Harold Edward "Red" Grange (June 13, 1903 – January 28, 1991), nicknamed "The Galloping Ghost", was an American football halfback for the University of Illinois, the Chicago Bears, and for the short-lived New York Yankees. His signing with the Bears helped legitimize the National Football League (NFL). He is a charter member of both the College and Pro Football Halls of Fame.
Grange in 1925
|Born:||June 13, 1903|
|Died:||January 28, 1991 (aged 87)|
Lake Wales, Florida
|Height:||5 ft 11 in (1.80 m)|
|Weight:||175 lb (79 kg)|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Career NFL statistics|
In college, Grange was a three-time consensus All-American and led his team to a national championship in 1923. He was the only consensus All-American running back in 1924 who was not a member of the Four Horsemen of Notre Dame. The same year, Grange became the first recipient of the Chicago Tribune Silver Football award as the Big Ten Conference's most valuable player. In 2008, he was named the best college football player of all time by ESPN, and in 2011, he was named the Greatest Big Ten Icon by the Big Ten Network.
Red Grange was born on June 13, 1903, in Forksville, Pennsylvania, a village of about 200 people among lumber camps. His father Lyle was the foreman of three lumber camps. His mother died when he was just five years old. For a number of years, the Grange family lived with relatives until they could finally afford a home of their own in Wheaton, Illinois. In Wheaton, Lyle became the chief of police.
In four years at Wheaton High School,[note 1] Grange earned 16 varsity letters in football, baseball, basketball, and track; he scored 75 touchdowns and 532 points for the football team. As a high school junior, Grange scored 36 touchdowns and led Wheaton High School to an undefeated season. In his senior year, his team won every game but one in which they lost 39–0 to Scott High School in Toledo, Ohio. Knocked out in this game, Grange remained unconscious for two days, having difficulty speaking when he awoke. Grange was also an all-state track and field runner. In 1920, he was a state champion in the high jump and placed third and fourth in the 100-yard dash and the 220-yard dash, respectively. In 1921, he won the state title in both the long jump and the 100-yard dash, and in 1922, he placed third in the 100-yard dash and won the 220-yard dash.
To help the family earn money, he took a part-time job as an ice toter for $37.50 per week, a job which helped him to build his core strength and from which he got the nicknames "Ice Man" and "the Wheaton Ice Man."
University of IllinoisEdit
After graduation, Grange enrolled at the University of Illinois, where he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity. At first he had planned to compete only in basketball and track, but changed his mind once he arrived and joined coach Bob Zuppke's Fighting Illini football team. Grange was the roommate of college basketball player and future college basketball coach John Mauer. Grange also modeled for local men's clothing store Jos. Kuhn and Co. as a floor model, common for Illini athletes at the time, and was an amateur boxer.
Grange played for the team from 1923 to 1925. In his first collegiate football game, he scored three touchdowns against Nebraska. He once scored four touchdowns in twelve minutes. In seven games as a sophomore, he ran for 723 yards and scored 12 touchdowns, and led Illinois to an undefeated season and the Helms Athletic Foundation national championship.
Grange drew national attention for his performance in the October 18, 1924 game against Michigan, in the grand opening game of the new Memorial Stadium, built as a memorial to Illini students and alumni who had served in World War I. The Michigan Wolverines entered the game as favorites, having won a national title the previous year. Grange returned the opening kickoff for a 95-yard touchdown and scored three more touchdowns on runs of 67, 56, and 44 yards in the first 12 minutes, the last three in less than seven minutes. On his next carry, he ran 56 yards for yet another touchdown. In the second half Grange scored a fifth touchdown on an 11-yard run and also threw a touchdown pass. On defense he intercepted two passes. Michigan coach Fielding Yost said, "All Grange can do is run," to which Zuppke, referring to a famed opera star of the age, responded, "And all Galli-Curci can do is sing."
The game inspired Grantland Rice to write this poetic description:
A streak of fire, a breath of flame
Eluding all who reach and clutch;
A gray ghost thrown into the game
That rival hands may never touch;
A rubber bounding, blasting soul
Whose destination is the goal — Red Grange of Illinois!
