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September 2019 Israeli legislative election

Snap legislative elections were held in Israel on 17 September 2019 to elect the 120 members of the twenty-second Knesset. Following the previous elections in April, incumbent Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu failed to form a governing coalition, the first such failure in Israeli history.[1] On 30 May, the Knesset voted to dissolve itself and trigger new elections, in order to prevent Blue and White party leader Benny Gantz from being appointed Prime Minister-designate.[2] This election was the first time that the Knesset voted to dissolve itself before a government had been formed.[3]

September 2019 Israeli legislative election
Israel
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All 120 seats in the Knesset
61 seats needed for a majority
Turnout69.4%
Reporting
98%
as of 10:40, 19 September 2019 UTC+2
Party Leader % Seats ±
Blue and White Benny Gantz 25.9% 32 -3
Likud Benjamin Netanyahu 25.1% 31 -7
Joint List Ayman Odeh 10.5% 13 +3
Shas Aryeh Deri 7.5% 9 +1
Yisrael Beiteinu Avigdor Lieberman 7.0% 9 +4
UTJ Yaakov Litzman 6.1% 8 0
Yamina Ayelet Shaked 5.9% 7 +1
Labor-Gesher Amir Peretz 4.8% 6 0
Democratic Union Nitzan Horowitz 4.3% 5 +1
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Prime Minister before
Benjamin Netanyahu 2018.jpg Benjamin Netanyahu (interim)
Likud

BackgroundEdit

Following the April 2019 elections, Likud leader and incumbent Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had until the end of 29 May to form a governing coalition, including a two-week extension granted by President Reuven Rivlin.[4] Though the deadline passed without a coalition being formed and Rivlin would have been tasked with appointing a new Prime Minister-designate, presumed to be Blue and White party head Benny Gantz,[5] Netanyahu successfully pushed to dissolve the Knesset to avoid this.[6]

Negotiations between Netanyahu and a number of potential coalition partners stalled.[7] One sticking point between Netanyahu and Yisrael Beitenu leader Avigdor Lieberman was the passage of a draft law which is opposed by the Haredi parties in the coalition.[8] The law would remove the current exemption of yeshiva students from conscription.[9] Netanyahu needed both Yisrael Beitenu and the Haredi parties in his coalition in order to have enough seats to form a majority.[10]

As an alternative, Netanyahu approached Labor about the possibility of their support, but they rejected the offer. Meanwhile, Netanyahu's legal troubles overshadowed further possible coalition negotiations, with Blue and White refusing to work with him in the circumstances. The new elections also mean that Netanyahu's proposed immunity law cannot proceed for now.[11]

On 28 May, the Knesset passed on first reading a bill which would dissolve the Knesset and force a snap election. This move was intended to place additional pressure on coalition partners to reach an agreement in time, as well as to prevent Gantz from being given the opportunity to put together a coalition should the deadline pass.[12][5] Later that day, the committee approved the bill for second and third reading.[13]

Late in the evening on 29 May, it was announced that talks had failed. That night, and into the morning of 30 May, the Knesset passed second and third readings of the bill to dissolve itself and force a snap election with a vote of 74 in favour to 45 against.[14] The 45 votes against the resolution came from the entire membership of three parties: the Blue and White alliance (35 votes), Labor party (6 votes), and the Meretz party (4 votes). All other Knesset members voted for the resolution, with the exception of Roy Folkman, who was absent.[6]

The date for the election was 17 September 2019.[2]

Electoral systemEdit

The 120 seats in the Knesset are elected by closed list proportional representation in a single nationwide constituency. The electoral threshold for the election is 3.25%. In most cases, this implies a minimum party size of four seats, but it is mathematically possible for a party to pass the electoral threshold and have only three seats (since 3.25% of 120 members = 3.9 members).[15]

Surplus-vote agreementsEdit

Two parties can sign an agreement that allows them to compete for leftover seats as though they are running together on the same list. The Bader–Ofer method disproportionately favors larger lists, meaning that such an alliance is more likely to receive leftover seats than both of its comprising lists would be individually. If the alliance receives leftover seats, the Bader–Ofer calculation is then applied privately, to determine how the seats are divided among the two allied lists.[16] The following agreements were signed by parties prior to the election:

PartiesEdit

Parliamentary factionsEdit

The table below lists the parliamentary factions represented in the 21st Knesset.

