Women in the Bible
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The number of named and unnamed women in the Bible is uncertain. Professor Karla Bombach discusses several calculations ranging from 111 to 173 named individuals, concluding that "Despite the disparities among these different calculations, in all of them, women or women's names represent between 5.5 and 8 percent of the total, a stunning reflection of the androcentric character of the Bible. There are over 600 unnamed women. A study of those who actually speak found 93, of which 49 are named. Among these women are prominent queens, prophetesses, and leaders. Before and during biblical times, the roles of women were almost always severely restricted.
Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)Edit
The Hebrew Bible (also called Tanakh in Judaism, Old Testament in Christianity and Taurat/Tawrah in Islam) is the basis for both Judaism and Christianity, and a cornerstone of Western culture. The views of women presented in the Hebrew Bible are complex and often ambivalent. Through its stories and its elaboration of statutes, the Hebrew Bible's views on women have helped shape gender roles and define the legal standing of women in the West for millennia. This influence has waned somewhat as Western culture has become progressively more secular, beginning at the Enlightenment.
Eve and GenesisEdit
The creation of Adam and Eve is narrated from somewhat different perspectives in Genesis 1:26-27 and Genesis 2:24. The Genesis 1 narration declares the purpose of God, antedating the creation of the sexes. It has been called the "non-subordinating" view of woman. God gave the human pair joint responsibility and "rulership" over his creation.
The Fall of humanityEdit
Although readers associate Eve with the fall of humanity, there is no explicit reference to a "fall," "sin," or "guilt" in Genesis 3. Many readers overlook Adam's presence when Eve bites the fruit since English Bibles frequently omit that the man was "with her" (Genesis 3:6). Eve's weakness has sometimes been blamed for causing Adam's fall, and thus for humanity's fall into original sin. This claim was made during the Middle Ages and is disputed in John Milton's classic epic, Paradise Lost.
Old Testament views on genderEdit
Edith Hamilton again, considering the position of women, wrote that the Old Testament writers considered them just as impartially as they did men, free from prejudice and even from condescension. However, it cannot be said that the society and culture of Old Testament times were consistently favorable to women.
The accounts of Adam and Eve and the Garden of Eden[Gen 2-3] have been the subjects of considerable sociological and anthropological debate regarding the patriarchal family order, male dominance and female oppression. These debates have been used as a justification for the subordination of women and "for the rejection of Genesis as a source for male chauvinism."
There is a male bias and a male priority generally present in both the private life and public life of women. However, it never becomes absolute. In the Decalogue (Ten Commandments) of Exodus 20, aspects of both male priority and gender balance can be seen. In the tenth commandment, a wife is depicted in the examples not to be coveted: house, wife, male or female slave, ox or donkey, or 'anything that belongs to your neighbour.' (NIV) On the other hand, the fifth commandment does not make any distinction between honor to be shown to parents. This is consistent with the mutual respect shown for both parents throughout the Old Testament.
According to other writers, the Bible rarely describes the average woman, "as if all the women in the ancient world had been saints, whores, or invisible."
Jesus' interactions with womenEdit
According to New Testament scholar Dr. Frank Stagg and classicist Evelyn Stagg, the synoptic Gospels of the canonical New Testament contain a relatively high number of references to women. The Staggs find no recorded instance where Jesus disgraces, belittles, reproaches, or stereotypes a woman. These writers claim that examples of the manner of Jesus are instructive for inferring his attitudes toward women and show repeatedly how he liberated and affirmed women.
Paul the Apostle and womenEdit
The statements by and attitude of Paul the Apostle concerning women is an important element in the theological debate about Christianity and women due to the fact that Paul was the first writer to give ecclesiastical directives about the role of women in the Church. However, there are arguments that some of these writings are post-Pauline interpolations.
Apostle Peter on womenEdit
Submission to husband:
- Wives, in the same way be submissive to your husbands so that, if any of them do not believe the word, they may be won over without words by the behavior of their wives...."[1 Pet. 3:1]
Women as weaker partner:
- "Husbands, in the same way be considerate as you live with your wives, and treat them with respect as the weaker partner and as heirs with you of the gracious gift of life, so that nothing will hinder your prayers."[1 Pet. 3:7]
- Karla Bombach (2000). Craven, Toni; Kraemer, Ross; Myers, Carol L., eds. Women in Scripture: A Dictionary of Named and Unnamed Women in the Hebrew Bible, the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books and New Testament. Houghton Mifflin. p. 34. ISBN 978-0395709368. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Craven, Toni; Kraemer, Ross; Myers, Carol L., eds. (2000). Women in Scripture: A Dictionary of Named and Unnamed Women in the Hebrew Bible, the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books and New Testament. Houghton Mifflin. p. xii. ISBN 978-0395709368. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Freeman, Lindsay Hardin (2014). Bible Women: All Their Words and Why They Matter (3rd ed.). Forward Movement. ISBN 978-0880283915.
- Robinson, B.A. "The status of women in the Bible and in early Christianity." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 2010. Web: http://www.religioustolerance.org/fem_bibl.htm 11 Sep 2010.
- Starr, L. A. The Bible Status of Woman. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1926
- Stagg, Evelyn and Frank. Woman in the World of Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978
- J.F. Parker "Blaming Eve Alone" Journal of Biblical Literature 132.4 (Winter 2103), pp. 729-47
- Smith, Russell E. Jr. "Adam's Fall." ELH: a Journal of English Literary History, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Dec., 1968), pp. 527-539
- Quoted in Tanner, Stephen L. Women in Literature of the Old Testament. University of Idaho, 1975. ERIC ED112422.
- Hyers, M. Conrad. The meaning of creation: Genesis and modern science. Westminster John Knox Press, 1984, p.3. ISBN 978-0-8042-0125-4
- "Introduction. Women in the Bible." Web: http://www.womeninthebible.net/1.0.Introduction.htm 11 Sep 2010.
- Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
- Odell-Scott, D.W. "Editorial dilemma: the interpolation of 1 Cor 14:34-35 in the western manuscripts of D, G and 88." Web: 15 Jul 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0LAL/is_2_30/ai_94332323/