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The National Union–Tkuma (Hebrew: האיחוד הלאומי-תקומה, HaIchud HaLeumi–Tkuma) and until 2013, simply Tkuma, is an Orthodox Jewish, religious Zionist, far-right political party in Israel.

National Union–Tkuma

האיחוד הלאומי–תקומה
ChairmanBezalel Smotrich
Secretary-GeneralOfir Sofer
Founded1998
Split fromNational Religious Party
IdeologyReligious Zionism
Ultranationalism[1]
Religious conservatism
Social conservatism
National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Political positionFar-right[2]
ReligionOrthodox Judaism
National affiliationNational Union (1999–2013)
The Jewish Home (2013–2019)
Union of Right-Wing Parties (2019–present)[3]
Yamina (2019)
Seats in Knesset
2 / 120
Most MKs5 (2013)
Election symbol
ט
Website
www.ichudleumi.org.il

BackgroundEdit

Tkuma was established by Hanan Porat and Zvi Hendel in 1998. The pair left the National Religious Party in reaction to the Wye Memorandum[4] Almost immediately after the creation of Tkuma, it joined together with Moledet and Herut – The National Movement, to form the National Union, a big tent of religious and secular far right parties in Israel which won four seats in the 1999 elections, with only one of those seats going to Tkuma. These elections were a failure for the right-wing bloc, and were won by Ehud Barak, leaving the National Union and Tkuma in the opposition.[5] In February 2000, Yisrael Beiteinu joined the National Union alongside Tkuma, and the two parties joined Ariel Sharon's first government in 2001. One year later, Tkuma and the rest of the National Union left Sharon's government over disagreements over the handling of the Second Intifada. For the 2003 elections, the National Union kept its alliance with Yisrael Beiteinu, with its increased support helping to win seven seats for the entire list, and two for Tkuma. The party was included in Ariel Sharon's coalition, alongside Likud, Shinui, the National Religious Party and Yisrael BaAliyah.[6]

Because of tensions over the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip (Tkuma was ideologically opposed, and Hendel lived in the Gaza settlement of Ganei Tal), National Union ministers Binyamin Elon and Avigdor Lieberman were sacked and the party left the coalition. However, the National Union was bolstered by the addition of Ahi, which had split off from the National Religious Party when they decided to remain in the coalition.[7]

Before the 2006 elections, the alliance between the National Union and Yisrael Beiteinu was dissolved, and a new alliance between the National Union and the National Religious Party was formed, which won nine seats, two of which were allocated to Tkuma and taken by Hendel and Uri Ariel.[8]

On 3 November 2008, ahead of the 2009 elections, Tkuma faced a crisis. The party itself announced that it would unite with Ahi, the National Religious Party, and Moledet to form a new right-wing party,[9] which was later named the Jewish Home. However, around half of the former Tkuma members later left the new party to re-establish Tkuma and rejoin the National Union alongside Moledet, Hatikva, and Eretz Yisrael Shelanu.[10] In the elections themselves, the National Union got four seats, with Tkuma getting two seats.

Ahead of the 2013 elections, the National Union split, with all member parties except for Tkuma splitting off to form Otzma LeYisrael, leaving Tkuma as the only party left in the National Union. Tkuma proceeded to change its name to "National Union–Tkuma". The party opted to run as part of the Jewish Home list for the 2013 elections. The joint list won 12 seats, four of which (Ariel, Ben-Dahan, Kalfa, and Strook) were nominated by the Tkuma central committee. The party decided to continue its alliance with the Jewish Home for the 2015 Knesset elections,[11] taking the 2nd, 8th, 13th, and 17th spots on the joint list.[12] The Jewish Home dropped to eight seats in that election.[13]

In 2019, Bezalel Smotrich took over party leadership, winning party elections in a landslide against Ariel.[14] The party's secretary general is Ofir Sofer.[15] Ahead of the April 2019 elections, the party joined with the Jewish Home and Otzma Yehudit to create the Union of Right-Wing Parties, which won five seats in the elections, two of which went to National Union–Tkuma.

