List of political parties in Israel
A typical Knesset includes a large number of factions represented. This is because of the low election threshold required for a seat–1 percent of the vote from 1949 to 1992, 1.5 percent from 1992 to 2003, 2 percent from 2003 to 2014, and 3.25 percent since 2015. In the 2015 elections, for instance, 10 parties or alliances cleared the threshold, and five of them won at least 10 seats. The low threshold, in combination with the nationwide party-list system, makes it all but impossible for a single party to win the 61 seats needed for a majority government. No party has ever won a majority of seats in an election, the most being 56, won by the Alignment grouping in the 1969 elections (the Alignment had briefly held a majority of seats before the elections following its formation in January 1969).
Parties represented in the KnessetEdit
The following parties are represented following the April 2019 election:
The following parties do not have Knesset seats at present:
- Ale Yarok
- Am Shalem
- Brit Olam
- Da'am Workers Party, Organization for Democratic Action
- Eretz Hadasha
- Kadima (held seats from 2005 to 2015)
- Koah HaKesef
- Koah LeHashpi'a
- Lev LaOlim
- Man's Rights in the Family Party
- Magen Yisrael (Shield of Israel)
- Meimad (held seats between 1999 and 2009 as part of One Israel alliance)
- New Horizon
- New Right
- Otzma Yehudit (held seats between 2012 and 2013 after breaking away from the National Union, then under the name Otzma LeYisrael; ran unsuccessfully as a part of Yachad list in 2015 elections)
- Piratim-The Pirate Party of Israel
- Ihud Bnei HaBrit (United Allies)
- The Greens
- Tzomet (held seats between 1987 and 1999; in 1996 elections formed a joint "National Camp List" with the Likud and Gesher)
- U'Bizchutan— founded in 2015 as an Orthodox Jewish women's party 
- Yisrael Hazaka
- Yisrael HaMithadeshet
Parties formerly represented in the KnessetEdit
Parties that failed to win seats in the KnessetEdit
- Hatzohar—the original Revisionist Zionist party, disbanded after failing to cross the electoral threshold in the 1949 elections.
- Popular Arab Bloc—Arab satellite list that ran in the 1949 elections.
- Tafnit—ran in the 2006 elections.
- Women's Party—ran in the 1977 elections.
- Yamin Yisrael—broke away from Moledet, another right-wing party, prior to 1996 elections, but failed to cross the electoral threshold.
The following parties changed their names
- Banai became Tehiya-Bnai then Tehiya
- Emunim became Tkuma
- Equality in Israel-Panthers became the Unity Party
- Flatto-Sharon became Development and Peace
- Hitkhabrut became the Renewed Religious National Zionist Party, then Ahi
- Israel in the Centre became the Centre Party
- Meretz became Yachad then Meretz-Yachad, then Meretz again
- Movement for Change and Initiative became Shinui
- Mizrachi-Hapoel HaMizrachi became the National Religious Front, then Mafdal (National Religious Party), then The Jewish Home
- National Responsibility became Kadima
- National Unity - National Progressive Alliance became Progressive National Alliance
- Parliamentary Group of Bronfman and Tsinker became Makhar, then the Democratic Choice
- Party for the Advancement of the Zionist Idea became the New Liberal Party
- Rafi – National List became Ometz
- Rakah became Maki
- Secular Faction became Hetz
- Social-Democratic Faction became the Independent Socialist Faction
- Shinui - Centre Party became Shinui - the Secular Movement, then Shinui - Party for the Secular and the Middle Class, but is generally known as Shinui
Zionist youth movementsEdit
- Betar (associated with Herut and then Likud)
- Bnei Akiva (Sons of Akiva, associated with Mafdal (National Religious Party))
- Habonim Dror (The Builders - Freedom, socialist Zionist youth movement associated with the Israeli Labor Party)
- Hashomer Hatzair (The Young Guard, socialist Zionist youth movement associated with Mapam and unofficially with Meretz)
- Magshimey Herut (associated with Herut)
- HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed (The Learning and Working Youth, socialist Zionist youth movement, sister movement to Habonim Dror, associated with the Israeli Labor Party and the Histadrut)
- Noar Avoda (Labour Youth, associated with Labour)
- Noar Moledet (Moledet Youth, associated with Moledet)
- Young Meretz (for 18- to-35-year-olds) and Meretz Youth for under 18s, associated with Meretz)
- Noar Meir and the Hilltop Youth (associated with Kach and its various successor parties)
- Daniel Tauber (13 August 2010). "Ze'ev Jabotinsky (1880–1940)". Likud Anglos. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011.
