Joseph (/, - /; Hebrew: יוֹסֵף meaning "Increase", Standard Yosef Tiberian Yôsēp̄; Arabic: يوسف Yūsuf or Yūsif; Ancient Greek: Ἰωσήφ Iōsēph) is an important figure in the Bible's Book of Genesis and also in the Quran. Sold into slavery by his jealous brothers, he rose to become vizier, the second most powerful man in Egypt next to Pharaoh, where his presence and office caused Israel to leave Canaan and settle in Egypt. The composition of the story can be dated to the period between the 7th century BCE and the third quarter of the 5th century BCE, which is roughly the period to which scholars date the Book of Genesis.
In Rabbinic tradition, Joseph is considered the ancestor of another Messiah called, "Mashiach ben Yosef". He will wage war against the evil forces alongside Mashiach ben David and die in combat with the enemies of God and Israel.
Joseph, son of Jacob and Rachel, lived in the land of Canaan with ten half-brothers, one full brother, and at least one half-sister. He was Rachel's firstborn and Jacob's eleventh son. Of all the sons, Joseph was preferred by his father, and this is represented by a "long coat of many colors". When Joseph was seventeen years old he had two dreams that made his brothers plot his demise. In the first dream, Joseph and his brothers gathered bundles of grain, of which those his brothers gathered, bowed to his own. In the second dream, the sun (father), the moon (mother), and eleven stars (brothers) bowed to Joseph himself. These dreams, implying his supremacy, angered his brothers. (Genesis 37:1-11)
Plot against JosephEdit
Joseph's half-brothers were jealous of him; (Genesis 37:18-20) wherefore, in Dothan, most of them plotted to kill him, with the exception of Reuben, who suggested to have Joseph thrown into an empty cistern, intending to rescue Joseph himself. Unaware of this secondary intention, the others obeyed his first. Upon imprisoning Joseph, the brothers saw a camel caravan carrying spices and perfumes to Egypt, and sold Joseph to these merchants. Thereafter the guilty brothers painted goat's blood on Joseph's coat and showed it to Jacob, who therefore believed Joseph dead. (Genesis 37:12-35)
Ultimately, Joseph was sold to Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's guard. Later, Joseph became Potiphar's personal servant, and subsequently his household's superintendent. Here, Potiphar's wife Zuleika tried to seduce Joseph, which he refused. Angered by his running away from her, she made a false accusation of rape, and thus assured his imprisonment. (Genesis 39:1-20)
Joseph in prisonEdit
The warden put Joseph in charge of the other prisoners, and soon afterward Pharaoh's chief cup-bearer and chief baker, who had offended the Pharaoh, were thrown into the prison, and suffered dreams interpreted by Joseph, who stated that the chief cup-bearer would be reinstated but the chief baker would be hanged. Joseph requested the cup-bearer to mention him to Pharaoh and secure his release from prison, but the cup-bearer, reinstalled in office, forgot Joseph. After two more years, the Pharaoh dreamt of seven lean cows which devoured seven fat cows; and of seven withered ears of grain which devoured seven fat ears. When the Pharaoh's advisers failed to interpret these dreams, the cup-bearer remembered Joseph. Joseph was then summoned. He interpreted the dream as seven years of abundance followed by seven years of famine, and advised the Pharaoh to store surplus grain.