Ahead of the September 2019 elections, National Union–Tkuma and the Jewish Home agreed to form an alliance with the New Right called Yamina[16], with National Union–Tkuma leader Smotrich receiving the 3rd spot on the joint list.[17]

IdeologyEdit

Tkuma is against territorial concessions. Some members support the annexation of the entire West Bank, though the official policy of the Jewish Home parliamentary faction, of which the party aligned with in the 2013, 2015, and 2019 Israeli elections, supports only annexation of Area C of the West Bank.[18] The party is considered to be far-right.[19] The party is opposed to recognition of same-sex couples on a religious basis.[20]

LeadersEdit


Leader Took office Left office
1   Hanan Porat 1998 1999
2   Zvi Hendel 1999 2009
3   Ya'akov Katz 2009 2012
4   Uri Ariel 2012 2019
5   Bezalel Smotrich 2019 Current

Knesset election resultsEdit

Election Leader Votes % Seats +/– Status
1999 Hanan Porat Part of the National Union
1 / 120
Opposition (until 2001)
Coalition government (from 2001)
2003 Zvi Hendel Part of the National Union
2 / 120
  1 Coalition government (until 2004)
Opposition (from 2004)
2006 Zvi Hendel Part of the National UnionNRP
2 / 120
  Opposition
2009 Ya'akov Katz Part of the National Union
2 / 120
  Opposition
2013 Uri Ariel Part of the Jewish Home
4 / 120
  2 Coalition government
2015 Uri Ariel Part of the Jewish Home
2 / 120
  2 Coalition government
April 2019 Bezalel Smotrich Part of the URWP
2 / 120
  Snap election
September 2019 Bezalel Smotrich Part of Yamina
2 / 120
  TBD

Knesset membersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Election Polls: 6-14 Seats for Bennett and Shaked's New Right-wing Party, Labor Party Crashes". Haaretz. 30 December 2018.
  2. ^ In the Lead-up to the ‘Deal of the Century,’ State Department Report Codifies Administration’s Middle East Policy International Policy Digest, 24 April 2018
  3. ^ Hezki Baruch (21 February 2019). "'Union of the Right-Wing Parties' submits Knesset list". Israel National News. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Parliamentary Groups in the Knesset".
  5. ^ "Israeli Election Results- May 1999".
  6. ^ "Factional and Government Make-Up of the Sixteenth Knesset".
  7. ^ Shulman, Robin (5 June 2004). "Sharon Fires Two Who Oppose Gaza Plan". The Washington Post.
  8. ^ "Mergers and Splits Among Parliamentary Groups".
  9. ^ Meranda, Amnon (3 November 2008). "Right-wing parties unite". Ynetnews. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  10. ^ "Hatikva Party courts Tkuma as hard-line factions fracture - Israel - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  11. ^ Ezra, Hezki (20 December 2014). "Tekuma Decides: No Split from Jewish Home". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  12. ^ Avi Lewis (12 January 2015). "Jewish Home faction Tekumah selects Knesset candidates". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  13. ^ "ועדת הבחירות המרכזית לכנסת ה-20 | תוצאות ארציות". web.archive.org. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  14. ^ Magid, Jacob (14 January 2019). "Hardliner Smotrich wins race to lead influential Jewish Home sub-faction". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  15. ^ "'All cities in the Galilee will become mixed'". Israel National News. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  16. ^ Staff writer (12 August 2019). "United Right to run under name 'Yemina'". Arutz Sheva.
  17. ^ Staff (29 July 2019). "New Right, United Right reach final agreement on joint run". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  18. ^ Raphael Ahren (12 March 2015). "From annexation to right of return: What the parties say about the Palestinians". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  19. ^ Shamir, Michal; Rahat, Gideon (23 May 2017). The Elections in Israel 2015. Routledge. ISBN 9781351621083.
  20. ^ "Religious-Zionist rabbi: LGBT culture is a 'spreading sickness'". Ynetnews. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  21. ^ "2015 Elections". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 9 August 2017.

External linksEdit