Hogan's Heroes is an American television sitcom set in a German prisoner of war (POW) camp during World War II. It ran for 168 episodes (six seasons) from September 17, 1965, to April 4, 1971, on the CBS network, the longest broadcast run for an American television series inspired by that war.
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||6|
|No. of episodes||168 (Pilot episode—B/W; 167—color) (list of episodes)|
|Producer(s)||Edward H. Feldman|
|Running time||25 minutes|
|Picture format||4:3 SDTV|
|Original release||September 17, 1965 –|
March 28, 1971
Bob Crane starred as Colonel Robert E. Hogan, coordinating an international crew of Allied prisoners running a special operations group from the camp. Werner Klemperer played Colonel Wilhelm Klink, the gullible commandant of the camp, and John Banner played the blundering but lovable sergeant-of-the-guard, Hans Schultz.
Hogan's Heroes centers on U.S. Army Air Forces Colonel Robert Hogan and his staff of experts who are prisoners of war (POW) in 1942. The plot occurs in the fictional Stalag 13, located in an unspecified place in Nazi Germany, where the winter season is permanent. One episode, "Anchors Aweigh, Men of Stalag 13" mentions the camp being located 60 miles (96 km) from the North Sea. Although the nearby town of Hammelburg shares a name with a town in Lower Franconia, this is coincidental. The group secretly uses the camp to conduct Allied espionage and sabotage and to help escaped Allied POWs from other prison camps via a secret network of tunnels that operate under the ineptitude of commandant Colonel Klink and his main Sergeant Schultz. The prisoners cooperate with resistance groups (collectively called "the Underground"), defectors, spies, counterspies, and disloyal officers to accomplish this. They devise schemes such as having Sergeant Andrew Carter visit the camp disguised as Adolf Hitler as a distraction, or rescuing a French Underground agent from Gestapo headquarters in Paris.
To the bafflement of his German colleagues who know him as an incompetent sycophant, Klink technically has a perfect operational record as camp commandant as no prisoners have successfully escaped during his tenure; Hogan and his men assist in maintaining this record so they can continue with their covert operations. Considering Klink's record, and the fact that the Allies would never bomb a POW camp, Stalag 13 appears to be a very secure location. As a result, the Germans often use the camp for high-level meetings, to hide important persons and develop secret projects. Klink frequently has many other important visitors and is temporarily put in charge of special prisoners. This brings the prisoners in contact with many important VIPs, scientists, spies, high-ranking officers, and some of Germany's most sophisticated and secret weapons projects such as the Wunderwaffe and the German nuclear weapons program, of which the prisoners take advantage in their efforts to hinder the German war effort.
|First aired||Last aired|
|1||32||September 17, 1965||April 29, 1966|
|2||30||September 16, 1966||April 7, 1967|
|3||30||September 9, 1967||March 30, 1968|
|4||26||September 28, 1968||March 22, 1969|
|5||26||September 26, 1969||March 27, 1970|
|6||24||September 20, 1970||April 4, 1971|
The scenes filmed outside the supposed Nazi detention camp are not very frequent, due to the series plot. The setting is the fictional Luft Stalag 13, a prisoner-of-war camp for captured Allied airmen. Like the historical Stalag XIII-C, it is located just outside of a town called Hammelburg, though it is inconsistently placed throughout the series. In the second-season episode "Killer Klink", Sergeant Schultz states that the camp is 106.7 kilometres (66.3 mi) away from his home in Heidelberg by direct flight; this is well reflective of Heidelberg's direct distance from the actual Hammelburg. The show is a combination of several writing styles that were popular in the 1960s: the "wartime" show, the "spy" show, and "camp comedy".
