Shelby County, Tennessee

Shelby County is the westernmost county in the U.S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2020 census, the population was 929,744.[3] It is the largest of the state's 95 counties, both in terms of population and geographic area. Its county seat is Memphis,[4] a port on the Mississippi River and the second most populous city in Tennessee. The county was named for Governor Isaac Shelby (1750–1826) of Kentucky. It is one of only two remaining counties in Tennessee with a majority African American population, along with Haywood County.

Shelby County
Shelby County Courthouse
Shelby County Courthouse
Flag of Shelby County
Official seal of Shelby County
Map of Tennessee highlighting Shelby County
Location within the U.S. state of Tennessee
Map of the United States highlighting Tennessee
Tennessee's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 35°11′N 89°53′W / 35.18°N 89.89°W / 35.18; -89.89
Country United States
State Tennessee
FoundedNovember 24, 1819
Named forIsaac Shelby[1]
Largest cityMemphis
 • MayorLee Harris (D)[2]
 • Total785 sq mi (2,030 km2)
 • Land763 sq mi (1,980 km2)
 • Water22 sq mi (60 km2)  2.8%
 • Total929,744 Increase
 • Estimate 
910,042 Decrease
 • Density1,194/sq mi (461/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districts8th, 9th

Shelby County is part of the Memphis, TN–MSAR Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River. Located within the Mississippi Delta, the county was developed as a center of cotton plantations in the antebellum era, and cotton continued as an important commodity crop well into the 20th century. The economy has become more diversified.

History edit

This area along the Mississippi River valley was long occupied by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. In historic times, the Chickasaw controlled much of this area. They are believed to be descendants of the important Mississippian culture, which established fortified and complex cities.[citation needed] The largest of these was Cahokia, which was active from about 950CE into the 15th century. It was developed on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day southern Illinois, roughly on the same latitude as present-day St. Louis, Missouri.[citation needed]

The Shelby County area was part of the lands acquired by the United States government from the Chickasaw as part of the Jackson Purchase of 1818. Shelby County was established by European-American migrants in 1819 and named for Isaac Shelby, the former governor of Kentucky who had helped negotiate the land acquisition.[1] From 1827 to 1868, the county seat was located in then called Raleigh, Tennessee (now part of Memphis), on the Wolf River.[5] After the American Civil War, in recognition of the growth of Memphis and its importance to the state economy, the seat was moved there. (Raleigh has now been absorbed within the city limits of Memphis.)[1]

The lowlands in the Mississippi Delta, closest to the Mississippi River, were developed before the war for large cotton plantations; their laborers were overwhelmingly enslaved African Americans, whom planters transported from the east or purchased in the domestic slave trade. Well before the American Civil War, the population of the county was majority black, most of whom were slaves.[citation needed] Memphis developed as a major cotton market, with many brokers.[citation needed] After the war and emancipation, many freedmen stayed on these lands by working as sharecroppers.[citation needed]

Tennessee continued to have competitive politics after the freedmen were enfranchised. The eastern part of the state retained its Unionist leanings and supported the Republican Party. Blacks in the west also supported the Republican Party. Most conservative whites supported the Democrats. From 1877 to 1950, there were 20 lynchings of blacks by whites in Shelby County, the highest number of any county in the state.[6]

Most blacks were disenfranchised around the turn of the century when the state passed laws raising barriers to voter registration; the legislature also imposed Jim Crow laws, including racial segregation of public facilities. Blacks were mostly closed out of the political system for more than six decades. In the 20th century, mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for farm workers at a time when industries and railroads in the North were recruiting workers. The Great Migration resulted in many African Americans moving from rural areas into Memphis or out of state to northern cities for work and social and political opportunities.

After World War II, highways were constructed that led to development of much new housing on the outskirts of Memphis where land was cheap. Suburbanization, with retail businesses following new residents, took place in the county, drawing population out of the city.[citation needed] With continued residential and suburban development, the population of the metropolitan area became majority white. Six towns in the county have become incorporated; other communities are unincorporated. Residents enjoy many parks in the area as well as attractions in the city of Memphis.[citation needed]

Geography edit

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 785 square miles (2,030 km2), of which 763 square miles (1,980 km2) is land and 22 square miles (57 km2) (2.8%) is water.[7] It is the largest county in Tennessee by area. The lowest point in the state of Tennessee is located on the Mississippi River in Shelby County (just outside the Memphis city limits), where the river flows out of Tennessee and into Mississippi.