Vizier of EgyptEdit
Following the prediction, Joseph became Vizier, under the name of Zaphnath-Paaneah, and was given Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On, to be his wife. During the seven years of abundance, Joseph ensured that the storehouses were full and that all produce was weighed. In the sixth year, Asenath bore two children to Joseph: Manasseh and Ephraim. When the famine came, it was so severe that people from surrounding nations came to Egypt to buy bread. The narrative also indicates that they went straight to Joseph or were directed to him, even by the Pharaoh himself. (Genesis 41:37-57) As a last resort, all of the inhabitants of Egypt, less the Egyptian priestly class, sold their properties to Joseph for seed; wherefore Joseph set a mandate that, because the people would be sowing and harvesting seed on government property, a fifth of the produce should go to the Pharaoh. This mandate lasted until the days of Moses. (Genesis 47:20-31)
Brothers sent to EgyptEdit
In the second year of famine, Joseph's half brothers were sent to Egypt to buy goods. When they came to Egypt, they stood before the Vizier but did not recognize him as their brother Joseph, who was now in his late 30s; but Joseph did recognize them and did not speak at all to them in his native tongue of Hebrew. After questioning them, he accused them of being spies. After they mentioned a younger brother at home, the Vizier (Joseph) demanded that he be brought to Egypt as a demonstration of their veracity. This was Joseph's full brother, Benjamin. Joseph placed his brothers in prison for three days. On the third day, he brought them out of prison to reiterate that he wanted their youngest brother brought to Egypt to demonstrate their veracity. The brothers conferred amongst themselves speaking in Hebrew, reflecting on the wrong they had done to Joseph. Joseph understood what they were saying and removed himself from their presence because he was caught in emotion. When he returned, the Vizier took Simeon and bound him as a hostage. Then he had their donkeys prepared with grain and sent the other brothers back to Canaan. Unbeknownst to them, Joseph had also returned their money to their money sacks. (Genesis 42:1-28)
The silver cupEdit
The remaining brothers returned to their father in Canaan, and told him all that had transpired in Egypt. They also discovered that all of their money sacks still had money in them, and they were dismayed. Then they informed their father that the Vizier demanded that Benjamin be brought before him to demonstrate that they were honest men. Jacob became greatly distressed feeling that they treated him badly. After they had consumed all of the grain that they brought back from Egypt, Jacob told his sons to go back to Egypt for more grain. With Reuben and Judah's persistence, they persuaded their father to let Benjamin join them for fear of Egyptian retribution. (Genesis 42:29-43:15)
Upon their return to Egypt, the brothers were received by the steward of the house of Joseph. When they were brought to Joseph's house, they were apprehensive about the returned money in their money sacks. They thought that the missed transaction would somehow be used against them as way to induct them as slaves and confiscate their possessions. So they immediately informed the steward of what had transpired to get a feel of the situation. The steward put them at ease, telling them not to worry about the money, and brought out their brother Simeon. Then he brought the brothers into the house of Joseph and received them hospitably. When the Vizier (Joseph) appeared, they gave him gifts from their father. Joseph saw and inquired of Benjamin and was overcome by emotion but did not show it. He withdrew to his chambers and wept. When he regained control of himself, he returned and ordered a meal to be served. The Egyptians would not dine with Hebrews at the same table, as doing so was considered loathsome, so the sons of Israel were served at a separate table. (Genesis 43:16-44:34)
That night, Joseph ordered his steward to load the brothers' donkeys with food and all their money. The money they brought was double what they had from the first trip. Deceptively, Joseph also ordered that his silver cup be put in Benjamin's sack. The following morning the brothers began their journey back to Canaan. Joseph ordered the steward to go after the brothers and question them about the "missing" silver cup. When the steward caught up with the brothers, he seized them and searched their sacks. The steward found the cup in Benjamin's sack just as he had planted it the night before. This caused a stir amongst the brothers. However, they agreed to be escorted back to Egypt. When the Vizier (Joseph) confronted them about the silver cup, he demanded that the one who possessed the cup in his bag become his slave. In response, Judah pleaded with the Vizier that Benjamin be allowed to return to his father, and he himself be kept in Benjamin's place as a slave. (Genesis 44)
Judah appealed to the Vizier begging that Benjamin be released and that he be enslaved in his stead, because of the silver cup found in Benjamin’s sack. The Vizier broke down into tears. He could not control himself any longer and so he sent the Egyptian men out of the house. Then he revealed to the Hebrews that he was in fact their brother, Joseph. He wept so loudly that even the Egyptian household heard it outside. The brothers were frozen and could not utter a word. He brought them closer and relayed to them the events that had happened and told them not to fear, that what they had meant for evil God had meant for good. Then he commanded them to go and bring their father and his entire household into Egypt to live in the province of Goshen, because there were five more years of famine left. So Joseph supplied them Egyptian transport wagons, new garments, silver money, and twenty additional donkeys carrying provisions for the journey. (Genesis 45:1-28)
Thus, Jacob (also known as Israel) and his entire house of seventy, gathered up with all their livestock and began their journey to Egypt. As they approached Egyptian territory, Judah went ahead to ask Joseph where the caravan should unload. They were directed into the province of Goshen and Joseph readied his chariot to meet his father there. It had been over twenty years since Joseph had last seen his father. When they met, they embraced each other and wept together for quite a while. His father then remarked, “Now let me die, since I have seen your face, because you are still alive.” (Genesis 46:1-34)
Afterward, Joseph’s family personally met the Pharaoh of Egypt. The Pharaoh honored their stay and even proposed that if there were any qualified men in their house, then they may elect a chief herdsman to oversee Egyptian livestock. Because the Pharaoh had such a high regard for Joseph, practically making him his equal, it had been an honor to meet his father. Thus, Israel was able to bless the Pharaoh. (Genesis 47:1-47:12) The family was then settled in Goshen.
