroy the party which placed them where they are today.

Senator Carlos P. Garcia, who delivered the nomination speech for President Sergio Osmeña, made a long recital of Osmeña's achievements, his virtues as public official and as private citizen.

Entering the convention hall at about 7:30 p.m, President Osmeña, accompanied by the committee on notification, was greeted with rounds of cheer and applause as he ascended the platform. President Osmeña delivered his speech which was a general outline of his future plans once elected. He emphasized that as far as his party is concerned, independence is a close issue. It is definitely coming on July 4, 1946[1]

On January 19, 1946, Senator Roxas announced his candidacy for President in a convention held in Santa Ana Cabaret in Manila. According to Manila Chronicle:

...more than three thousand (by conservative estimate there were only 1,000 plus) delegates, party members and hero worshipers jammed into suburban, well known Santa Ana Cabaret (biggest in the world) to acclaim ex-katipunero and Bagong Katipunan organizer Manuel Acuña Roxas as the guidon bearer of the Nacionalista Party's Liberal Wing.

The delegates, who came from all over the Islands, met in formal convention from 10:50 am and did not break up till about 5:30 pm.

They elected 1. Mariano J. Cuenco, professional Osmeñaphobe, as temporary chairman; 2. Jose Avelino and ex-pharmacist Antonio Zacarias permanent chairman and secretary, respectively; 3. nominated forty-four candidates for senators; 4. heard the generalissimo himself deliver an oratorical masterpiece consisting of 50 per cent attacks against the (Osmeña) Administration, 50 per cent promises, pledges. Rabid Roxasites greeted the Roxas acceptance speech with hysterical applause.[2]

President Osmeña tried to prevent the split in the Nacionalista Party by offering Senator Roxas the position of Philippine Regent Commissioner to the United States but the latter turned down the offer.

As a result of the split among the members of the Nacionalista Party, owing to marked differenced of opinion on certain vital issues of which no settlement had been reached, a new political organization was born and named the Liberal Wing of the Nacionalista Party, which would later become the Liberal Party.


Manuel Roxas (right) and Elpidio Quirino (left)

The election was generally peaceful and orderly except in some places where passions ran high, especially in the province of Pampanga. According to the "controversial" decision of the Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives on Meliton Soliman vs. Luis Taruc, Pampanga "was under the terroristic clutches and control of the Hukbalahaps. So terrorized were the people of Arayat, at one time, 200 persons abandoned their homes, their work, and their food, all their belongings in a mass evacuation to the poblacion due to fear and terror."

A total of 2,218,847 voters went to the polls to elect their President and Vice President who was to be the Commonwealth's last and the Republic's first. President Osmena chose not to actively campaign, saying the Filipinos were aware of his record of 40 years of loyal service to the country.

Four days after election day, the Liberal candidates were proclaimed victors. Roxas registered a majority of votes in 34 provinces and nine cities: Abra, Agusan, Albay, Antique, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Capiz, Cavite, Cotabato, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, La Union, Leyte, Marinduque, Mindoro, Misamis Oriental, Negros Occidental, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pangasinan, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sorsogon, Sulu, Surigao, Tayabas, Zambales, Manila, Quezon City, Bacolod (Negros Occidental), Iloilo City (Iloilo), Baguio (Mountain Province), Zamboanga City (Zamboanga), Tagaytay (Cavite), Cavite City (Cavite) and San Pablo City (Laguna)

Likewise, the Liberal Party won nine out of 16 contested senatorial seats.

In the House of Representatives, the Liberals achieved a majority with 50 seats won while the Nacionalistas and the Democratic Alliance were only victorious in 33 and six seats, respectively.


Manuel RoxasNacionalista Party (Liberal wing)1,333,00653.93
Sergio OsmeñaNacionalista Party1,129,99445.72
Hilario MoncadoModernist Party8,5380.35
Valid votes2,471,53895.17
Invalid/blank votes125,3424.83
Total votes2,596,880100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,898,60489.59
Source: Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz; Christof Hartmann; Graham Hassall; Soliman M. Santos.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific
Popular vote