Rivers edit

Adjacent counties edit

Demographics edit

Historical population
2023 (est.)910,042[8]−2.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790-1960[10] 1900-1990[11]
1990-2000[12] 2010-2014[3]
Population pyramid Shelby County[13]

2020 census edit

Shelby County, Tennessee – Racial and ethnic composition
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2000[14] Pop 2010[15] Pop 2020[16] % 2000 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 414,888 359,106 316,740 46.23% 38.71% 34.07%
Black or African American alone (NH) 434,201 481,434 475,074 48.38% 51.90% 51.10%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 1,538 1,804 1,561 0.17% 0.19% 0.17%
Asian alone (NH) 14,552 21,245 27,960 1.62% 2.29% 3.01%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 248 274 256 0.03% 0.03% 0.03%
Other race alone (NH) 946 1,097 3,614 0.11% 0.12% 0.39%
Mixed race or Multiracial (NH) 7,735 10,595 26,832 0.86% 1.14% 2.89%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 23,364 52,092 77,707 2.60% 5.62% 8.36%
Total 897,472 927,644 929,744 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 929,744 people, 353,950 households, and 215,446 families residing in the county.

2010 census edit

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 927,644 people living in the county. 52.1% were Black or African American, 40.6% White, 2.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 3.3% of some other race and 1.4 of two or more races. 5.6% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

2000 census edit

As of the census[17] of 2000, there were 897,472 people, 338,366 households, and 228,735 families living in the county. The population density was 1,189 inhabitants per square mile (459/km2). There were 362,954 housing units at an average density of 481 per square mile (186/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 48.56% Black, or African American, 47.34% White, 0.20% Native American, 1.64% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, and 1.02% from two or more races. 2.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 338,366 households, out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.80% were married couples living together, 20.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.40% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.18.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 28.20% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, and 10.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $39,593, and the median income for a family was $47,386. Males had a median income of $36,932 versus $26,776 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,856. About 12.90% of families and 16.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.90% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over.

Law and government edit

The first county government was established as a quarterly court in 1820. During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Governor William G. Brownlow appointed a five-member commission to govern the county. When the state drafted a new constitution in 1870, it required county officials to be elected by the people or the Quarterly Court. By 1910 the Shelby County Quarterly Court had 50 members, making it inefficient; some prominent people complained it was "too democratic."

E. H. Crump, the political boss of Memphis who was also influential in the county and state, gained a 1911 legislative act creating a three-member executive commission for the Shelby County Commission, which could override the court on all issues except setting property taxes, which was protected by the state constitution. He also had the number of districts reduced to nineteen and then seven.[18] After Crump's death in 1954, the executive commission of the county was abolished.[19]

In 1964, the US Supreme Court ruled in Baker v. Carr that legislative districts had to be apportioned by population under the Equal Protection Clause, a principle known as one man, one vote. This change was incorporated in Shelby County, which had been biased toward geographic representation. In 1965, there were nine districts established, of roughly equal population, to elect members to the Quarterly Court.[18] These have been redistricted as needed based on decennial census population changes.

In 1975, the people voted to ratify the Shelby County Restructure Act, creating a single elected executive, with the title of mayor, and an eleven-member legislative body (now called the County Commission). The commission has been expanded to thirteen members. The mayor is elected at-large and all the county commissioners are elected from 13 districts.[20] The members of the county commission serve four-year terms.

Other elected officials in Shelby County include the sheriff, the chief law enforcement officer; trustee, chief tax collector, and assessor, the chief property appraiser.[21]

The government has an annual budget of $1.1 billion and 6,000 employees.