Father’s blessing and passingEdit
The house of Israel acquired many possessions and multiplied exceedingly during the course of seventeen years, even through the worst of the seven-year famine. At this time, Joseph’s father was 147 years old and bedridden. He had fallen ill and lost most of his vision. Joseph was called into his father’s house and Israel pleaded with his son that he not be buried in Egypt. Rather, he requested to be carried to the land of Canaan to be buried with his forefathers. Joseph was sworn to do as his father asked of him. (Genesis 47:27-31)
Later, Joseph came to visit his father having with him his two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. Israel declared that they would be heirs to the inheritance of the house of Israel, as if they were his own children, just as Reuben and Simeon were. Then Israel laid his left hand on the eldest Mannasseh’s head and his right hand on the youngest Ephraim’s head and blessed Joseph. However, Joseph was displeased that his father’s right hand was not on the head of his firstborn, so he switched his father’s hands. But Israel refused saying, “but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he.” A declaration he made just as Israel himself was to his firstborn brother Esau. To Joseph, he gave a portion more of Canaanite property than he had to his other sons; land that he fought for against the Amorites. (Genesis 48:1-22)
Then Israel called all of his sons in and prophesied their blessings or curses to all twelve of them in order of their ages. To Joseph he declared:
- "Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a well; His branches run over the wall. The archers have bitterly grieved him, Shot at him and hated him. But his bow remained in strength, And the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the Mighty God of Jacob (From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel), By the God of your father who will help you, And by the Almighty who will bless you With blessings of heaven above, Blessings of the deep that lies beneath, Blessings of the breasts and of the womb. The blessings of your father have excelled the blessings of my ancestors, Up to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills. They shall be on the head of Joseph, And on the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brothers.” - Genesis 49:22-26 NKJV
After relaying his prophecies, Israel died. The family, including the Egyptians, mourned him seventy days. Joseph had his father embalmed, a process that took forty days. Then he prepared a great ceremonial journey to Canaan leading the servants of the Pharaoh, and the elders of the houses Israel and Egypt beyond the Jordan River. They stopped at Atad where they observed seven days of mourning. Here, their lamentation was so great that it caught the attention of surrounding Canaanites who remarked “This is a deep mourning of the Egyptians.” So they named this spot Abel Mizraim. Then Joseph buried Israel in the cave of Machpelah, the property of Abraham when he bought it from the Hittites. (Genesis 49:33-50:14)
After their father died, the brothers of Joseph feared retribution for being responsible for Joseph’s deliverance into Egypt as a slave. Joseph wept as they spoke and told them that what had happened was God’s purpose to save lives and the lives of his family. He comforted them and their ties were reconciled. (Genesis 50:15-21)
Joseph lived to the age of 110, living to see his great-grandchildren. Before he died, he made the children of Israel swear that when they left the land of Egypt they would take his bones with them, and on his death his body was embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt. (Genesis 50:22-26)
The children of Israel remembered their oath, and when they left Egypt during the Exodus, Moses took Joseph's bones with him. (Exodus 13:19) The bones were buried at Shechem, in the parcel of ground which Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor (Joshua 24:32), which has traditionally been identified with site of Joseph's Tomb, before Jacob and all his family moved to Egypt. Shechem was in the land which was allocated by Joshua to the Tribe of Ephraim, one of the tribes of the House of Joseph, after the conquest of Canaan.
Biblical family treeEdit
|Ishmaelites||7 sons||Bethuel||1st daughter||2nd daughter|
The Bible offers two explanations of the name Yosef: first it is compared to the word asaf from the root /'sp/, "taken away": "And she conceived, and bore a son; and said, God hath taken away my reproach"; Yosef is then identified with the similar root /ysp/, meaning "add": "And she called his name Joseph; and said, The LORD shall add to me another son."
