West Chadic languages

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The West Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken principally in Niger and Nigeria. They include Hausa, the most populous Chadic language and a major language of West Africa.

West Chadic
Nigeria, Niger
Linguistic classificationAfro-Asiatic
West Chadic Languages.jpg
West Chadic per Newman (1977)
Main Chadic-speaking peoples in Nigeria.
Hausa-speaking areas in Nigeria and Niger


The branches of West Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format.[2]

In addition, Poki is unclassified within West Chadic.

Internal structureEdit

George Starostin's (2010) internal classification of West Chadic[7] as presented in Blažek (2010):[8]


Distributions of West Chadic branches:[9]

Branch Code Primary locations
Distributions of West Chadic branches[9]
Hausa–Gwandara A1 Northern Nigeria and Niger
Bole–Tangale A2 Darazo LGA, Bauchi State; Yobe, Taraba, Gombe, Borno states
Angas A3 Shendam and Mangu LGAs, Plateau State
Ron A4 Mangu LGA, Plateau State
Bade B1 Bade LGA, Borno State
Warji B2 Darazo and Ningi LGAs, Bauchi State
Barawa B3 Bauchi State (Toro, Dass, Tafawa Balewa, Bauchi LGAs)


Although no full reconstruction of West Chadic has been published, reconstructions of numerals for West Chadic and its subgroups have been proposed by Václav Blažek (2018).[8]


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "West Chadic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Blench, Roger. 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List (ms)
  3. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). "Jakato: an undocumented language of Central Nigeria".
  4. ^ a b Blench, Roger. 2017. Current research on the A3 West Chadic languages.
  5. ^ Blench, Roger. Comparative Ron wordlist.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger. 2012. Linguistic and cultural background to the North Bauchi region and the Wiihə people.
  7. ^ Starostin, George. 2010. Afroasiatic classification: preliminary results of the modified glottochronological test. Manuscript.
  8. ^ a b Blažek, Václav. 2018. The numerals of West Chadic. Topics in Chadic Linguistics IX. Papers from the 8th Biennial International Colloquium on the Chadic Languages, Bayreuth, February 4-5, 2016.
  9. ^ a b Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.

External linksEdit