Although in reality Hammelburg is well inland in Franconia, several first-season episodes place the camp closer to the North Sea (perhaps to make successful escapes to England more plausible). In "Anchors Aweigh, Men of Stalag 13", Colonel Klink specifies that the camp is 60 miles (97 km) from the North Sea; three episodes earlier ("Hogan's Hofbrau"), he had stated that the coast was a mere 5 miles (8 km) away. To complicate matters even further, it is mentioned in several episodes (e.g. "The Safecracker Suite") that the nearest major city to the camp is Düsseldorf, which is also fairly far inland and by air is about 157 miles (253 km) from the actual Hammelburg. In the second-season episode "Diamonds in the Rough", at 15:31, a road sign near the camp reads "Somburg" 78 kilometres (48 mi), "Hamilburg" [sic] 45 kilometres (28 mi), and "Dusseldorf" [sic] 25 kilometres (16 mi) in one direction and "Hafberg" 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in the other direction.
The camp has 103 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) during the first season, but becomes larger by the end of the series.
In Stalag 13 it is always a snowy winter. Beyond recreating an extreme or adverse setting, this was to prevent problems with continuity and to allow the episodes to be shown in any order. The result is a cold place "where time has stopped".
Bob Crane as Colonel Robert Hogan, the senior ranking POW officer and the leader of the men in the POW camp. He uses his wit and ingenuity in missions to counter the Nazis' battle plans. Crane was offered the role after appearing as "guy next door" types in television shows like The Dick Van Dyke Show and as a regular in The Donna Reed Show.
Werner Klemperer as Colonel Wilhelm Klink, the commandant of the POW camp. He is painfully unaware of Hogan's operation and believes the camp has a perfect escape record under his command. In real life, Klemperer was from a Jewish family (his father was the famous orchestral conductor Otto Klemperer) and found the role to be a "double-edged sword"; his agent initially failed to tell him the role of Klink was intended to be comedic. Klemperer remarked, "I had one qualification when I took the job: if they ever wrote a segment whereby Colonel Klink would come out the hero, I would leave the show."
John Banner as Sergeant Hans Schultz, the camp's sergeant-at-arms. He is a clumsy and inept, but extremely affable man who often gives out information to the prisoners for bribes, often LeBeau's gourmet cooking. Banner was born to Jewish parents and was in fact a sergeant during World War II, but in the U.S. Army.
Robert Clary as Corporal Louis LeBeau, a gourmet chef, and patriotic Frenchman. He has trained the guard dogs to be friendly towards the prisoners and uses their kennels as tunnels to bring their allies into. Clary is Jewish in real life and was deported to a Nazi concentration camp but survived by using his talent in singing and dancing in shows. Clary said in an interview with the Los Angeles Times, "Singing, entertaining, and being in kind of good health at my age, that's why I survived. I was very immature and young and not really fully realizing what situation I was involved with ... I don't know if I would have survived if I really knew that." Since the death of Richard Dawson in 2012, Clary has been the last surviving member of the main cast.
Richard Dawson as Corporal Peter Newkirk, the group's conman, magician, pick-pocket, card sharp, forger, bookie, tailor, lock picker, and safe cracker. He is a skilled tailor and is in charge of making uniforms for POWs impersonating high ranking German officials. Dawson's role as a military member[circular reference][circular reference] in the film King Rat was reportedly the reason for his spot in Hogan's Heroes.
Ivan Dixon as Staff Sergeant James Kinchloe, the man responsible for contacting the underground by electronic communications [he was an aircrew radioman]. Kinchloe usually uses Morse code, telephones, and a coffee pot radio to receive and transmit messages. Casting Dixon, or any African-American actor as a positively-shown supporting character, was a major step for a television show in the mid-1960s. Dixon left the show prior to the final season and was replaced by Kenneth Washington as Sgt. Richard Baker, another African-American character but with a less leading role.
Larry Hovis as Technical Sergeant Andrew Carter, a bombardier who is an expert in chemistry, explosives, and demolitions. He is in charge of making and producing chemicals, and explosive devices in order to thwart the Nazis' plans. Hovis was discovered by Richard Linke, the producer of The Andy Griffith Show, and was a recurring character on Gomer Pyle U.S.M.C. before landing the role of Sergeant Carter.