19th century source criticism divided the Joseph story between the Jahwist, Elohist and Priestly sources of the documentary hypothesis. In the early 20th century Hermann Gunkel suggested that, unlike the Abraham-Isaac-Jacob stories, the Joseph story formed a single unitary story with literary rather than oral origins. In 1953 Gerhard von Rad made a detailed assessment of its literary artistry and drew attention to its identity as a Wisdom novella, and in 1968 R. N. Whybray argued that unity and artistry implied a single author. All three insights are now widely accepted, and the majority of modern biblical scholars date the Joseph story in its current form to the 5th century BCE Persian era at the earliest. There have been many attempts to trace the story's redaction history including work by Donald Redford. His theory states that a first "Reuben version" of the story originated in the northern kingdom of Israel and was intended to justify the domination by the “house of Joseph” over the other tribes; this was followed by a later “Judah-expansion” (chapters 38 and 49) elevating Judah as the rightful successor to Jacob; and finally various embellishments were added so that the novella would function as the bridge between the Abraham-Isaac-Jacob material in Genesis and the following story of Moses and the Exodus.
The historicity of the Joseph narrative cannot be demonstrated. Hermann Gunkel, Hugo Gressmann and Gerhard von Rad identified the story of Joseph as a literary composition, in the genre of romance, or the novella. As a novella, it is read as reworking legends and myths, in particular the motifs of his reburial in Canaan, associated with the Egyptian god Osiris. Others compare the burial of his bones at Shechem, with the disposal of Dionysus’s bones at Delphi. For Schenke, the tradition of Joseph's burial at Shechem is understood as a secondary, Israelitic historical interpretation woven around a more ancient Canaanite shrine in that area. The reworked legends and folklore were probably inserted into the developing textual tradition of the Bible between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE. Most scholars place its composition in a genre that flourished in the Persian period of the Exile.
In the midrash, the selling of Joseph was part of God's divine plan for him to save his tribes. The favoritism Israel showed Joseph and the plot against him by his brothers were divine means of getting him into Egypt. Maimonides comments that even the villager in Shechem, about whom Joseph inquired his brother's whereabouts, was a "divine messenger" working behind the scene.
A midrash asked, How many times was Joseph sold? In analyzing Genesis Chapter 37, there are five different Hebrew names used to describe five different groups of people involved in the transaction of selling Joseph, according to Rabbi Judah and Rav Huna. The first group identified, are Joseph's brothers when Judah brings up the idea of selling Joseph in verses 26 and 27. The first mention of Ishmaelites (Yishma'elîm) is in verse 25. Then the Hebrew phrase ŉāshîm midyanîm sōĥrîm in verse 28 describes Midianite traders. A fourth group in verse 36 is named in Hebrew as m‘danîm that is properly identified as Medanites. The final group, where a transaction is made, is among the Egyptians in the same verse.
After identifying the Hebrew names, Rabbi Judah claims that Joseph was sold four times: First his brothers sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites (Yishma'elîm), then the Ishmaelites sold him to the Midianite traders (ŉāshîm midyanîm sōĥrîm), the Midianite traders to the Medanites (m‘danîm), and the Medanites into Egypt. Rav Huna adds one more sale by concluding that after the Medanites sold him to the Egyptians, a fifth sale occurred when the Egyptians sold him to Potiphar. (Genesis Rabbah 84:22)
Joseph had good reasons not to have an affair with Potiphar’s wife: he did not want to abuse his master’s trust; he believed in the sanctity of marriage; and it went against his ethical, moral and religious principles taught to him by his father Jacob. According to the midrash, Joseph would have been immediately executed by the sexual assault charge against him by Potiphar’s wife. Arbarbanel explains that she had accused other servants of the same crime in the past. Potiphar believed that Joseph was incapable of such an act and petitioned Pharaoh to spare his life. However, punishment could not have been avoided because of her class status and limited public knowledge of her scheme.
Silver cup for divinationEdit
Jewish tradition holds that Joseph had his steward plant his personal silver cup in Benjamin’s sack to test his brothers. He wanted to know if they would be willing to risk danger in order to save their half brother Benjamin. Since Joseph and Benjamin were born from Rachel, this test was necessary to reveal if they would betray Benjamin as they did with Joseph when he was seventeen. Because Joseph the Dreamer predicts the future by analyzing dreams, Jewish tradition attest that he practiced divination using this silver cup as the steward charged and as Joseph himself professed in Genesis 44:15.