Chicago sportswriter Warren Brown nicknamed Grange "The Galloping Ghost". When asked in a 1974 interview, "Was it Grantland Rice who dubbed you the Galloping Ghost?" Grange replied, "No, it was Warren Brown, who was a great writer with the Chicago American in those days."
Before the 1925 season, Grange was approached by Champaign movie theater owner C. C. Pyle who asked, "How would you like to make one hundred thousand dollars, maybe even a million?" After Grange agreed, he was told to stay in contact but remain silent on their meeting. The following day, Pyle contacted Chicago Bears owners George Halas and Edward Sternaman to outline a professional contract for Grange, organizing a barnstorming tour that spanned 19 games and 67 days, including games in Florida. As part of their agreement, the Bears received 50 percent of the ticket gate, while Pyle and Grange got the other half.
Considering Grange's popularity, rumors began surrounding his future after completing his senior year, including professional football and acting. A petition was also created to convince him to run for the Republican Party's at-large nomination for the 70th United States Congress; although he was only 22 years old at the time, supporters argued he would be within six months of the minimum age of 25 when the Congress opened in December 1927. Despite the speculation, Grange and those connected with him tried to dodge any inquiries that may affect his college athlete eligibility; when approached about a career in pro football, he denied it. He also turned down a potential college coaching career due to low pay.
Featuring a roster of mostly sophomores and backups, the Illini opened the season 1–3, including losing 14–0 in the season opener to Nebraska for their first loss at Memorial Stadium. This was followed by a 16–13 win over Butler and two straight losses to Iowa and Michigan; although Grange was contained against Nebraska and Michigan, he scored two touchdowns against Butler and on the opening kickoff against Iowa. During the Michigan game, Zuppke moved Grange to quarterback, but was a "marked man" in the defeat.
In the Illini's next game against the University of Pennsylvania, they faced a Quaker team considered one of the best in the eastern United States. In front of 60,000 fans, Grange recorded a career-high 237 yards through deep mud and scored three touchdowns; Penn struggled to keep up, prompting some Illinois lineman to call "Illinois rules the East!" prior to each play. On one play, Grange debuted the flea flicker, a trick play designed by Zuppke in which fullback Earl Britton received the snap from a fake field goal formation, which he threw to right end Chuck Kassel who lateraled back to Grange and ran for the score. As Illinois won 24–2, Laurence Stallings, a famed war correspondent for the New York World, said, "This story's too big for me. I can't write it." Grange's younger brother Garland also played football at Illinois. Columnist Damon Runyon wrote in his game recap, "This man Red Grange of Illinois is three or four men, and a horse rolled into one for football purposes. He is Jack Dempsey, Babe Ruth, Al Jolson, Paavo Nurmi and Man o'War. Put them all together. They spell Grange." When the team returned the next Monday, a contingent of 20,000 that included students and the mayors of Urbana and Champaign greeted them; when Grange tried to dodge the crowd, he was spotted and carried to his fraternity house. After the game, his number 77 was retired by the University of Illinois.[note 2]
Against the Chicago Maroons, Grange recorded –6 total rushing yards and 64 all-purpose yards in abysmal conditions. The following week against Wabash, he only appeared in the fourth quarter to call signals and did not record stats as the backups played much of the game.
Grange's final college game came against Ohio State in Columbus. Before the game, the Champaign News-Gazette conducted an interview with Grange and confronted him about signing a professional contract, which he firmly denied before leaving. In Columbus, Grange restricted himself to his hotel room to avoid the media, including having a teammate impersonate him for a pre-game parade. NFL President Joseph Carr, who had owned the local NFL team Columbus Panhandles, considered attending the game before he was hospitalized with appendicitis. In front of 85,000 fans, Grange recorded 113 rushing yards on 21 carries and 42 passing yards on nine throws as Illinois won 14–9.