- Friday at 8:30–9:00 p.m. on CBS: September 17, 1965 – April 7, 1967; September 26, 1969 – March 27, 1970
- Saturday at 9:00–9:30 p.m. on CBS: September 9, 1967 – March 22, 1969
- Sunday at 7:30–8:00 p.m. on CBS: September 20, 1970 – April 4, 1971
Hogan's Heroes was filmed in two locations. Indoor sets were housed at Desilu Studios, later renamed as Paramount Studios for Season Four and then Cinema General Studios for Seasons Five and Six. Outdoor scenes were filmed on the 40 Acres Backlot. Both studios were in Culver City, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Undoubtedly, one of the most original and curious aspects was to create the effect that there was always a snowy winter, something unusual in warm Southern California, but normal in the German winter. The actors had to wear warm clothes and frequently act like they were cold, even though it was warm for much of the year and usually hot during summer.
Although it was never snowing on the film set and the weather was apparently sunny, there was snow on the ground and building roofs, and frost on the windows. The set designers created the illusion of snow two ways: the snow during the first several seasons was made out of salt. By the fourth season the show’s producers found a more permanent solution and lower cost, using white paint to give the illusion of snow. By the sixth and final season – with a smaller budget – most of the snow shown on the set was made out of paint.
The theme music was composed by Jerry Fielding, who added lyrics to the theme for Hogan's Heroes Sing The Best of World War II – an album featuring Dixon, Clary, Dawson, and Hovis singing World War II songs. The song also appeared on the album Bob Crane, His Drums and Orchestra, Play the Funny Side of TV.
The actors who played the four major German roles—Werner Klemperer (Klink), John Banner (Schultz), Leon Askin (Burkhalter), and Howard Caine (Hochstetter)—were Jewish. Furthermore, Klemperer, Banner, Askin, and Robert Clary (LeBeau) were Jews who had fled the Nazis during World War II. Clary says in the recorded commentary on the DVD version of episode "Art for Hogan's Sake" that he spent three years in a concentration camp, that his parents and other family members were killed there, and that he has an identity tattoo from the camp on his arm ("A-5714"). Likewise, John Banner had been held in a (pre-war) concentration camp and his family was killed during the war. Leon Askin was also in pre-war France internment camp and his parents were killed at Treblinka. Howard Caine, who was also Jewish (his birth name was Cohen), was American, and Jewish actors Harold Gould and Harold J. Stone made multiple appearances playing German generals. As a teenager, Klemperer fled Hitler's Germany with his family in 1933. During the show's production, he insisted that Hogan always win against his Nazi captors, or else he would not take the part of Klink. He defended his playing a Luftwaffe officer by claiming, "I am an actor. If I can play Richard III, I can play a Nazi." Banner attempted to sum up the paradox of his role by saying, "Who can play Nazis better than us Jews?" Klemperer, Banner, Caine, Gould, and Askin play stereotypical World War II Germans, and all had served in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II—Banner and Askin in the U.S. Army Air Corps, Caine in the U.S. Navy, Gould with the U.S. Army, and Klemperer in a U.S. Army Entertainment Unit. Werner Klemperer had in 1961 starred as the title character in the serious drama Operation Eichmann, which also featured John Banner in a supporting role as a committed Nazi. Ruta Lee, Theodore Marcuse, and Oscar Beregi, Jr. also appeared in the film, each went on to make several guest appearances on Hogan’s Heroes.
German release: Ein Käfig voller HeldenEdit
Despite being an open parody of the Nazis and its international success, the series was unknown on German television for decades due to the language barrier. One of the most notable inconsistencies of the show was that none of their characters spoke German except for some single words, although the scenario was created in an imaginary Germany. This aspect was simply ignored to facilitate dialogue in English.
German film distributor KirchGruppe acquired broadcasting rights to the show but initially did not air it out of fear that it would offend viewers. In 1992, episodes were shown on German television for the first time, but the program failed to connect with viewers due to issues with lip syncing. However, after the dialogue was rewritten to make the characters look even more foolish (which ensured that the viewers understood the characters were caricatures), the show became successful.