Name Ideology Primary demographic Leader April 2019 result
Votes (%) Seats
Likud National conservatism
National liberalism
Benjamin Netanyahu 26.46%
35 / 120
Blue and White Big tent
Liberalism
Benny Gantz, Yair Lapid 26.13%
35 / 120
Shas Religious conservatism
Populism
Sephardi and
Mizrahi Haredim
Aryeh Deri 5.99%
8 / 120
United Torah Judaism Religious conservatism Ashkenazi Haredim Yaakov Litzman 5.78%
8 / 120
HadashTa'al Communism
Arab nationalism
Israeli Arabs Ayman Odeh 4.49%
6 / 120
Labor Social democracy Avi Gabbay 4.43%
6 / 120
Yisrael Beiteinu Nationalism
Secularism
Russian-speakers Avigdor Lieberman 4.01%
5 / 120
Union of Right-wing Parties Religious Zionism
Religious conservatism
Modern Orthodox and
Chardal Jews
Rafi Peretz 3.70%
5 / 120
Meretz Social democracy
Secularism
Tamar Zandberg 3.63%
4 / 120
Kulanu Economic egalitarianism Moshe Kahlon 3.54%
4 / 120
Ra'amBalad Islamism
Arab nationalism
Israeli Arabs Mansour Abbas 3.33%
4 / 120

Contesting partiesEdit

The Likud (election symbol: מחל) was tied with Blue and White for the largest political party in the 21st Knesset, with 35 of the 120 seats. It is the party of Israel's current prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, who is seeking to gain more power to build a government after failing to do so following the April election. Prior to the September election, the Likud and Kulanu parties announced on 29 May their intention to run together in the new election.[21] Kulanu officially dissolved itself and its remaining members joined the Likud on 31 July,[22] bringing Likud's Knesset representation up to 38 seats.[23]

The Blue and White (election symbol: פה) alliance was created ahead of the April 2019 election and ended up being tied with Likud for the largest political party in the 21st Knesset, with 35 seats. Despite suggestions that the alliance should make changes due to their failure to achieve a majority in the April election, the alliance confirmed on 2 June 2019 that it will keep the same rotating premiership of Benny Gantz and Yair Lapid as in the previous election.[24] The party decided to run with the almost exact same list as they did in the April elections. Blue and White has ruled out sitting with Benjamin Netanyahu, due to the corruption investigations against him; however, it has not ruled out creating a National unity government with Likud if it replaced Netanyahu.[25]

The Joint List (election symbol: ודעם) alliance (which was dissolved ahead of the April 2019 elections) was reformed ahead of the September 2019 elections. It is made up of four ideologically diverse Arab Israeli parties, who together had 10 seats in the 21st Knesset. The Ra'am, Hadash, and Ta'al factions announced on 27 July that the alliance would be re-established,[26] Balad decided to join the next day.[27] The list is led by Hadash Chairman Ayman Odeh, who also led the alliance in the 2015 election. Odeh said that he is open to cooperation with Blue and White, but would not join their coalition.[28]

Shas (election symbol: שס) was the third largest political party in the 21st Knesset, with eight seats. Shas is led by Minister of Interior Aryeh Deri. Shas is a Mizrahi and Sephardi Haredi party, primarily concerned with rights and funding for those demographics. Shas declared early on that it was going to support Benjamin Netanyahu for prime minister, and ruled out sitting with Blue and White, due to disagreements with Blue and White leader Yair Lapid.[29]

United Torah Judaism (UTJ) (election symbol: ג) was the fourth largest political alliance in the 21st Knesset, with eight seats. UTJ is an alliance of two Ashkenazi Haredi parties (Agudat Yisrael and Degel HaTorah), and is mainly concerned with preserving funding and rights for their sector of the population. UTJ is led by Deputy Minister of Health Yaakov Litzman. Much like its Mizrahi counterpart Shas, UTJ declared early on that it was going to support Benjamin Netanyahu for prime minister, and ruled out sitting with Blue and White, due to disagreements with Blue and White leader Yair Lapid.[30]

The Labor-Gesher (election symbol: אמת) alliance includes the Labor party, which was the sixth largest party in the 21st Knesset with six seats, and Gesher, a party led by Orly Levy-Abekasis which did not pass the electoral threshold in the April election. Due to its collapse in the April election, Labor held its leadership primary on 2 July, which was won by Amir Peretz.[31] Following his victory, Peretz rejected merging into a greater leftist bloc and declared that he wanted to bring in new crowds to the party, and it was announced on 18 July 2019 that Labor and Gesher will run on a joint list,[32] with seven seats on the list reserved for Labor and three for Gesher.[33]