In his 20-game college career, Grange ran for 3,362 yards, caught 14 passes for 253 yards, and completed 40 of 82 passes for 575 yards. Of his 31 touchdowns, 16 were from at least 20 yards, with nine from more than 50 yards. He scored at least one touchdown in every game he played but the Nebraska game. He earned All-America recognition three consecutive years, and appeared on the cover of Time on October 5, 1925.
In 2002, the NCAA published "NCAA Football's Finest," researched and compiled by the NCAA Statistics Service. For Grange they published the following statistics:
|Year||Carries||Rush yards||Average||Pass attempts||Completions||Pass yards||Interceptions||Plays||Total offense||Touchdowns||Points|
After the 1925 Ohio State game, Grange formally announced his intention to sign with the Bears, but other NFL teams also expressed interest in signing him. The Rochester Jeffersons made a last-ditch effort to sign him at a salary of $5,000 per game, but were unable to do so, a key factor in the team's demise. The New York Giants also reportedly offered $40,000 to him, a claim denied by team executive Harry March while owner Tim Mara noted the NFL did not allow college players to sign with teams and also had limits on how much money a team could offer. Still, Mara visited Chicago the same day that Grange signed with the Bears and secured a game against them in December.
Grange's decision was vilified by those in college football; at the time, professional football was viewed as a commercialized, weaker brand of its college counterpart. Head coaches Amos Alonzo Stagg and Yost of the Universities of Chicago and Michigan were noted opponents, as were Illinois athletic director George Huff and Zuppke. Yost once commented, "I'd be glad to see Grange do anything else except play professional football." During their return to their hotel from the Ohio State game, Zuppke repeatedly ordered their taxi driver to take various routes to prolong the ride and allow him to convince Grange to reconsider his decision. In response, Grange questioned why he should not be allowed to be paid for playing football if Zuppke was receiving pay as a coach. The two would not meet again until an Illini team banquet weeks later; during his speech, Zuppke openly criticized Grange, prompting an incensed Grange to leave.
On November 22, he formally hired Pyle as his agent and signed with the Bears. The contract earned him a salary and share of gate receipts that amounted to $100,000, during an era when typical league salaries were less than $100/game. Prior to joining his new teammates, he attended the Bears' game against the Green Bay Packers at Cubs Park, a game they won 21–0. Former Yale player Tim Callahan also announced he had secured Grange for a December Florida league he had organized.
Grange is the last player to play both college football and in the NFL in the same year. In 1926, the NFL passed the "Red Grange Rule" to forbid further players from doing the same, along with requiring NFL hopefuls' graduating classes to have left college, though both clauses would be tested in various instances. In 1930, the Bears signed Notre Dame fullback Joe Savoldi although he had withdrawn from school and been kicked off the team, a violation of the Grange Rule's graduating class prerequisite. The Bears argued that since Savoldi had been expelled, he was technically no longer a member of his Class of 1931; the team would be fined $1,000 for each game Savoldi played in. The NFL also maintained the rule prohibiting players from appearing in college and NFL games in the same season when TCU running back Kenneth Davis attempted to join the league after being suspended one game into his senior year in 1986.
The barnstorming tourEdit
Grange made his NFL debut on November 26, Thanksgiving Day, against the Chicago Cardinals. With only three days of practice in the Bears' T formation (he had played in the single wing offense in college), he recorded 92 rushing yards and an interception in the scoreless tie. A crowd of 40,000 attended the game. In the next game against the Columbus Tigers, he threw a touchdown pass and recorded 171 yards as the Bears won 14–7. Shortly after, Britton signed with the Bears, reuniting him with Grange.
In December, the Bears' schedule grew with eight games between December 2 and 13, including three against local all-star teams. The first game, against the Donnelly All-Stars at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis, saw Grange score four touchdowns in a 39–6 blowout. On December 5, he scored two touchdowns including the game winner against the Frankford Yellow Jackets. The next day, between 65,000 and 73,000 people showed up at the Polo Grounds to watch Grange, helping save the Giants' franchise from financial debt. Grange scored a touchdown on a 35-yard interception return in the Bears' 19–7 victory. Offensively, he ran for 53 yards on 11 carries, caught a 23-yard pass, and completed two of three passes for 32 yards. Before their next game against a Washington, D.C. all-star team, Pyle and Grange elected to remain in New York to promote themselves, receiving various endorsements.