In one Talmudic story, Joseph was buried in the Nile river, as there was some dispute as to which province should be honored by having his tomb within its boundaries. Moses, led there by an ancient holy woman named Serach, was able by a miracle to raise the sarcophagus and to take it with him at the time of the Exodus.
Joseph is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 26. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite, he is known as "Joseph the all-comely", a reference not only to his physical appearance, but more importantly to the beauty of his spiritual life. They commemorate him on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before Christmas) and on Holy and Great Monday (Monday of Holy Week). In icons, he is sometimes depicted wearing the nemes headdress of an Egyptian vizier. The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod commemorates him as a patriarch on March 31.
In addition to honoring him, there was a strong tendency in the patristic period to view his life as a typological precursor to Christ. This tendency is represented in John Chrysostom who said that Joseph's suffering was "a type of things to come," Caesarius of Arles who interpreted Joseph's famous coat as representative of the diverse nations who would follow Christ, Ambrose of Milan who interpreted the standing sheaf as prefiguring the resurrection of Christ, and others.
This tendency, although greatly diminished, was followed throughout late antiquity, the Medieval Era, and into the Reformation. Even John Calvin, sometimes hailed as the father of modern grammatico-historical exegesis, writes "in the person of Joseph, a lively image of Christ is presented."
In addition, some Christian authors have argued that this typological interpretation finds its origin in the speech of Saint Stephen in Acts 7:9-15, as well as the Gospel of Luke and the parables of Jesus, noting strong verbal and conceptual collocation between the Greek translation of the portion of Genesis concerning Joseph and the Parable of the Wicked Tenants and the Parable of the Prodigal Son.
Joseph (Arabic: يوسُف, Yūsuf) is regarded by Muslims as a prophet (Qur'an, suras vi. 84, xl. 34), and a whole chapter Yusuf (sura xii.) is devoted to him, the only instance in the Qur'an in which an entire chapter is devoted to a complete story of a prophet. It is described as the 'best of stories'. Joseph is said to have been extremely handsome, which attracted his Egyptian master's wife to attempt to seduce him. Muhammad is believed to have once said, "One half of all the beauty God apportioned for mankind went to Joseph and his mother; the other one half went to the rest of mankind." The story has the same general outlines as the biblical narrative, but with certain differences. In the Qur'an the brothers ask Jacob ("Yaqub") to let Joseph go with them. The pit into which Joseph is thrown is a well, and Joseph was taken as a slave by a passing caravan (Qur'an 12:19).
In the Bible, Joseph discloses himself to his brethren before they return to their father the second time after buying grain. The same is true in the Islamic story, but they are compelled to return to Jacob without Benjamin, and the father weeps himself blind. He remains so until the sons have returned from Egypt, bringing with them Joseph's garment which healed the patriarch's eyes as soon as he put it to his face (Qur'an 12:96).
There are numerous mentions of Joseph in Bahá'í writings. These come in the forms of allusions written by The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. In the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Bahá'u'lláh states that "from my laws, the sweet-smelling savour of my garment can be smelled" and, in the Four Valleys, states that "the fragrance of his garment blowing from the Egypt of Baha", referring to Joseph.
Bahá'í commentaries have described these as metaphors with the garment implying the recognition of a manifestation of God. In the Qayyumu'l-Asma', the Báb refers to Bahá'u'lláh as the true Joseph and makes an analogous prophecy regarding Bahá'u'lláh suffering at the hands of his brother, Mírzá Yahyá.
Literature and cultureEdit
- Thomas Mann retells the Genesis stories surrounding Joseph in his four novel omnibus, Joseph and His Brothers, identifying Joseph with the figure of Osarseph known from Josephus, and the pharaoh with Akhenaten.
- Joseph and his Brethren, 1743, an oratorio by George Frideric Handel.
- Josephslegende (The Legend of Joseph) is a 1914 work by Richard Strauss for the Ballets Russes
- The long-running musical Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice is loosely based on the biblical story of Joseph, up through Genesis chapter 46. It was adapted into a film in 1999 called Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat (film)
- In 1995, Turner Network Television released the made-for-television movie Joseph starring Ben Kingsley as Potiphar, Lesley Ann Warren as Potiphar's wife, Paul Mercurio as Joseph and Martin Landau as Jacob.
- In 2000, DreamWorks Animation released a direct-to-video animated musical film based on the life of Joseph, titled Joseph: King of Dreams.
