Romagnol (rumagnòl) is a group of closely related dialects of Emilian-Romagnol spoken in the historical region of Romagna, which is today in the south-eastern part of Emilia-Romagna, Italy. The name itself is derived from the Lombard name for the region Romania. It is also spoken outside the region, particularly in the Provincia di Pesaro e Urbino and in the independent country of San Marino. It is classified as an endangered language, due to older generations having “neglected to pass on the dialect as a native tongue to the next generation”.
|Native to||Italy, San Marino|
|Region||Primarily Emilia-Romagna, San Marino|
|Ethnicity||1.1 million (2008)|
|Unknown, c. 430,000, assuming Romagnol and Emilian retained at same rate (2006)|
Geographic distribution of Romagnol (shown in dark pink)
While contemporaneous with modern Standard Italian, it is technically a member of the Gallo-Italic branch and more comparable to the “northern group” of Italian dialects. This includes the dialects Emilian, Ligurian, Lombard, and Piedmontese. It is sometimes considered a subdialect of a larger Emilian-Romagnol language, which encompasses a broad continuum of dialects spanning the region of Emilia-Romagna.
West of Romagna, the Emilian language is spoken. The border with Emilian-speaking areas is the Sillaro river, which runs 25 km east from Bologna to the west of Castel San Pietro Terme. Romagnol is spoken to the east of this river and to the south of the Reno river. In Emilia-Romagna, Emilian is spoken in all the rest of the region moving from the Sillaro river to the west, up to Piacenza, and to the north of the Reno, up to the Po.
The Reno River is the border between Romagnol and the dialect of Ferrara. Romagnol is spoken also in some villages northwards of the Reno River, such as Argenta, Emilia–Romagna and Filo, where people of Romagnol origin live alongside people of Ferrarese origin. Ferrara goes into Emilian language territory.
Romagnol's first acknowledgement outside regional literature was in Dante Alighieri's treatise De vulgari eloquentia, wherein Dante compares “the language of Romagna” to his native Tuscan dialect. Eventually, in 1629, the author Adriano Banchieri wrote the treatise Discorso della lingua Bolognese, which countered Dante's claim that the Tuscan dialect was better, arguing his belief that Bolognese (a subdialect of Romagnol that saw wide use in writing) was superior in “naturalness, softness, musicality, and usefulness.” Romagnol received more recognition after Romagna gained independence from the Papal States.
16th to 19th centuryEdit
The first Romagnol poem dates back to the end of the 16th century: E Pvlon matt. Cantlena aroica (Mad Nap), a mock-heroic poem based on Orlando Furioso and written by an anonymous author from San Vittore di Cesena. The original poem comprised twelve cantos, of which only the first four survived (1848 lines).
The 20th century saw a flourishing of Romagnol literature. Theatrical plays, poems and books of a high quality were produced. Some of the best known Romagnol authors are:
- Raffaello Baldini, who won in 1988 the "Premio Viareggio" and in 1995 the "Premio Bagutta," known for long pessimistic poems and prose
- Tonino Guerra (1920–2012), wrote poems during his exile to WWII-era Germany, focusing on people of suffering and poverty
- Olindo Guerrini, with "Sonetti romagnoli"
- Aldo Spallicci, an antifascist exiled from Romagna. He wrote poems such as "Rumâgna" that were often descriptive of Romagna
Unlike Standard Italian, not all nouns end in a theme vowel. Masculine nouns lack theme vowels and feminine nouns typically (but not always) terminate in "a." To form plurals, masculine nouns and adjectives undergo lexically-specified ablaut. In the case of feminine nouns and adjectives, "a" becomes "i" or deletes if after a consonant cluster or double consonant.
|Sacrêri (m. sg.)||Sacréri (m. pl.)||Sacrario||Sacrari|
|grând (sg.)||grènd (pl.)||grande||grandi|
Though both languages derive their lexicon from Vulgar Latin, some words differ in gender.
|la risa||il riso||risus (masc.)||rice|
|la sècia||il secchio||siclum (masc.)||bucket|
Italian and Romagnol share much of the same features when it comes to verbs. Both languages are SVO in simple sentences. Verbs are conjugated according to tense, mood, and person. Romagnol also has 4 conjugations compared to Italian's 3: the 1st, êr; the 2nd, -ér; the 3rd, -ar; and the 4th, -ìr. One marked difference in syntax between Romagnol and Italian is that pronouns are obligatory, and some verbs in Romagnol use a reflexive construction (even if the speaker is not the second argument of the verb) where Italian uses an intransitive construction.
|Me a'm so lavê||(Io) mi sono lavato||I washed myself|
|Me a sò||(Io) sono||I am|
|Me a j'ò||(Io) ho||I have|
Verbs that are impersonal (lacking a canonical subject) in Romagnol use "avèr," in contrast with Italian which uses "essere." Even though the subject is null, an expletive pronoun inserts itself in the specifier position, much like English's "it".