School board edit

Until 1996, the Shelby County Commission appointed members to the Shelby County School Board. This system was changed to comply with interpretation by the state that its constitution required that county officials, including school board members, should be elected by all residents of the county, and provisions of the state Education Improvement Act. In 1996 under what was known as Plan C, the Shelby County Commission established seven single-member special election districts for election of county school board members by all residents of the county. This was challenged in the case known as Board of County Commissioners of Shelby County Tennessee v. Burson.[22] Shelby County and its Board of Commissioners as plaintiffs, joined by mayors of the six suburban municipalities, filed suit in 1996 against Plan C, arguing that their rights were violated under the "one person, one vote" principle embodied in the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution, as their vote would be diluted. Although Memphis City had its own school system, the Memphis population made up 74.8% of the county's population in the 1990 census, so its representatives would dominate an elected county school board, with six of seven positions. Thus Memphis representatives would dominate a system intended to serve only county residents and students who lived outside the city.[22]

The US district court found in this case:

  • the City of Memphis did not provide significant financial support to the Shelby County School District, and received money from the county;
  • the overwhelming voting power of the out-of-district Memphis residents virtually guaranteed that out-of-district residents would control the Shelby County Board of Education;  
  • the number of actual crossover students was minimal, and the potential for additional crossovers was severely limited by a longstanding desegregation order;  and
  • there were, at most, a few relatively minor joint programs between the districts. Accordingly, the district court concluded that the county-wide election of local school board members under Plan C was unconstitutional as applied in Shelby County and enjoined its implementation."[22] The lower court noted that in a similar case of Duncan (1995), it had held that "the relevant geopolitical entity for purposes of the "one person, one vote" analysis in cases such as this is the school district, not the entire county."[22][23] When appealed, the lower court's decision was upheld, saying the "Constitution prevented the State of Tennessee from including Memphis voters in the electorate for the Shelby County Board of Education."[22]

As a result, the County Commissioners established seven single-member special election districts in the county outside the limits of Memphis, for the purpose of electing school board members to the Shelby County School Board.

Mayors edit

Shelby County's first elected mayor was Roy Nixon, who served from 1976 to 1978. The current Shelby County mayor is Lee Harris, who was elected in 2018 after having served as the minority leader of the Tennessee Senate.[24]

List of mayors of Shelby County
Name Term in office Party affiliation Previous office
Lee Harris 2018–present Democratic Minority Leader of the Tennessee Senate
Mark Luttrell 2010–2018 Republican Shelby County Sheriff
Joe Ford 2009–2010 Democratic Shelby County Commission Chair
A C Wharton 2002–2009 Democratic Chief Shelby County Public Defender
Jim Rout 1994–2002 Republican Shelby County Sheriff
William N. (Bill) Morris 1978–1994 Democratic Shelby County Sheriff
Roy Nixon 1976–1978 Shelby County Sheriff[25]


  1. Joe Ford served as interim mayor after A C Wharton's election as Mayor of Memphis in 2009.
  2. A C Wharton later served as Mayor of Memphis from 2009 to 2015.

Shelby County Board of Commissioners edit

  • District 1: Amber Mills
  • District 2: David C. Bradford, Jr
  • District 3: Mick Wright
  • District 4: Brandon Morrison
  • District 5: Shante K. Avant
  • District 6: Charlie Caswell, Jr.
  • District 7: Henri E. Brooks
  • District 8: Mickell M. Lowery
  • District 9: Edmund Ford, Jr.
  • District 10: Britney Thornton
  • District 11: Miska Clay Bibbs
  • District 12: Erika Sugarmon
  • District 13: Michael Whaley

Shelby County Courthouse edit

The Shelby County Courthouse, in Memphis on Adams Avenue between North 2nd and North 3rd streets, was designed by James Gamble Rogers and completed in 1909. This neoclassical pile features a long portico topped by a cornice supported by massive Ionic columns. The ambitious sculptural program designed by J. Massey Rhind includes the pediment groups, Canon Law, Roman Law, Statutory Law, Civil Law and Criminal Law. Female allegorical figures can be found on the north facade cornice representing Integrity, Courage, Mercy, Temperance, Prudence and Learning. Flanking the main entrances are over-life-sized seated figures embodying Wisdom, Justice, Liberty, Authority, Peace and Prosperity.