Yisrael Beiteinu (election symbol: ל) was the seventh largest party in the 21st Knesset, with five seats. The party has been led since its founding by Avigdor Lieberman, and it is running with the same list it presented in the April election. Lieberman sparked the repeat election by refusing to join Netanyahu's coalition, citing differences with the Haredi parties over drafting Haredi into the military. Due to his opposition to Netanyahu's Haredi coalition partners, Lieberman has declared that he will only support a unity government between Likud and Blue & White.[34]

Yamina[35] (election symbol: טב) is an alliance of several Religious Zionist parties headed by Ayelet Shaked. It is made up of the Union of Right-wing Parties, which was the eighth largest party in the Knesset with five seats, and the New Right, which did not pass the electoral threshold. After long-winded negotiations between the two factions, URWP leader Rafi Peretz agreed on 28 July to give Ayelet Shaked the number one spot on the United Right list.[36] The next day, an agreement between the Union of Right-wing Parties and the New Right was announced.[37] The two parties of the URWP, National Union–Tkuma[38] and The Jewish Home,[39] both voted on and approved the run with the New Right on 31 July. Part of the deal stipulated that the list would support Benjamin Netanyahu for the position of prime minister, despite resistance to this from the New Right.[37]

The Democratic Union (election symbol: מרצ) alliance includes several left-wing parties, who decided to run together in the September elections. The alliance was announced on 25 July 2019 and is led by Nitzan Horowitz. It will be made up of Meretz, the ninth largest party in the 21st Knesset with four seats, the new Israel Democratic Party formed by former prime minister Ehud Barak, Israeli Labor Party defector Stav Shaffir, and the extra-parliamentary Green Movement. The alliance declared that it would not sit with Netanyahu under any circumstances.[40]

Otzma Yehudit (election symbol: כף) was part of the Union of Right-wing Parties in the April elections, but left after URWP members would not resign to allow Itamar Ben-Gvir to become a Knesset member, in addition, Otzma was unwilling to leave Baruch Marzel and Ben-Zion Gopstein off the electoral slate, as demanded by Rafi Peretz.[41] Otzma is led by Ben-Gvir. The United Right (which later renamed itself Yamina) attempted to convince Otzma Yehudit to re-enter their alliance, but Otzma declined their offer, calling it "insulting".[42] Otzma Yehudit initially signed a deal with Noam, but ran independently following a split between itself and Noam.[43]

Withdrawn partiesEdit

Zehut (election symbol: ז) was the 13th largest party in the April election, receiving 2.74% of the vote and not passing the electoral threshold. Zehut is led by Moshe Feiglin. The party was initially interested in running in a joint list with the New Right, but was rejected when the New Right decided to run with the URWP instead. Following this, Zehut decided that it would run alone.[44] On 29 August 2019, Zehut leader Moshe Feiglin announced an agreement with Prime Minister Netanyahu had been reached and that Zehut would withdraw from the election in return for Feiglin serving as a minister in the next government, and the promise that Likud will implement some of Zehut's economic and cannabis reforms.[45] Tamar Zandberg of the Democratic Union stated that her party plans to appeal the deal to the Central Elections Committee, on the grounds that the deal might constitute election bribery under Israeli law.[46] The deal was approved in a referendum by 77% of Zehut party members on 1 September.[47]

Noam (election symbol: כ) is a new religious Zionist party which was announced on 12 July 2019, which will be backed by Rabbi Zvi Thau of the Har Hamor yeshiva and led by Rabbi Dror Aryeh.[48][49] The party announced on 28 July that it had agreed to a joint run with Otzma Yehudit,[50] which Otzma approved the next day,[51] though they split on 1 August because Noam did not agree with Otzma including a secular Jewish candidate on the combined list.[43] Following the failed deal with Otzma, Noam decided to run alone.[52] The party launched a signature campaign on 27 August to gauge support[53] and dropped out of the race on 15 September.[54]

Opinion pollsEdit

These graphs show the polling trends from the time Knesset dissolved until the election day. No polls may be published from the end of Friday before the election until the polling stations closing on election day at 22:00.[55]

If more than one poll was conducted on the same day, the graphs show the average of the polls for that date.