The show was first aired with a title that translates roughly as 'Barbed Wire and Heels'. Soon it was renamed, somewhat more whimsically in German to 'Ein Käfig voller Helden' ("A cage full of Heroes"), to make it closer to the German viewer. Klink and Schultz's characters were given broad Saxon and Bavarian dialects, playing on regional stereotypes to underline the notion that they are comic figures. An unseen original character -- "Kalinke"—was introduced as Klink's cleaning lady and a perennial mistress who he described as performing most of her cleaning duties in the nude.
Donald Bevan and Edmund Trzcinski, the writers of the 1951 play Stalag 17, a World War II prisoner-of-war story turned into a 1953 feature film by Paramount Pictures, sued Bing Crosby Productions, the show’s producer, for infringement. Their lawsuit was unsuccessful. While the jury found in favor of the plaintiffs, the federal judge overruled them. The judge found "striking difference in the dramatic mood of the two works."
In 2012, an arbitration hearing was scheduled to determine whether Bernard Fein and Albert S. Ruddy, the creators of the show, had transferred the right to make a movie of Hogan's Heroes to Bing Crosby Productions along with the television rights or had retained the derivative movie rights. In 2013, Fein (through his estate) and Ruddy acquired the sequel and other separate rights to Hogan’s Heroes from Mark Cuban via arbitration, and a movie based on the show was planned.
Hogan's Heroes won two Emmy Awards out of twelve nominations. Both wins were for Werner Klemperer as Best Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series, in 1968 and 1969. Klemperer received nominations in the same category in 1966, 1967 and 1970. The series' other nominations were for Best Outstanding Comedy Series in 1966, 1967 and 1968; Bob Crane for Best Actor in a Comedy Series in 1966 and 1967; Nita Talbot for Best Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series in 1968; and Gordon Avil for cinematography in 1968.
Note: The highest average rating for the series is in bold text.
|2) 1966–1967||#17||21.8 (Tied with The CBS Friday Night Movies)|
|3) 1967–1968||Not in the Top 30|
CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released all six seasons of Hogan's Heroes on DVD in regions 1 and 4. The series was previously released by Columbia House as individual discs, each with five or six consecutive episodes, as well as on a compilation 42 VHS collection of the 168 episodes.
In Australia (Region 4), the first DVD Releases were from Time Life (from around 2002-2005) with each disc sold individually with 4-5 episodes per disc, each volume would be titled from the first episode of each disc. Season 1 had eight volumes, Seasons 2 and 3 had seven volumes, Seasons 4, 5 and 6 had six volumes. Between 2005-2007 these same discs were packaged as individual Complete Season collections.
|DVD Name||Episodes||Release dates|
|Region 1||Region 4|
|The Complete First Season||32||March 15, 2005||July 30, 2008|
|The Complete Second Season||30||September 27, 2005||November 7, 2008|
|The Complete Third Season||30||March 7, 2006||March 5, 2009|
|The Complete Fourth Season||26||August 15, 2006||June 3, 2009|
|The Complete Fifth Season||26||December 19, 2006||August 4, 2009|
|The Complete Sixth and Final Season||24||June 5, 2007||September 30, 2009|
|The Complete Series (The Kommandant's Collection)||168||November 10, 2009||December 3, 2009|
|The Complete Series||168||March 8, 2016
December 17, 2019 (Repackaged)
|August 12, 2020|
Merchandise and promotionEdit
In 1965, Fleer produced a 66-trading card set based on the series. Dell Comics produced nine issues of a series based on the show from 1966 to 1969, all with photo covers. The artwork was provided by Henry Scarpelli. Mad magazine #108 (January 1967) parodied the show as "Hokum's Heroes". An additional one-page parody called "Hochman's Heroes" took the show's premise to the next level by setting it in Buchenwald concentration camp.
In 1968, Clary, Dawson, Dixon, and Hovis recorded an album titled Hogan's Heroes Sing The Best of World War II, which included lyrics for the theme song. While the show was in production, Crane, Klemperer, