Trible studied at Meredith College and Union Theological Seminary. Trible taught at Wake Forest University and Andover Newton Theological School before going back to Union Seminary, where she was appointed the Baldwin Professor of Sacred Literature in 1980. She left Union in 1998 to become associate dean and professor of Biblical studies of the new Wake Forest University School of Divinity in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
Trible served as president of the Society of Biblical Literature in 1994. Athalya Brenner calls her one of the "prominent matriarchs of contemporary feminist bible criticism", and suggests that her 1973 article "Depatriarchalizing in Biblical Interpretation", "should be considered as the honored mother of feminist Song of Songs scholarship." According to John J. Collins, "Phyllis Trible, more than any other scholar, put feminist criticism on the agenda of biblical scholarship in the 1970s."
- God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality (1978), Fortress Press
- "Phyllis Trible". Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Thompson, Wayne (28 Apr 1998). "WFU Announces First Faculty of Divinity School" (Press release). Retrieved 14 Dec 2013.
- Brenner, Athalya. "Quo Vadis Domina? Reflections on What We Have Become and Want to Be". lectio difficilor. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Collins, John J. (2005). The Bible After Babel: Historical Criticism in a Postmodern Age. Eerdmans. p. 78. Retrieved 31 October 2015.