In Washington, the Bears visited President Calvin Coolidge; when he was introduced to the team and shook hands with Grange, Coolidge responded, "Glad to meet you. I always did like animal acts." Although the Bears defeated Washington 19–0, Grange recorded only 16 rushing yards, no receiving and return yards, failed to complete a pass attempt (including one interception), and missed a field goal.
Despite the victories, the grueling schedule led to a rise in injuries. Grange had been hit in the left arm during the Giants game, causing it to swell by the team's next game against the Providence Steam Roller. The pain from the injury was too great for Grange, who could not bring himself to return a punt and allowed it to sail over his head; he was eventually pulled in the 9–6 loss. The match was widely criticized by fans and media, with a United News Service article commenting the "Grange bubble appears dangerously near the bursting point. Beneath the withering, pitiless spotlight of publicity, the red-headed youngster's fame may melt away like some of his own ice, leaving only a little dank, malodorous saw-dust." College football figures also proclaimed the game as evidence of professional football's inferiority; referee E. J. O'Brien described it as a "dismal failure." However, others like Princeton and Yale players Herbert Treat and Carl Flanders defended the sport and the Bears as their schedule was too overwhelming, and the latter added it had "a bright future."
"I was booed for the first time in my football career in the Boston game," Grange wrote in his autobiography. "It made me aware of something I had never thought of before—that the public's attitude toward a professional football player is quite different from the manner in which they view a college gridder. A pro's performance is evaluated much more critically and he is less likely to be forgiven when a mistake is made. A pro must deliver, or else."
Following the game, Grange hired E. B. Cooley as his personal doctor. Cooley was the father of Grange's friend and personal adviser Marion "Doc" Cooley, who was serving the position alongside their university classmate Dinty Moore. At Grange's father's request, his close friend Lyman "Beans" DeWolf also joined the team as a confidant.
The Bears' next game against a Pittsburgh all-star group saw the team in poor condition; before kickoff, former All-American Bo McMillin visited the team in the locker room and advised Grange to not play upon seeing his arm. At the start, only ten players were on the field, forcing Halas to choose between two injured linemen to serve as the required 11th man; center George Trafton was selected as he was able to at least stand and walk. Trainer Andy Lotshaw, who had never played football before, was also called to play tackle. 12 minutes into the game, Grange attempted to block for halfback Johnny Mohardt, but suffered a torn ligament and a broken blood vessel in his arm, the latter of which resulted in artery hemorrhaging. The Bears ultimately lost 24–0.
With Grange hurt, Chicago canceled a game against an all-star team in Cleveland, prompting the organizer to sue for breach of contract. Although Grange expressed confidence in playing the next game against the Detroit Panthers, he was forced to miss it after a blood clot developed in his arm; the Bears lost 21–0. The final game of the December tour against the Giants ended in a 9–0 defeat. "No other team before or since has ever attempted such a grueling schedule as the 1925 Bears and I'm sure never will," Grange wrote in his autobiography.
On December 21, the Bears traveled to Florida to play in Callahan's Florida league. To avoid further injuries like in the first tour, the team elected to have week-long breaks between stretches in which they played games on consecutive days. In their first game four days later against a Coral Gables team, Grange scored the lone touchdown and recorded 89 rushing yards in the 7–0 win.
Before the next game, rumors surfaced of Grange participating in a boxing match, but he did not accept. Chicago took on Jim Thorpe and the Tampa Cardinals on January 1, 1926. Grange had a 70-yard touchdown run in the 17–3 victory.
New York Yankees and the American Football LeagueEdit
After the second tour in January 1926, Pyle approached George Halas and Dutch Sternaman about buying an interest in the Bears, but was turned down. In response, he and Grange attempted to form their own team, New York Yankees, and gain entry into the NFL. Although they acquired a five-year lease to play at Yankee Stadium, Mara intervened as he felt the Yankees infringed on his Giants' territorial rights.
To challenge the NFL, the two formed the nine-team American Football League. In 1926, the Yankees went 9–5 to finish second in the standings. After the season, the team embarked on a ten-game barnstorming tour to Texas and California. During the tour, Grange and his teammates were arrested and fined $10 each for disturbing the peace, an incident that Grange described as "about the only memorable part of the tour." However, the league struggled with financial issues and only lasted one season, after which the Yankees were assimilated into the NFL.
On October 17, 1927, the Yankees were shut out 12–0 by the Bears in Chicago. With a minute remaining in the game, Grange suffered a severe knee injury when he was tackled by center George Trafton, whom Grange considered "the toughest, meanest, most ornery critter alive." As he was being brought down by his former teammate, Grange's cleat caught in the field, causing him to twist his knee as he landed. The injury ultimately affected Grange's speed and running ability, though he remained serviceable for the rest of his career. "After it happened, I was just another halfback," Grange commented.
After sitting out 1928, Grange returned to the Bears.
The two highlights of Grange's later NFL years came in consecutive championship games. In the unofficial 1932 championship, Grange caught the game-winning touchdown pass from Bronko Nagurski. It was argued the pass was illegal. In the 1933 championship, Grange made a touchdown-saving tackle that saved the game and the title for the Bears.
He was a very modest person, who insisted that even the ordinary plumber or electrician knows more about his craft than he does. He said he could not explain how he did what he did on the field of play, and that he just followed his instincts.
Pyle realized that as the greatest football star of his era, Grange could attract moviegoers, as well as sports fans. In 1926, he made his cinematic debut in the silent film One Minute to Play; Grange described the production process as "the worst drudgery I'd ever experienced." Due to California's summer heat and the film taking place in the Midwest during autumn, the studio struggled to find extras willing to dress in warmer clothing. As such, Pyle promoted the movie's climactic final game between Grange's character Red Wade's school and the antagonist George Wilson's, who had played against Grange on the barnstorming tour, as a genuine exhibition game with fans dressed in fall attire being granted free admission. The movie and Grange's performance received positive reviews, with one Chicago Tribune movie critic writing, "If you've never seen Red Grange play football, now's your chance, for he plays it like every thing in this picture." Film Booking Offices of America head Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. also asked Grange to consider retiring from football to enter acting full-time, but he declined.
|1926||One Minute to Play||Red Wade|
|1927||A Racing Romeo|
|1931||The Galloping Ghost||'Red' Grange||Serial, (final film role)|
Grange retired from professional football in 1934, earning a living in a variety of jobs including motivational speaker and sports announcer. In the 1950s, he announced Chicago Bears games for CBS television and college football (including the Sugar Bowl) for NBC. Grange married his wife Margaret, nicknamed Muggs, in 1941, and they were together until his death in 1991. She was a flight attendant, and they met on a plane. The couple had no children.
Grange's autobiography, first published in 1953, was The Red Grange Story. The book was written "as told to" Ira Morton, a syndicated newspaper columnist from Chicago.
To commemorate college football's 100th anniversary in 1969, the Football Writers Association of America chose an all-time All-America team. Grange was the only unanimous choice. 30 years later in 1999, he was ranked number 80 on The Sporting News list of the 100 Greatest Football Players. In 2008, Grange was also ranked #1 on ESPN's Top 25 Players In College Football History list.
In honor of his achievements at the University of Illinois, the school erected a 12-ft statue of Grange at the start of the 2009 football season. In 2011, Grange was announced as number one on the "Big Ten Icons" series presented by the Big Ten Network.
In 1931, Grange visited Abington Senior High School in Abington, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia. Shortly thereafter, the school adopted his nickname for the mascot in his honor, the Galloping Ghost. Also, Wheaton Warrenville South High School's football field is named in his honor and the team is referred to as the Wheaton Warrenville South Red Grange Tigers. Annually, the Wheaton Warrenville South Boys Track and Field team hosts the Red Grange Invitational in honor of Grange's achievements in track and field.
Every December, a junior college bowl game is held in his honor known as the Red Grange Bowl, in his home state of Illinois.