- Yousuf e Payambar (film) or Joseph, the Prophet is an Iranian television series from 2008, directed by Farajullah Salahshur, which tells the story of Prophet Joseph from the Quran and Islamic traditions.
- The cultural impact of the Joseph story in early-modern times is discussed in: Bernhard Lang, Joseph in Egypt: A Cultural Icon from Grotius to Goethe. New Haven: Yale University Press 2009.
- Rappresentatione di Giuseppe e i suoi Fratelli / Joseph and his Brethren - a musical drama in three acts composed by Elam Rotem for ensemble Profeti della Quinta (2013, Pan Classics).
Dreams as motif and contribution to narrativeEdit
The motif of dreams/dream interpretation contributes to a strong story-like narrative. One can see the structure of a story develop with the distinct episodes containing the dream motif. The exposition contains Joseph’s beginnings as a dreamer; this leads him into trouble as, out of jealousy, his brothers sell him to into slavery. The next two instances of dream interpretation establish his reputation as a great interpreter of dreams; first, he begins in a low place, interpreting the dreams of prisoners. Then Joseph is summoned to interpret the dreams of Pharaoh himself. Impressed with Joseph’s interpretations, Pharaoh appoints him as second-in-command (Gen 41:41). This sets up the climax of the story, which many regard to be the moment Joseph reveals his identity to his brothers (Gen 45:3).
- A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament; Brown, Driver and Briggs.
- Redford 1970, p. 242.
- Blidstein, Prof. Dr. Gerald J. "Messiah in Rabbinic Thought". MESSIAH. Jewish Virtual Library and Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012
- Another possible translation is "coat with long sleeves" - see "A Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Bavli, Talmud Yerushalmi and Midrashic Literature", 1903. ISBN 1-932443-20-7
- Genesis 37:21-22
- Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 3.1, 2
- According to Josephus, Reuben tied a cord around Joseph and let him down gently into the pit. - Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 3.2.31
- The Septuagint sets his price at twenty pieces of gold; the Testament of Gad thirty of gold; the Hebrew and Samaritan twenty of silver; the Vulgar Latin thirty of silver; Josephus at twenty pounds
- According to Josephus, the brothers tore the coat to pieces then dipped it into goat’s blood. - Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 3.4.35
- Genesis 37:36, Genesis 39:1
- Josephus claims that Potiphar fell for his wife's crocodile tears though he did not believe Joseph capable of the crime. - Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 4.1-5
- Genesis 39:21-23
- Genesis 40:1-4
- Genesis 40:5-22
- Genesis 40:14-15
- Genesis 40:23
- Josephus refers to the name Zaphnath-Paaneah as Psothom Phanech meaning “the revealer of secrets” – Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 6.1.91
- Josephus refers to Potipherah (or Petephres) as the priest of Heliopolis. - Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 6.1.91
- Genesis 45:11
- Genesis 42:23
- William Whiston comments that Simeon was chosen as a pledge for the sons of Israel’s return to Egypt because of all the brothers that hated Joseph the most, was Simeon, according to the Testament of Simeon and the Testament of Zebulon. – Whiston. Works of Josephus: Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 6.4.110 (ISBN 0-913573-86-8), 1993, Commentarial note, p. 60
- Genesis 46:27
- Josephus has Joseph meeting his father Jacob in Heliopolis, a store-city with Pithom and Raamses, all located in the Egyptian country of Goshen. - Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews. Book II, 7.5.184
- Genesis 44:18
- Genesis 20:12: Sarah was the half–sister of Abraham.
- Genesis 22:21-22: Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, and Jidlaph
- Friedman, R.E., The Bible With Sources Revealed, (2003), p. 80
- Gunkel, H. Genesis (trans. ed. Mark E. Biddle), 1997, p. 387
- Michael V. Fox, “Wisdom in the Joseph Story” ([[Vetus Testamentum, Brill, 2001)]
- R.N. Whybray, “The Making of the Pentateuch: A Methodological Study” (Sheffield Academic Press, 1999) pp. 54–55
- J.A. Soggin, “Notes on the Joseph Story”, in “Understanding Poets and Prophets: Essays in Honour of George Wishart Anderson” (JSOTSupp 153, Sheffield Academic Press, 1993)
- J.A. Soggin, “An Introduction to the History of Israel and Judah” (1998, trans. John Bowden, SCM Press, 1999) pp. 102–03
- Donald Redford, "A Study of the Biblical Story of Joseph (Genesis 37-50)" (VTSupp 20, Brill, 1970)
- Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 174: ‘The majority of current scholars believe that the historicity of the Egyptian sojourn, exodus, and wilderness wandering that the Bible remembers cannot be demonstrated by historical methods.’