Presidential Canvass (by Province)Edit

Province Moncado
(Partido Modernista)
Nacionalista Party
(Conservative Wing)
Nacionalista Party
(Liberal Party)
Abra 18 3,813 6,750
Agusan (now Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur 26 9,219 9,357
Albay 13 24,344 25,940
Antique 19 12,952 18,271
Bataan 4 8,309 9,468
Batanes 20 705 1,326
Bohol 308 40,258 30,592
Bukidnon 365 92,451 3,011
Bulacan 38 38,549 39,799
Cagayan 365 25,605 15,514
Camarines Norte 4 5,482 10,471
Camarines Sur 21 24,214 33,267
Capiz (including Aklan2) 14 18,161 41,844
Catanduanes 4 8,698 5,477
Cavite3 19 11,196 38,111
Cebu4 792 98,700 53,848
Cotabato5 66 16,490 17,826
Davao6 1,536 19,229 11,896
Ilocos Norte 243 12,097 25,464
Ilocos Sur 34 16,530 30,322
Iloilo 25 43,522 79,136
Isabela 437 9,220 17,431
Laguna 26 22,246 36,527
Lanao7 991 37,101 17,212
La Union 157 14,844 22,444

^2 Aklan only became a province on November 8, 1956, by virtue of Republic Act No. 1414.

^3 Including the cities of Tagaytay and Cavite.

^4 Including Cebu City. In Cebu City, Sergio Osmeña got 15,569 votes while Roxas only got 8,759 votes.

^5 The present-day provinces of North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Maguindanao, Shariff Kabunsuan and Sultan Kudarat were part of the then-province of Cotabato.

^6 The then-province of Lanao was divided in 1959 into two provinces: Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur.


Elpidio QuirinoNacionalista Party (Liberal wing)1,161,72552.36
Eulogio RodriguezNacionalista Party1,051,24347.38
Luis SalvadorModernist Party5,8790.26
Valid votes2,218,84785.44
Invalid/blank votes378,03314.56
Total votes2,596,880100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,898,60489.59
Source: Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz; Christof Hartmann; Graham Hassall; Soliman M. Santos.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific
Popular vote

Vice Presidential Canvass (by Province)Edit

Province Quirino
Nacionalista Party
(Liberal Party)
Nacionalista Party
(Conservative Wing)
Partido Modernista
Abra 6,894 3,092 7
Agusan 8,540 8,131 11
Albay 23,445 21,696 12
Antique 16,749 12,026 55
Bataan 6,424 8,245 17
Batanes 1,466 221 6
Batangas 32,185 22,195 111
Bohol 26,290 34,296 167
Bukidnon 2,899 2,138 99
Bulacan 29,277 38,881 50
Cagayan 21,826 17,226 238
Camarines Norte 10,013 4,894 4
Camarines Sur 31,282 23,052 24
Capiz 36,845 17,494 11
Catanduanes 5,164 8,645 4
Cavite 22,688 17,882 28
Cebu 50,495 92,253 524
Cotabato 17,366 11,718 68
Davao 12,015 17,629 1,090
Ilocos Norte 26,727 9,672 109
Ilocos Sur 36,158 9,460 12
Iloilo 68,520 40,343 42
Isabela 19,800 5,786 208
Laguna 17,724 30,552 26
Lanao 12,638 26,787 594
La Union 29,126 6,860 104
Leyte 55,873 43,776 139
Manila 67,228 43,197 139
Marinduque 6,405 4,181 27
Masbate 8,378 10,006 32
Mindoro 12,370 7,423 7
Misamis Occidental 8,835 15,046 334
Misamis Oriental 12,245 10,172 132
Mountain Province (including Baguio) 11,340 6,530 221
Negros Occidental 56,527 47,011 63
Negros Oriental 11,869 23,000 63
Nueva Ecija 27,949 38,690 46
Nueva Vizcaya 7,095 3,486 21
Palawan 6,291 4,691 7
Pampanga 9,291 64,556 119
Pangasinan 84,775 56,806 45
Tayabas 39,338 15,966 35
Rizal 35,512 54,896 50
Romblon 7,482 3,060 24
Samar 34,920 124,586 140
Sorsogon 19,445 15,980 10
Sulu 5,953 7,640 5
Surigao 13,800 11,768 56
Tarlac 17,523 22,813 50
Zambales 15,370 4,298 39
Zamboanga 13,317 18,426 433
Culion Leper Colony 100 329 1

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Celso G. Cabrera. "Rodriguez is Nominated as Osmeña's Running-Mate," Manila Chronicle, January 22, 1946, p. 2
  2. ^ "Conventions Climax Hectic Week," Manila Chronicle This week, January 27, 1946, p. 3

External linksEdit