In popular cultureEdit
- George Waite, the male love interest in the 1926 film version of Ella Cinders, is a parody of Grange, sharing the real-life running back's alma mater and side job as an iceman.
- In the song "With Her Head Tucked Underneath Her Arm" as released in 1960 by The Kingston Trio on their album Sold Out, guards in the Tower of London mistake Anne Boleyn, haunting the castle with her head tucked underneath her arm after being beheaded, for Red Grange carrying a football.
- The 2008 movie Leatherheads, starring George Clooney, John Krasinski, and Renée Zellweger, was loosely based on Grange.
- Grange was the first football player to ever appear on a box of Wheaties.
- Al Bundy is mistaken for Red Grange several times in the Married ... with Children episode "Poke High".
- In the play Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, the lead character, Willy Loman, says that his football-playing son (Biff) will be the next Red Grange.
- In M*A*S*H, season 3, episode 21 ("Big Mac"), Major Frank Burns is chided for burning The Life of Red Grange.
- In the American Dad! episode "The Magnificent Steven", while trying to teach Steve and his friends to be tough by playing football, Stan finds the boys hiding from the sunlight under a tree and exclaims "What, in the name of Red Grange, is going on?!"
- In the movie The Right Stuff, Chuck Yeager (played by Sam Shepard) says he'll "look like the Gallopin' Ghost" in the leather helmet Ridley gives him to wear on his Bell X-1 test flight.
- In Hogan's Heroes, season 5, episode 25, seargant Carter attempts to describe Field Marshall Rommel as "The Galloping Ghost" to which Seargant Kinchloe replies, "That was Red Grange."
- The site of the original Wheaton Grade School and Wheaton High School housed in the same physical building constructed in 1874 and in operation with classes in 1876 is now known as Longfellow Elementary School.
- Only one other number has been retired in the history of Illinois football, 50, worn by Dick Butkus, another Bears player.
- "Red Grange". College Football Hall of Fame. Football Foundation. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- "Red Grange, Football Hero of 1920's, Dead at 87". The New York Times. January 29, 1991.
- Rosenthal, Phil (December 3, 2009). "Chicago Tribune Silver Football, the Big Ten's MVP award, is headed to TV". Tower Ticker. Chicago Tribune
- "About Harold "Red" Grange". Wheaton High. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- Allen, Frederick Lewis (January 1, 1931). "Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920's". John Wiley & Sons – via Google Books.
- "The Galloping Ghost". American Heritage. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- "IHSA Boys Track & Field Medalists".
- Schwartz, Larry. "Galloping Ghost scared opponents". ESPN. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "Red Will Be Offered Bout on Boxing Card In City Friday Night". The Tampa Tribune. December 27, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Ghost of Illinois". ESPN. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- "Football Hero Keeps Warm and Shuns Memories". The New York Times. January 1, 1988.
- Tribune, Chicago. "90 years ago: Red Grange's amazing game".
- Grange 1953, p. 91–92.
- Halas, George (January 26, 1967). "Galloping Ghost's U.S. Tour Got Pro Football Off and Running". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Carroll 2004, p. 92.
- Crusinberry, James (September 30, 1925). "Pro Leaders seek Red Grange for Eastern games". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Grange 1953, p. 70.
- Grange 1953, p. 71.
- Grange 1953, p. 75.
- "Football Matches". Time. Time Inc. November 8, 1927. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
- Runyon, Damon (November 1, 1925). "Penn Trampled Under Flying Feet of Red Grange, Score 24-2". The Tampa Tribune. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "20,000 Welcome Illini Home; Red Greeted Like Emperor". Chicago Tribune. November 2, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Illinois Football History: Retired Numbers". Illinois Fighting Illini. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- Woodruff, Harvey (November 8, 1925). "Illini Wade To 13-6 Victory Over Chicago: Maroon Line Stops Grange, But Fumbles Cost 'Em Game". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Gallivan Star as Illini 2ds Defeat Wabash, 21-0". The Decatur Herald. AP. November 15, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Grange 1953, p. 93.
- Carroll 2004, p. 94.
- Willis, Chris (August 19, 2010). "14". The Man Who Built the National Football League: Joe F. Carr. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810876701.
- "NCAA Football's Finest" (PDF). NCAA. 2002. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Carroll, Bob. "THE TOWN THAT HATED PRO FOOTBALL". Archived from the original on March 19, 2006. Retrieved August 11, 2012.. Pro Football Researchers Association Coffin Corner: Vol. III, 1981.
- "World knocks at Grange's door". The Morning News. AP. November 12, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Grange 1953, p. 89.
- Grange 1953, p. 96.
- Grange 1953, p. 97.
- "Reports still conflict on plans of Red Grange". Atlanta Constitution. November 21, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "'Red Grange Rule' stops Davis' entry". Latrobe Bulletin. AP. October 12, 1985. Retrieved May 23, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bears Liable to $1,000 Fine and Loss of Franchise for Using Joe Savoldi, Claim". Green Bay Press-Gazette. November 27, 1930. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Joe Savoldi Signs to Play with Bears". Chicago Tribune. November 23, 1930. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Willis, Chris (August 19, 2010). The Man Who Built the National Football League: Joe F. Carr. Scarecrow Press. p. 264. ISBN 0810876701.
- "TCU's Davis drops lawsuit against NFL". The Salina Journal. AP. October 18, 1985. Retrieved May 23, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Grange 1953, p. 99.
- "'Red' Grange plays bang-up game but bets his team can do is tie". The Morning Call. AP. November 27, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "35,000 cheer as Grange batters Columbus Tiger". The Evening News. November 30, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Britton, Illinois Star, Joins Chicago Eleven". The Evening News. November 30, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Carroll, John M. "The impact of Red Grange on pro football in 1925" (PDF). Pro Football Researchers Association. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Alexander, John H. (December 3, 1925). "Grange's shifty running delights crowd of 5300 as Bears win". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Hunt, Marshall (December 6, 1925). "Chicago Bears beat Frankford at Shibe Park". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Neft, David S., Cohen, Richard M., and Korch, Rick. The Complete History of Professional Football from 1892 to the Present. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994 ISBN 0-312-11435-4 p. 52
*Gottehrer, Barry. The Giants of New York, the history of professional football's most fabulous dynasty. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1963 OCLC 1356301 pp. 35–6
*Vidmer, Richard. 70,000 See Grange in Pro Debut Here, The New York Times, December 7, 1925, accessed December 3, 2010.
- Grange 1953, p. 102.
- D'Angelo, Robert (September 13, 1987). "At 84, NFL savior Red Grange prefers baseball". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- ""Where Do You Live?" Coolidge Asks Grange". The Tennessean. December 9, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Pegler, Westbrook (December 9, 1925). "Bears Beat Washington by 19-0; Harold Stopped". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Carroll 2004, p. 115.
- "Red Grange Bubble is nearing the bursting point". Davenport Daily Times. United News Service. December 10, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Experts disappointed in Braves Field game". The Boston Globe. December 10, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Grange 1953, p. 103–104.
- "Grange, Like President, Expected to Have Personal Physician / Red Grange Insists On Father Taking $1000 From First Receipts". The Boston Globe. AP. December 10, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Carroll 2004, p. 116.
- Grange 1953, p. 104.
- "Pittsburgh All-Stars Hand Trouncing To Chicago Bears, 24-0". Montgomery Advertiser. December 11, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Grange 1954, p. 105–106.
- "Grange on his way to play at Detroit". Lincoln Journal Star. UP. December 11, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bears harmless". The Butte Miner. AP. December 13, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bears defeat Redless Bears by 9 to 0 score". Quad-City Times. December 14, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Grange 1953, p. 107.
- "Grange, Bears invade Florida". The Des Moines Register. December 21, 1925 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Grange act billed for San Francisco today". Los Angeles Times. January 23, 1926. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Red Grange Presents Bears With Touchdown And Helps Defeat Coral Gables Team". Pensacola News Journal. AP. December 26, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Red Grange Refuses to Take Boxing Contract". The Minneapolis Star. December 29, 1925. Retrieved June 15, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
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