- de Hoop 1999, p. 420: ‘In conclusion, it is the question for evidence, principally falsifiable, that forms historical probability. This evidence is not found in narratives like the Joseph Story.
- de Hoop 1999, p. 412: ‘The departure from the historical approach, which sought for the exact period when Joseph rose to power, was mainly caused by the recognition of Gunkel, Greßmann, von Rad and others, that the Joseph story is a literary composition, a novella. Von Rad even stated that the Joseph Story ‘has no historical-political concern whatsoever, also a cult-aetiologic tendency is lacking, and we even miss a salvation-historical and theological orientation...the Joseph story with its clearly didactic tendency belongs to the ancient wisdom school’.’
- de Hoop 1999, p. 412.
- Louden 2011, p. 63‘Joseph’s myth has basic affinities with romance’.
- Sills 1997, pp. 172–74
- Redford 1993, pp. 422–29, p. 423: ‘as has long been realized, the Joseph story is in fact a novella or short story.
- Redford 1970, p. 66-58: ‘The Joseph story as Märchen-Novelle.’
- Völter 1909, p. 67
- Goldman 1995, p. 124
- Völter 1909, pp. 64–65: Die Erzählung aber, dass die Lade mit dem Leichnam des Joseph, nachdem sie lange in Aegypten geblieben war, beim Auszug von den Israeliten mitgenommen und nach Palästina gebracht worden sei, kann kaum etwas anderes bedeuten, als daß der Cultus eines toten, in einer Lade liegenden Gottes, der eigentlich in Aegypten zu Hause war, von den Israeliten übernommen worden ist, Dieser Gott is Osiris.’
- Rivka 2009, pp. 113–14: Joseph’s double burial, and his first resting place in the Nile, shares several motifs extant in the Egyptian Osiris myth.
- Schenke 1968, p. 174: ‘die Tradition von seinem Grab bei Sichen kann also nur als sekundäre Israelitische, nämlich geschichtliche Deutung eines älteren kanaanäischen Heiligtums bzw. heiligen Platzes verstanden werden.’
- Sperling 2003, p. 98 writes:'there are no compelling linguistic or historical reasons to date the story later than the ninth to eighth century of the first millennium B.C.E.’
- Smith 1984, pp. 243–44 n.1, 268: ’a romance, of the ancient genre of romantic-religious novellae that revived in the Hellenistic world...the first great example in Israelite literature is the Joseph romance.’; ‘The old peasant stories of the Patriarchs and Joshua (heroes of holy places at Bethel, Hebron Beersheba and Shechem) had doubtless long been collected in cycles and may, before Persian times, have been connected with some or all of the other elements in the hexateuchal narrative, myths about the beginning of the world, the flood and so on, the Joseph romance, nomads’ tales of Moses, and stories about the conquest of the country. These components are clear; how they were put together is hazy; but most scholars would agree that the Jerusalem priests of the Persian period were the final editors who gave the material substantially its present form...and rewrote many stories to serve their own purposes, usually as legal precedents.’
- Redford 1970, p. 242:’several episodes in the narrative, and the plot motifs themselves, find some parallel in Saite, Persian, or Ptolemaic Egypt. It is the sheer weight of evidence, and not the argument from silence, that leads to the conclusion that the seventh century B.C. is the terminus a quo for the Egyptian background to the Joseph Story. If we assign the third quarter of the fifth century B.C.E. as the terminus ante quem, we are left with a span of two and one half centuries, comprising in terms of Egyptian history the Saite and early Persian periods.’
- Redford 1993, p. 429: ’the Biblical Joseph story was a novella created sometime during the seventh or sixth century B.C. (the end of the Judean monarchy or the Exile).
- Wright 1973, pp. 113–14
- Finkelstein & Silberman 2001, pp. 37,67: ‘The camel carrying “gum, balm, and myrrh,” in the Joseph story reveals an obvious familiarity with the main products of the lucrative Arabian trade that flourished under the supervision of the Assyrian empire in the eighth-seventh centuries BCE.’:’A seventh century BCE background is also evident in some of the peculiar Egyptian names mentioned in the Joseph story.’
