Elpidio Quirino

Elpidio Quirino y Rivera (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Philippine lawyer and politician who served as the sixth President of the Philippines from 1948 to 1953.

Elpidio R. Quirino
Elpidio R Quirino.jpg
6th President of the Philippines
In office
April 17, 1948 – December 30, 1953
Vice PresidentNone (1948–1949)
Fernando Lopez (1949–1953)
Preceded byManuel Roxas
Succeeded byRamon Magsaysay
2nd Vice President of the Philippines
In office
May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
PresidentManuel Roxas
Preceded bySergio Osmeña
Succeeded byFernando Lopez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
In office
September 16, 1946 – January 6, 1950
PresidentManuel Roxas
Preceded byPost established
Succeeded byFelino Neri
Secretary of Finance
In office
May 28, 1946 – November 24, 1946
PresidentManuel Roxas
Preceded byJaime Hernandez
Succeeded byMiguel Cuaderno
In office
July 25, 1934 – February 18, 1936
PresidentManuel L. Quezon
Preceded byVicente Encarnación
Succeeded byAntonio de las Alas
Secretary of the Interior
In office
PresidentManuel L. Quezon
Preceded bySeverino de las Alas
Succeeded byRafael Alunan
4th President pro tempore of the Senate of the Philippines
In office
July 9, 1945 – May 25, 1946
PresidentSergio Osmeña
Preceded byJosé Avelino (acting)
Succeeded byMelecio Arranz
Senator of the Philippines
In office
July 9, 1945 – May 28, 1946
Senator of the Philippines from the First Senatorial District
In office
1925 – November 15, 1935
Served with:
Isabelo de los Reyes (1925–1928)
Melecio Arranz (1928–1935)
Preceded bySantiago Fonacier
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Ilocos Sur's 1st District
In office
Preceded byAlberto Reyes
Succeeded byVicente Singson Pablo
Personal details
Elpidio Quirino y Rivera

(1890-11-16)November 16, 1890
Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Captaincy General of the Philippines
DiedFebruary 29, 1956(1956-02-29) (aged 65)
Novaliches, Quezon City, Philippines
Resting placeLibingan ng mga Bayani, Taguig, Philippines
Political partyLiberal Party
Other political
Nacionalista (before 1945)
Alicia Syquia
(m. 1921; died 1945)
RelationsCory Quirino (granddaughter)
Monique Lagdameo (great-granddaughter)
ChildrenTomás Quirino
Armando Quirino
Norma Quirino
Victoria Quirino González
Fe Ángela Quirino
Alma materUniversity of the Philippines
Coat of Arms of Elpidio Quirino y Rivera, Diosdado Macapagal y Pangan and Ferdinand Emmanuel Marcos y Edralín (Order of Isabella the Catholic).svg
Coat of arms of Elpidio Quirino

A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925 to 1931. In 1934, he became a member of the Philippine independence commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of Tydings–McDuffie Act to American Congress. In 1935, he was also elected to the convention that drafted the 1935 constitution for the newly established Commonwealth. In the new government, he served as secretary of the interior and finance under President Manuel Quezon's cabinet.

After World War II, Quirino was elected vice-president in the 1946 election, consequently the second and last for the Commonwealth and first for the third republic. After the death of the incumbent president Manuel Roxas in 1948, he succeeded the presidency. He won the president's office under Liberal Party ticket, defeating Nacionalista vice president and former president José P. Laurel as well as fellow Liberalista and former Senate President José Avelino.

The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios. Quirino ran for president again in 1953 but was defeated by Ramon Magsaysay.

Early life and careerEdit

Elpidio Quirino was born on November 16, 1890 in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. He was the third child of Don Mariano Quebral Quirino of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur and Doña Gregoria Mendoza Rivera of Agoo, La Union.[1] Gregoria gave birth to Quirino in the Vigan town jail, where the family lived while Mariano worked as its warden.[1] Quirino was baptized on November 19, 1890.[2] Quirino spent his early years in Aringay, La Union. He studied and graduated from his elementary education to his native Caoayan, where he became a barrio teacher. He received secondary education at Vigan High School, then went to Manila where he worked as junior computer technician at the Bureau of Lands and as property clerk in the Manila police department. He graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and also passed the civil service examination, first-grade.[citation needed]

Quirino attended the University of the Philippines in Manila. In 1915, he earned his law degree from the university's College of Law, and was admitted to the bar later that year. He was engaged into the private practice of law. During his early years as an adult he was inducted into the Pan Xenia Fraternity, a professional trade fraternity in the University of the Philippines, in the year 1950.[citation needed]

Personal lifeEdit

Quirino was married to Alicia Syquía (1903–1945) on January 16, 1921. The couple had five children: Tomas, Armando, Norma, Victoria, and Fe Angela. On February 9, 1945, his wife and three of their children (Armando, Norma and Fe Angela) were killed by Japanese troops as they fled their home during the Battle of Manila.[3] His brother Antonio Quirino was the owner of Alto Broadcasting System, which later merged with Chronicle Broadcasting Network to form the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation.[4]

His daughter, Victoria, became the youngest hostess of Malacañang Palace, at 16 years old, when Quirino ascended to the presidency on April 17, 1948. She married Luis M. Gonzalez in 1950, who became Philippine ambassador to Spain from 1966 to 1971.

Congressional careerEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

Quirino was engaged in the private practice of law until he was elected as member of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1919 to 1925, succeeding Alberto Reyes. In 1925 he was succeeded as congressman by Vicente Singson Pablo.


Quirino was elected as Senator from 1925 to 1931 representing the First Senatorial District. He then served as Secretary of Finance and Secretary of the Interior in the Commonwealth government.[citation needed]

In 1934, Quirino was a member of the Philippine Independence mission to Washington, D.C., headed by Manuel L. Quezon, that secured the passage in the United States Congress of the Tydings–McDuffie Act. This legislation set the date for Philippine independence by 1945. Official declaration came on July 4, 1946.[citation needed]

Before the Second World War, Quirino was re-elected to the Senate but was not able to serve until 1945.

After the war, the Philippine Commonwealth Government was restored. The Congress was likewise re-organized and in the Senate and Quirino was installed was Senate President pro tempore.[citation needed]


President Elpidio Quirino weeps beside the coffin of his predecessor, Manuel Roxas during the latter's wake in 1948

Soon after the reconstitution of the Commonwealth Government in 1945, Senators Manuel Roxas, Quirino and their allies called for an early national election to choose the president and vice president of the Philippines and members of the Congress. In December 1945, the House Insular Affairs of the United States Congress approved the joint resolution setting the date of the election on not later than April 30, 1946.

Prompted by this congressional action, President Sergio Osmeña called the Philippine Congress to a three-day special session. Congress enacted Commonwealth Act No. 725, setting the date of the election on April 23, 1946. The act was signed by President Osmeña on January 5, 1946.

Quirino was nominated as Senate President Manuel Roxas' running mate. The tandem won the election. As Vice-President, Quirino was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs.


Presidential styles of
Elpidio R. Quirino
Reference styleHis Excellency
Spoken styleYour Excellency
Alternative styleMr. President

Quirino's five years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains and increased economic aid from the United States.

Administration and CabinetEdit

PresidentElpidio Quirino1948–1953
Vice-PresidentFernando López1949–1953
Secretary of Foreign AffairsElpidio Quirino (acting)April 17, 1948 – January 6, 1950
Felino NeriJanuary 6, 1950 – May 1950
Carlos P. RomuloMay 1950 – 1951
Joaquín Miguel ElizaldeApril 18, 1952 – December 30, 1953
Secretary of the InteriorSotero BaluyutSeptember 21, 1948 – 1951
Secretary of FinanceMiguel CuadernoApril 17, 1948 – January 2, 1949
Pío PedrosaJanuary 5, 1949 – September 12, 1951
Aurelio Montinola, Sr.April 18, 1952 – December 30, 1953
Secretary of JusticeRoman OzaetaMay 28, 1946 – September 1948
Sabino PadillaSeptember 17, 1948 – June 1949
Ricardo NepomucenoJuly 1949 – July 1950
Jose BengzonDecember 15, 1950 – September 1951
Oscar CasteloApril 18, 1952 – August 1953
Roberto GianzonAugust 1953 – December 30, 1953
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesPlácido MapaSeptember 21, 1948 – 1950
Fernando LópezDecember 14, 1950–1953
Secretary of Public Works and CommunicationsRicardo NepumocenoApril 17, 1948 – 1949
Prospero SanidadFebruary 21, 1950 -1951
Sotero BaluyotJanuary 6, 1951 – 1952
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation and CommunicationsPablo LorenzoMay 6, 1952 – 1953
Secretary of Education, Culture and SportsPrudencio LangcauonSeptember 1948 – September 13, 1950
Pablo LorenzoSeptember 14, 1950 – April 3, 1951
Teodoro T. Evangelista Sr.May 18, 1951 – September 30, 1951
Cecilio PutongApril 18, 1952 – December 30, 1953
Benito PangilinanSeptember 22, 1953
Secretary of LaborPrimitivo LovinaSeptember 21, 1948 – December 21, 1950
Jose FiguerasDecember 21, 1950 – December 30, 1953
Secretary of National DefenseRuperto KangleonApril 17, 1948 – August 31, 1950
Ramon MagsaysayDecember 14, 1950 – February 28, 1953
Oscar T. CasteloMarch 1, 1953 – December 19, 1953
Secretary of Health and Public WelfareAntonio VillaramaApril 17, 1948 – December 31, 1949
Juan S. SalcedoDecember 14, 1950 – November 10, 1953
Administrator of Social ServicesAsunción A. PérezMay 6, 1952 – 1953
Secretary of Trade and IndustryCornelio BalmacedaSeptember 21, 1948 – February 12, 1949
Placido L. MapaFebruary 12, 1949 – December 30, 1953
Executive SecretaryEmilio AbelloApril 21, 1948 – September 14, 1948
Teodoro T. Evangelista Sr.September 16, 1948 – May 8, 1951
Marciano RoqueFebruary 2, 1952 – December 29, 1953
Budget CommissionerPío Joven1948–1953

First term (1948–1949)Edit


Vice-President Elpidio Quirino was inaugurated as the 6th President of the Philippines on April 17, 1948 at the Council of State Room, Executive Building, Malacañan Palace.

Quirino assumed the presidency on April 17, 1948, taking his oath of office two days after the death of Manuel Roxas. His first official act as the President was the proclamation of a state mourning throughout the country for Roxas' death. Since Quirino was a widower, his surviving daughter, Victoria, would serve as the official hostess and perform the functions traditionally ascribed to the First Lady.

New capital cityEdit

On July 17, 1948, the Congress approved Republic Act No. 333, amending Commonwealth Act No. 502, declaring Quezon City the capital of the Philippines in place of Manila.[5] Nevertheless, pending the official transfer of the government offices to the new capital site, Manila remained to be such for all effective purposes.[5]


The term HukBaLaHap was a contraction of Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon (in English: The Nation's Army Against the Japanese Soldiers), members of which were commonly referred to as Huks.

With the expiration of the Amnesty deadline on August 15, 1948, the government found out that the Huks had not lived up to the terms of the Quirino-Taruc agreement. Indeed, after having been seated in Congress and collecting his back pay allowance.[5] Luis Taruc surreptitiously fled away from Manila, even as a number of his followers had either submitted themselves to the conditions of the Amnesty proclamation or surrendered their arms. In the face of countercharges from the Huk to the effect that the government had not satisfied the agreed conditions, President Quirino ordered a stepped-up campaign against dissidents, restoring once more an aggressive policy in view of the failure of the friendly attitude previously adopted.[5]

Fireside chatsEdit

To bring the government closer to the people, he revived President Quezon's "fireside chats", in which he enlightened the people on the activities of the Republic by the periodic radio broadcasts from Malacañan Palace.

Impeachment attemptEdit

Riding on the crest of the growing wave of resentment against the Liberal Party, a move was next hatched to indict President Quirino himself.[5] Led by Representative Agripino Escareal, a committee composed of seven members of the House of Representatives prepared a five-count accusation ranging from nepotism to gross expenditures. Speaker Eugenio Pérez appointed a committee of seven, headed by Representative Lorenzo Sumulong to look into the charges preparatory to their filing with the Senate, acting as an impeachment body. Solicitor General Felix Angelo Bautista entered his appearance as defense counsel for the chief executive.[5] Following several hearings, on April 19, 1949, after a rather turbulent session that lasted all night, the congressional committee reached a verdict completely exonerating the President.

Quirino waving to the crowd

Romulo becomes President of the UN General AssemblyEdit

Great honor[5] was paid the Philippines when, in September 1949, the Fourth General Assembly of the United Nations elected delegate Carlos P. Romulo as its President. The first[5] Oriental to hold the position, Romulo was strongly supported[5] by the Anglo-Saxon bloc, as well as by the group of Spanish-speaking nations,[5] thus underscoring the hybrid nature of the Filipino people's culture and upbringing.[5]

1949 presidential electionEdit

Incumbent President Elpidio Quirino won a full term as President of the Philippines after the untimely death of President Manuel Roxas in 1948. His running mate, Senator Fernando López won as Vice President. Despite factions created in the administration party, Quirino won a satisfactory vote from the public. It was the only time in Philippine history where the duly elected president, vice president and senators all came from the same party, the Liberal Party. The election was widely criticized as being corrupt,[6] with violence and fraud taking place.[7] Opponents of Quirino were beaten or murdered by his supporters or the police and the election continues to be seen as corrupt.[8]

Second term (1949–1953)Edit

President Elpidio Quirino was inaugurated for his first full term as President of the Philippines on December 30, 1949 at the Independence Grandstand (now Quirino Grandstand), Manila.

Baguio ConferenceEdit

In May 1950, upon the invitation of President Qurino, through the insistent suggestion of United Nations President Carlos P. Romulo, official representatives of India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Thailand, Indonesia, and Australia met in the city of Baguio for a regional conference sponsored by the Philippines.[5] China and Korea did not attend the conference because the latter did not contemplate the formation of a military union of the Southeast Asian nations. On the other hand, Japan, Indonesia, China, and others were not invited because, at the time, they were not free and independent states. Due to the request of India and Indonesia, no political questions were taken up the conference.[5] Instead, the delegates discussed economic and, most of all, cultural, problems confronting their respective countries. Strangely enough however, the Baguio Conference ended with an official communiqué in which the nations attending the same expressed their united agreement in supporting the right to self-determination of all peoples the world over. This initial regional meet held much promise of a future alliance of these neighboring nations for common protection and aid.[5]

HukBaLaHap continued re-insurgenceEdit

Quirino's administration faced a serious threat in the form of the communist HukBaLaHap movement. Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon, communists steadily gained control over the leadership, and when Quirino's negotiation with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948, Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government.

Peace campaignEdit

With the Communist organization estimated to still have more than 40,000 duly registered members by March 1951, the government went on with its sustained campaign to cope with the worsening peace and order problem.[5] The 1951 budget included the use of a residue fund for the land resettlement program in favor of the surrendered HUKS. The money helped maintain the Economic Development Corps (EDCOR), with its settlements of 6,500 hectares in Kapatagan (Lanao) and 25,000 hectares in Buldon (Cotabato). In each group taken to these places there was a nucleus of former Army personnel and their families, who became a stabilizing factor and ensured the success of the program. Indeed, less than ten percent of the Huks who settled down gave up this new lease in life offered them by the government.[5]

To promote the smooth restructuring of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the military were made to undergo a reorganization.[5] Battalion combat teams of 1,000 men each were established. Each operated independently of the High Command, except for overall coordination in operational plans. A total of 26 Battalion Combat Teams were put up. New army units were also established, such was the first Airborne Unit, the Scout Rangers, the Canine Unit, and the Cavalry Unit. These units all showed considerable ability.[5]

1951 midterm electionEdit

After a sweep by the Liberals in 1949, many Filipinos doubted the election result. This brought a sweep by the Nacionalistas in the 1951 elections. There was a special election for the vacated Senate seat of Fernando Lopez, who won as vice president in 1949. The Liberals won no seats in the Senate.

1953 presidential electionEdit

Quirino ran for re-election to the presidency with José Yulo as vice president in 1953 despite his ill health. His Defense Secretary, Ramon Magsaysay, resigned his office and joined the Nacionalista Party. Other prominent Liberalists, like Vice President Fernando López, Ambassador Carlos P. Romulo, Senators Tomás Cabili and Juan Sumulong, also bolted Quirino's party.

On August 22, 1953, Nacionalista and Democratic Parties formed a coalition to ensure Quirino's full defeat. On election day, Quirino was defeated by Ramon Magsaysay with a majority vote of 1.5 million.