- Italian: è piovuto, It rained
- Romagnol: l'à piuvù, It rained
Additionally, whereas Standard Italian and other Northern dialects omit the definite article before “singular names and names of relatives,” Romagnol does not do so.
It has an inventory of up to 20 contrastive vowels in stressed position, in comparison to Italian's 7.
The absence of an official institution regulating its orthography leads in many cases to ambiguities in the transcription of vowel sounds.
The next three tables list the vowel inventory of the "classical" version of the northern macro-dialect of Romagnol.
The following table lists the vowels above alongside their relative orthography:
|Dialectal pronunciation||Example in Romagnol||Comparison with Italian||English meaning|
|ë||ɛə̯||ɛæ̯||bël||bello||"nice" (masculine singular)|
|è, e||ɛ||ɛ~ɜ||bèl||belli||"nice" (masculine plural)|
|à, a (when stressed)||a||äː||fàza||faccia||"face"|
|ù, u (when stressed)||u||ʊu̯||dur||duro||"hard" (masculine singular)|
|ì, i (when stressed)||i||iː~ɪi̯||partìr||partire||"to leave"|
|Stop||p b||t d||k ɡ|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||(s z)||ʂ ʐ|
The letter Z is always pronounced as either [θ] or [ð] and never like in Italian, as [t͡s] or [d͡z].
[ŋ] only occurs before velar stops.
Romagnol, in addition to its larger inventory of vowels, also may have more consonants compared to standard Italian. Additionally, consonants bear the following differences compared to Standard Italian:
- In central dialects, word-final n is deleted and the preceding vowel is nasalized, as shown above.
- /dʒ/ and /tʃ/ can occur word-finally, and are usually distinguished by the doubling of the final consonants (cc or gg)
- /ʂ/ and /ʐ/ sounds may be realized as alveolar sounds [s] and [z] among different speakers out of Italian influence.
- Voicing of all the consonants above is always contrastive.
- La lingua italiana, i dialetti e le lingue straniere Anno 2006
- Endangered Languages Project data for Romagnol.
- Larner, J. (1965).The Lords of Romagna: Romagnol Society and the Origins of the Signorie. Ithaca: New York.
- Grementieri, S. (2012, January 7). The Romagnolo Dialect: A Short Study On its History, Grammar, and How it Survives [Scholarly project]. In www.dialettoromagnolo.it. Retrieved March 4, 2017, from http://www.dialettoromagnolo.it/uploads/5/2/4/2/52420601/pb-241-file-grementieri_the_romagnolo_dialect.pdf
- Cenni, I. (2013). Code-switching as an indicator of language shift: a case study of the Romagnolo dialect of Gatteo a Mare, Italy. 46th International Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Abstracts. Presented at the 46th International Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea.
- Gregor, D. B. (1972). Romagnol Language and Literature. Stoughton Harrow: Oleander Press.
- Alighieri, D. (1996). Dante: De vulgari eloquentia (S. Botterill, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Haller, H. W. (1999). The Other Italy: The Literary Canon in Dialect (Toronto Italian Studies). University of Toronto Press.
- Pelliciardi, F. (1997).Grammatica del dialetto romagnolo: la lengva dla mi tera. Ravenna: Longo Editore.
- Ledgeway, A., & Maiden, M. (Eds.). (2016).The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages(1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Vitali, D. (2008). L'ortografia romangnola [Scholarly project]. In www.dialettoromagnolo.it. Retrieved March 5, 2017, from http://www.dialettoromagnolo.it/uploads/5/2/4/2/52420601/pb-233-file-ortografiaromagnola.pdf
- Vitali, Daniele; Pioggia, Davide (2010). Il dialetto di Rimini: Analisi fonologica e proposta ortografica.
- Pelliciardi, Ferdinando (1977). Grammatica del dialetto romagnolo: la lèngva dla mi tëra. Ravenna: Longo.