- Scharfstein, S. Torah and Commentary: The Five Books of Moses (ISBN 1602800200, ISBN 978-1-60280-020-5), 2008, p.124
- Scharfstein, 2008, p. 120
- Scharfstein, 2008, pp. 125–26
- Genesis 44:15
- Scharfstein, 2008, pp. 138–39
- Smith, Kathryn (1993), "History, Typology and Homily: The Joseph Cycle in the Queen Mary Psalter", Gesta, University of Chicago Press, 32 (2): 147–59, ISSN 0016-920X, JSTOR 767172, doi:10.2307/767172
- Chrysostom, John (1992), Homilies on Genesis, 46-47, trans. Robert C. Hill, Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, p. 191
- Sheridan, Mark (2002), Genesis 11-50, Downers Grove: InterVarsity, p. 231
- Sheridan, Mark (2002), Genesis 11-50, Downers Grove: InterVarsity, p. 233
- Blacketer, Raymond (2006), "The School of God: Pedagogy and Rhetoric in Calvin's Interpretation of Deuteronomy", Studies in Early Modern Religious Reforms, 3, pp. 3–4
- Calvin, John (1998), Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis, 2, Grand Rapids: Baker, p. 261
- Lunn, Nicholas (March 2012), "Allusions to the Joseph Narrative in the Synoptic Gospels and Acts: Foundations of a Biblical Type" (PDF), Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Evangelical Theological Society: 27–41, ISSN 0360-8808
- Quran 12:3
- Tottli 2002, p. 120
- Quran 12:1
- Quran 12:12
- Quran 12:19
- Differences of Tradition
- Naghdy, Fazel (2012), A Tutorial on the Kitab-i-iqan: A Journey Through the Book of Certitude, Fazel Naghdy, p. 563, ISBN 978-1466311008
- Kugel, James L. (1990). In Potiphar's house: the interpretive life of biblical texts. Harvard University Press. pg 13
- Redford, Donald B. (1970). A study of the biblical story of Joseph: (Genesis 37–50). Supplements to Vetus Testamentum. 20. Leiden: Brill. pg 69
- Lang, Bernhard. (2009). Joseph in Egypt: a cultural icon from Grotius to Goethe. Yale University Press. pg 23
- de Hoop, Raymond (1999). Genesis 49 in its literary and historical context. Oudtestamentische studiën, Oudtestamentisch Werkgezelschap in Nederland. 39. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-10913-1.
- Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Genung, Matthew C. (2017). The Composition of Genesis 37: Incoherence and Meaning in the Exposition of the Joseph Story. Forschungen zum Alten Testament 2. Reihe. 95. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-155150-5.
- Goldman, Shalom (1995). The wiles of women/the wiles of men: Joseph and Potiphar's wife in ancient Near Eastern, Jewish, and Islamic folklore. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-2683-8.
- Louden, Bruce (2011). "The Odyssey and the myth of Joseph; Autolykos and Jacob". Homer's Odyssey and the Near East. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–104. ISBN 978-0-521-76820-7.
- Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0.
- Redford, Donald B. (1970). A study of the biblical story of Joseph: (Genesis 37–50). Leiden: Brill.
- Redford, Donald B. (1993) . Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00086-2.
- Rivka, Ulmer (2009). Egyptian cultural icons in Midrash. Studia Judaica. 52. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022392-7. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Schenke, Hans-Martin (1967). "Jacobsbrunnen-Josephsgrab-Sychar. Topographische Untersuchungen und Erwägungen in der Perspektive von Joh. 4,5.6". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 84 (2): 159–84.
- Sills, Deborah (1997). "Strange Bedfellows: Politics and Narrative in Philo". In Breslauer, S. Daniel. The seductiveness of Jewish myth: challenge or response?. SUNY series in Judaica. SUNY. pp. 171–90. ISBN 978-0-7914-3602-8. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Smith, Morton (1984). "Jewish religious life in the Persian period". In Davies,, William David; Finkelstein, Louis. The Cambridge History of Judaism: Introduction; The Persian period. SUNY series in Judaica. Cambridge University Press. pp. 219–78. ISBN 978-0-521-21880-1. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Sperling, S. David (2003). The Original Torah: The Political Intent of the Bible's Writers. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9833-1. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Völter, Daniel (1909). Aegypten und die Bibel: die Urgeschichte Israels im Licht der aegyptischen Mythologie (4th ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. Retrieved 8 September 2011.