It is by far the state's largest courthouse. The courthouse was featured in the movie The Silence of the Lambs as the place where Dr. Hannibal Lecter was held and escapes custody.

The courthouse is included in the Adams Avenue Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[26]

Politics edit

During the mid-to-late twentieth century, Shelby County was competitive, voting for the Democratic candidate six times and the Republican candidate five times between 1952 and 1992. In the twenty-first century, the county has become reliably Democratic, due mainly to the influence of Memphis. Barack Obama twice won the county with more than 60 percent of the vote. In 2016, the county was carried by the Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, who won 62.0 percent of the vote to Donald Trump's 34.5 percent.[27]

Democratic strength is concentrated in Memphis itself, while the eastern suburbs are some of the most Republican areas in Tennessee and the South. In 2020, Joe Biden received 64.42% of the vote, which is the highest share for a Democrat since 1944.[27]

United States presidential election results for Shelby County, Tennessee[27]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 129,815 33.98% 246,105 64.42% 6,135 1.61%
2016 116,344 34.48% 208,992 61.95% 12,047 3.57%
2012 135,649 36.50% 232,443 62.55% 3,524 0.95%
2008 145,458 35.96% 256,297 63.35% 2,800 0.69%
2004 158,137 41.91% 216,945 57.50% 2,200 0.58%
2000 141,756 42.09% 190,404 56.54% 4,595 1.36%
1996 136,315 41.77% 179,663 55.05% 10,402 3.19%
1992 153,310 41.88% 191,322 52.26% 21,478 5.87%
1988 157,457 50.96% 149,759 48.47% 1,772 0.57%
1984 169,717 50.32% 165,947 49.20% 1,638 0.49%
1980 140,157 45.43% 159,240 51.61% 9,120 2.96%
1976 128,646 46.01% 147,893 52.89% 3,062 1.10%
1972 161,922 65.32% 81,089 32.71% 4,871 1.97%
1968 73,416 31.66% 81,486 35.14% 76,996 33.20%
1964 100,527 47.41% 111,496 52.59% 0 0.00%
1960 87,191 49.37% 86,270 48.85% 3,146 1.78%
1956 65,690 48.65% 62,051 45.96% 7,284 5.39%
1952 65,170 47.53% 71,779 52.36% 150 0.11%
1948 14,566 22.35% 23,854 36.60% 26,756 41.05%
1944 10,839 18.20% 48,625 81.66% 80 0.13%
1940 7,312 11.24% 57,664 88.61% 98 0.15%
1936 2,113 3.32% 61,504 96.56% 81 0.13%
1932 6,332 14.01% 38,320 84.76% 557 1.23%
1928 11,969 39.78% 18,040 59.95% 81 0.27%
1924 7,369 31.95% 13,696 59.37% 2,002 8.68%
1920 8,597 34.61% 15,986 64.35% 260 1.05%
1916 4,515 28.79% 10,967 69.92% 202 1.29%
1912 589 5.61% 6,732 64.11% 3,179 30.28%
1908 3,069 28.53% 7,411 68.90% 276 2.57%
1904 2,563 22.32% 8,686 75.64% 234 2.04%
1900 2,961 35.98% 5,143 62.50% 125 1.52%
1896 5,122 45.70% 5,830 52.01% 257 2.29%
1892 1,110 14.37% 6,307 81.67% 306 3.96%
1888 8,277 40.83% 11,932 58.86% 64 0.32%
1884 9,165 54.54% 7,626 45.38% 13 0.08%
1880 7,788 51.99% 6,927 46.24% 264 1.76%

Education edit

Higher education edit

Shelby County is home to fourteen institutions of higher learning and satellite campuses of institutions whose main campus is in another county.

Memphis is home to Baptist College of Health Sciences, Christian Brothers University, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Worldwide (Memphis Campus),[28] Harding School of Theology, LeMoyne–Owen College, Memphis College of Art, Memphis Theological Seminary, Rhodes College, Southern College of Optometry, Southwest Tennessee Community College, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, and the University of Memphis.