Jabotinsky's movement and teachings, which can be characterized as national-liberalism, form the foundation of the Likud party.
- McGann, James G.; Johnson, Erik C. (2005). Comparative Think Tanks, Politics and Public Policy. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 241. ISBN 9781781958995.
The Likud Party, the party of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, is a national-liberal party, while the Labor Party, led by Shimon Peres, is more left-wing and identified as social-democratic.
- "Israel - Political Parties". GlobalSecurity.org. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
The two main political parties—Likud, essentially national-liberal and Labor, essentially social-democratic—have historical roots and traditions pre-dating the establishment of the State in 1948.
- "Meet the parties - Likud". Haaretz. 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
A national-liberal political movement (center-right, in Israeli terms) that was established as an alliance of parties that united into a single party in 1984.
- Langford, Barry (2017). All Together Now. Biteback Publishing.
Netanyahu, leader of the right-wing populist party Likud, ran for re-election
- Being Israeli: The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship. Cambridge University Press. 2002. p. 30.
The resentment of these two social sectors, coupled with the new elite's incompetence, enabled the right-wing, populist Likud to take over in 1977.
- "How Tali and her friendly assassin united Israel". Sydney Morning Herald. 11 September 2004.
She was brought up by a hard-working Moroccan Jewish mother in the poor southern town of Kiryat Gat, a heartland of the right-wing populist Likud party.
- Joel Greenberg (22 November 1998). "The World: Pursuing Peace; Netanyahu and His Party Turn Away from 'Greater Israel'". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
Likud, despite defections, had joined Labor in accepting the inevitability of territorial compromise.... Revolutionary as it may seem, Likud's abandonment of its maximalist vision has in fact been evolving for years.
- Ethan Bronner (20 February 2009). "Netanyahu, Once Hawkish, Now Touts Pragmatism". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
Likud as a party has made a major transformation in the last 15 years from being rigidly committed to retaining all the land of Israel to looking pragmatically at how to retain for Israel defensible borders in a very uncertain Middle East....
- Amnon Rapoport (1990). Experimental Studies of Interactive Decisions. Kluwer Academic. p. 413. ISBN 0792306856.
Likud is a liberal-conservative party that gains much of its support from the lower and middle classes, and promotes free enterprise, nationalism, and expansionism.
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- Carol Migdalovitz (18 May 2006). "Israel: Background and Relations with the United States]" (PDF). CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Elshout, Jan (2011). "It's a Myth That Israelis Support a Two-State Solution". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (March 2011): 24 f.
- "Bringing the Zionist Dream to Life". yisraelbeytenu.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "Yisrael Beiteinu supports the advancement of free-market economic policies". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
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- Arieff, Irwin (2011). "Middle East Peace Prospects: Is There Any Hope for Long-Term Peace". Issues in Peace and Conflict Studies: Selections From CQ Researcher. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. p. 217. doi:10.4135/9781483349244.n8. ISBN 9781412992916.
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- Melanie J. Wright (2013). Studying Judaism: The Critical Issues. A&C Black. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4725-3888-8. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Two Israeli parties join forces against Netanyahu". Associated Press. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Israel election: Who are the key candidates?, BBC (14 March 2015)
- Bernard Avishai, Kerry's Miscalculation on the U.N. Palestine Resolutions, The New Yorker, 31 December 2014
- Jacob Wirtschafter, Israel’s election: It’s the economy, stupid, Jewish Journal, 16 March 2015
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- Ari Shavit (1 January 2015). "Longing for Likud". Haaretz. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
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- Peleg, Ilan; Waxman, Dov (2011). Israel's Palestinians: The Conflict Within. Cambridge University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0521157025.
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- Guide to Israel's political parties, BBC, 21 January 2013
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