Domestic policiesEdit

Economy of the Philippines under
President Elpidio Quirino
1948  19.23 million
Gross Domestic Product (1985 constant prices)
1948  Php 99,628 million
1953 Php 146,070 million
Growth rate, 1948–539.32 %
Per capita income (1985 constant prices)
1948  Php 5,180
1953  Php 7,596
Total exports
1948  Php 35,921 million
1953  Php 34, 432 million
Exchange rates
1 US US$ = Php 2.00
1 Php = US US$ 0.50
Sources: Philippine Presidency Project
Malaya, Jonathan; Eduardo Malaya. So Help Us God... The Inaugurals of the Presidents of the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc.


Upon assuming the reins of government, Quirino announced two main objectives of his administration: first, the economic reconstruction of the nation and second, the restoration of the faith and confidence of the people in the government. In connection to the first agenda, he created the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration or PACSA to mitigate the sufferings of indigent families, the Labor Management Advisory Board to advise him on labor matters, the Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration or ACCFA to help the farmers market their crops and save them from loan sharks, and the Rural Banks of the Philippines to facilitate credit utilities in rural areas.

Social programEdit

Enhancing President Manuel Roxas' policy of social justice to alleviate the lot of the common mass, President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people.[5] After periodic surprise visits to the slums of Manila and other backward regions of the country, President Quirino officially made public a seven-point program for social security, to wit:[5]

  1. Unemployment insurance
  2. Old-age insurance
  3. Accident and permanent disability insurance
  4. Health insurance
  5. Maternity insurance
  6. State relief
  7. Labor opportunity

President Quirino also created the Social Security Commission, making Social Welfare Commissioner Asuncion Perez chairman of the same.[5] This was followed by the creation of the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration, charges with extending aid, loans, and relief to the less fortunate citizens. Both the policy and its implementation were hailed by the people as harbingers of great benefits.[5]

Agrarian reformEdit

As part of his Agrarian Reform agenda, President Quirino issued on October 23, 1950 Executive Order No. 355 which replaced the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) which takes over the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the Rice and Corn Production Administration.[9]

Integrity BoardEdit

To cope with the insistent clamor for government improvement, President Quirino created the Integrity Board to probe into reports of graft and corruption in high government places. Vice-President Fernando Lopez was most instrumental, through his courageous exposés, in securing such a decision from President Quirino.[5]

Foreign policiesEdit

Photograph of President Truman in the Oval Office, evidently receiving a cane as a gift from the President of the Philippines, Elpidio Quirino, as another man (most likely ambassador Joaquín Elizalde) looks on.

Quirino's administration excelled in diplomacy, impressing foreign heads of states and world statesmen by his intelligence and culture. In his official travels to the United States, European countries, and Southeast Asia, he represented the Philippines with flying colors. During his six years of administration, he with his Foreign Secretary Helen Cutaran Bennett was able to negotiate treaties and agreements with other nations of the Free World. Two Asian heads of state visited Philippines–President Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China in July 1949 and President Sukarno of Indonesia in January 1951.

In 1950, at the onset of the Korean War, Quirino authorized the deployment of over 7,450 Filipino soldiers to Korea, under the designation of the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea or PEFTOK.

While I recognise the United States as a great builder in this country, I have never surrendered the sovereignty, much less the dignity and future of our country.

— Elpidio Quirino[10]

In 1951, the Philippines signed the Mutual Defense Treaty with the United States to deter the threat of communism that existed during the Cold War. The military alliance remains to this day a key pillar of American foreign policy in Asia that also includes defense pacts with Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and Australia.

Korean WarEdit

On June 25, 1950, the world was astonished to hear the North Korean aggression against the independent South Korea. The United Nations immediately took up this challenge to the security of this part of the world. Carlos P. Romulo soon stood out as the most effective spokesman for the South Korean cause.[5] On behalf of the government, Romulo offered to send a Philippine military contingent to be under the overall command of General Douglas MacArthur, who had been named United Nations Supreme Commander for the punitive expedition. The Philippines, thus, became the first country to join the United States in the offer of military assistance to beleaguered South Korea.[5]

President Quirino took the necessary steps to make the Philippine offer. On a purely voluntary basis, the first contingent – the Tenth Battalion Combat Team – was formed under Col. Azurin, and dispatched to Korea, where its members quickly won much renown for their military skill and bravery. The name of Captain Jose Artiaga, Jr., heroically killed in action, stands out as a symbol of our country's contribution to the cause of freedom outside native shores. Other Philippine Combat Teams successively replaced the first contingent sent, and they all built a name for discipline, tenacity, and courage, until the truce that brought the conflict to a halt.[5]