Cordova is home to Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary. Germantown is home to a satellite campus of Union University.

Primary and secondary education edit

Shelby County Schools (SCS) is a school district serving all of Memphis and most unincorporated areas.[29]

Suburban school districts:

Shelby County Schools was previously a school district that operated almost all public schools in non-Memphis areas of Shelby County, Tennessee,[30] until the end of the 2012–2013 school year; almost all areas in Shelby County that were outside the city of Memphis were zoned to schools operated by SCS. Schools in Memphis were operated by Memphis City Schools. On June 30, 2013, Memphis city and Shelby County schools consolidated, forming a unified county school system (still called Shelby County Schools), this lasted one year.

In 2014, the incorporated suburbs of Arlington, Bartlett, Collierville, Germantown, Lakeland, and Millington (other than Memphis) broke away from the Unified System and formed their own municipal districts. Their residents had previously voted in favor of creating municipal school districts, and all voted to pass the related sales tax hike except for Millington, which narrowly rejected the sales tax hike by three votes.[31] On November 27, 2012, U.S. district court Judge Samuel Mays voided this vote since the state law passed at the time applied only to a specific area (which is unconstitutional). The Tennessee state legislature passed the law again, to include all of the state. All six suburbs voted again for the municipal districts and started classes on August 4, 2014.

Transportation edit

Local transit edit

Public transportation is provided by the Memphis Area Transit Authority, also known as MATA for short. In addition to MATA buses, the MATA operates the MATA Trolley. The city also has a suspended monorail known as the Memphis Suspension Railway connecting the city to Mud Island.

Intercity transit edit

Roadways edit

Air travel edit

Shelby County is the site of Memphis International Airport, located 3 miles (5 km) south of the center of Memphis.

Recreation edit

Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park

Parks edit

Attractions edit

Sports edit

Communities edit


Numbers refer to the map at right.

Cities edit

Towns edit

Unincorporated communities edit

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c Edward F. Williams III, "Shelby County," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: March 31, 2013.
  2. ^ "Lee Harris". Ballotpedia. Retrieved January 17, 2024.
  3. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  5. ^ "A Brief History of Shelby County". Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  6. ^ Lynching in America/ Supplement: Lynchings by County Archived June 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Equal Justice Initiative, 2015, p. 6
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  8. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2023". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  11. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  13. ^ Based on 2000 census data
  14. ^ "P004 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Shelby County, Tennessee". United States Census Bureau.
  15. ^ "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Shelby County, Tennessee". United States Census Bureau.
  16. ^ "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Shelby County, Tennessee". United States Census Bureau.
  17. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  18. ^ a b "A Brief History of Shelby County", Shelby County, TN website
  19. ^ Edward F. Williams III, "Shelby County", Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2009/2011
  20. ^ Shelby County Commission, Shelby County Government website
  21. ^ Shelby County Topic Page, "News about the Shelby County government", The Commercial Appeal
  22. ^ a b c d e Board of County Commissioners of Shelby County Tennessee v. Burson (1997), Findlaw
  23. ^ Duncan, 69 F.3d at 93.4
  24. ^ "About the Mayor | Shelby County, TN – Official Website". Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  25. ^ Burgess, Katherine (June 3, 2019). "Roy Nixonm, first mayor to lead Shelby County, dies at 85". Memphis Commercial Appeal. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  26. ^ Herbert L. Harper (January 1980). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Adams Avenue Historic District". National Park Service. Retrieved May 17, 2017. With eight photos from 1979, including #6,#7 showing Shelby County Courthouse.
  27. ^ a b c Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  28. ^ Embry-Riddle Worldwide official website Archived June 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved: March 31, 2013.
  29. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Shelby County, TN" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved December 24, 2021. - Text list
  30. ^ "SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP (2010 CENSUS): Shelby County, TN" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved July 23, 2022. - Text list
  31. ^ "Voters Choose to Form Municipal School Districts". Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.

External links edit

35°11′N 89°53′W / 35.18°N 89.89°W / 35.18; -89.89