 


Allegations of misconductEdit

During election day, a number of parties complained to the Election Committee. Blue and White, Yamina, and the Israeli Labor Party complained that a number of polling stations had fake slips for their parties.[56][57] Due to multiple claims of voting slip vandalism, the Central Elections Committee instructed election officials to count the slip as long as the letters were right and, if the slip was vandalized, with the sole purpose of invalidating it.[58]

The official election committee published a notice regarding people who were impersonating committee officials in Kfar Qassam.[59][60]

Numerous parties criticized Shas and Likud for giving out gifts at polling stations.[61][62]

Facebook suspended a chatbot on Netanyahu's Facebook account for 24 hours on 12 September for "hate speech", after it said that "a dangerous left-wing government" would rely on Arab leaders "who want to destroy us all — women, children, and men — and enable a nuclear Iran that would wipe us out"; Netanyahu remarked that he didn't write the statement, blamed a campaign staffer for the wording, and that the problem with the bot was immediately fixed.[63]

Preliminary resultsEdit

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Blue and White 1,122,180 25.92 32
Likud 1,088,353 25.14 31
Joint List 454,687 10.50 13
Shas 323,029 7.46 9
Yisrael Beiteinu 302,738 6.99 9
United Torah Judaism 263,331 6.08 8
Yamina 254,535 5.88 7
Labor-Gesher 207,781 4.80 6
Democratic Union 187,868 4.34 5
Otzma Yehudit
Our Rights In Our Vote
Pirate Party of Israel
Da'am – Green Economy – One Nation
Human Dignity
Bible Bloc
Tzomet
Economic Power New
Justice New
Kama New
Liberal Christian Movement New
Social Leadership
Progressive Liberal Democratic Party New
New Order New
North New
Popular Unity New
Red and White New
Respect and Equality New
Secular Right New
Zehut
Invalid/blank votes
Total 100 120 0
Registered voters/turnout 6,394,030 69.4
Source: CEC, Times of Israel

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b Gil Hoffman; Lahav Harkov (30 May 2019). "Israel goes back to elections as Netanyahu fails to form coalition". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
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  41. ^ Staff writer (5 July 2019). "Right-wing URWP apparently cracking, with Otzma Yehudit set to run separately". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  42. ^ Yotam Berger (1 August 2019). "Far-right Alliance Fizzles as Kahanist Party Announces Solo Run". Haaretz. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
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  45. ^ Gil Hoffman (29 August 2019). "Netanyahu promises Feiglin ministry so that Zehut Party ends race". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
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  47. ^ Hezki Baruch (1 September 2019). "Zehut members overwhelmingly back deal to end Knesset bid". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
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  52. ^ David Rosenberg (1 August 2019). "Right-wing Noam party files for independent Knesset run". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  53. ^ Hezki Baruch (27 August 2019). "Noam party embarks on 'signature campaign'". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  54. ^ Michael Bachner (15 September 2019). "Fringe far-right party Noam quits Knesset race 2 days before elections". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  55. ^ s:he:חוק הבחירות (דרכי תעמולה)#סעיף 16ה (ח) (in Hebrew)
  56. ^ חדשות, כאן (17 September 2019). "יום הבחירות | העבודה הגישה תלונה נגד הליכוד בטענה שפעילים החליפו את פתקי ההצבעה של המפלגה בפתקים ישנים של העבודה, בראשות אבי גבאי, בכמה קלפיות בבאר שבע @yaara_shapira".
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  58. ^ "Elections chief okays vandalized voting slips". The Times of Israel. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  59. ^ חדשות, כאן (17 September 2019). "הבחירות לכנסת ה-22 – מבזק | שורת תלונות הגיעה לוועדת הבחירות המרכזית בהן התחזות בכפר קאסם ומניעת הצבעה מנשים בהרצליה בגלל כיסוי הראש שלהן. מאמרים בעיתונות הפלסטינית קוראים לערביי ישראל לצאת להצביע @antonia_yaminpic.twitter.com/EbrkQIPp55". line feed character in |title= at position 202 (help)
  60. ^ חדשות, כאן (17 September 2019). "יום הבחירות | מזכיר קלפי בכפר קאסם זיהה אדם שהתחזה למפקח בחירות. המקרה הועבר לטיפול המשטרה @amotzsh". line feed character in |title= at position 96 (help)
  61. ^ חדשות, כאן (17 September 2019). "יום הבחירות | ישראל ביתנו הגישה תלונה נגד הליכוד בטענה שאנשיה מחלקים מחוץ לקלפיות בפתח תקווה לוחות שנה כמתנה אסורה @yaara_shapirapic.twitter.com/IFbSiO0Oor". line feed character in |title= at position 121 (help)
  62. ^ חדשות, כאן (17 September 2019). "יום הבחירות | כחול לבן הגישה תלונה נגד הליכוד שפעיל שלה חילק שקיות בכפר סבא ועליהן תעמולה של המפלגה @amotzsh". line feed character in |title= at position 105 (help)
  63. ^ "Facebook Suspends Netanyahu Campaign Bot for Hate Speech". The New York Times. 12 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.

External linksEdit