Quirino-Foster AgreementEdit

By the time of the creation of the integrity board, moreover, the Bell Mission, led by Daniel W. Bell, an American banker, and composed of five members, with a staff of twenty workers, following their period of stay in the Philippines, beginning in July 1950, finally submitted its report on October of the same year.[5] The Report made several proposals, most noteworthy, of which were that the United States on, President Quirino gamely and patriotically,[5] took in the recommendations and sought to implement them. Thus in November 1950, President Quirino and William Chapman Foster, representing the United States Government, signed an agreement by virtue of which the former pledged to obtain the necessary Philippine legislation, in keeping with the Bell Mission Report, while envoy Foster promised the necessary by the same Report.[5]

However, much as he tried to become a good president, Quirino failed to win the people's affection. Several factors caused the unpopularity of his administration, namely:[11]

  • Failure of government to check the Huk menace which made travel in the provinces unsafe, as evidenced by the killing of former First Lady Aurora Quezon and her companions on April 28, 1949 by the Huks on the Bongabong-Baler road, Baler, Tayabas (now part of Aurora province);
  • Economic distress of the times, aggravated by rising unemployment rate, soaring prices of commodities, and unfavorable balance of trade.

Post-presidency and deathEdit

The former tomb of Elpidio Quirino at the Manila South Cemetery

Following his failed bid for re-election, Quirino retired from politics to private life in 1953. He offered his dedication to serve the Filipino people, becoming the "Father of Foreign Service" in the Republic of the Philippines.

Quirino died of a heart attack during the leap year day of February 29, 1956 at his retirement house in Novaliches, Quezon City. His remains were initially buried at the Manila South Cemetery. On February 29, 2016, his remains were relocated and reinterred at a special tomb site in the Libingan ng mga Bayani in Taguig, in time for the 60th anniversary of his death.[12]


A memorial to Quirino in Hibiya Park, Tokyo, Japan

There are a number of memorials dedicated to Quirino. Quirino Avenue in Manila is named for him, as is the LRT station located there. The Novaliches-Ipo Road where his retirement home is situated was renamed as Quirino Highway. There is also a Quirino Grandstand in Manila's Rizal Park.

In 2016 a memorial to him was established in Hibiya Park, Tokyo, Japan.[13][14][15]


  1. ^ a b "President Elpidio Quirino's 125th birth anniversary". BusinessMirror. November 10, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
  2. ^ Catholic Church, Conversion of St. Paul, the Apostle (Vigan, Ilocos Sur) (November 19, 1890). "Registros parroquiales, 1713-1994". Family Search. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
  3. ^ Bunye, Ignacio R. (May 24, 2015). "Bunye: Battles that changed the course of history (Epilogue)". Sun.Star. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  4. ^ Vanzi, Sol Jose (November 1, 2003). "ABS-CBN's 50th Year Celebrates Philippine Television". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
  6. ^ Lana's dirty secrets Archived September 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism Retrieved June 14, 2017
  7. ^ Hedman, Eva-Lotta & Side, John Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies Retrieved June 14, 2017
  8. ^ Taylor, RH The Politics of Elections in Southeast Asia Retrieved June 14, 2017
  9. ^ "Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) – Organizational Chart". Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  10. ^ "Elpidio Quirino". Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  11. ^ Quoted from Zaide, Gregorio (1956). "25". Philippine Political and Cultural History: the Philippines since British Invasion. 2 (1957 Revised ed.). Manila, Philippines: McCullough Printing Company. p. 25.
  12. ^ "Elpidio Quirino reinterred at Libingan ng mga Bayani after 60 years". GMA News. February 26, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  13. ^ Hibiya Park plaque to honor late Filipino leader Quirino May 22, 2016 Japan Times Retrieved June 14, 2017
  14. ^ Japan honors former PH president Elpidio Quirino in Hibiya Park June 14, 2016 Philippine Primer Retrieved June 14, 2017
  15. ^ Kobayakawa, Yohei Philippine leader who forgave war criminals gets Tokyo memorial June 20, 2017 Asahi Shimbun Retrieved June 14, 2017


  • Zaide, Gregorio (1956). Philippine Political and Cultural History: the Philippines since British Invasion (1957 Revised ed.). Manila, Philippines: McCullough Printing Company.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press.

External linksEdit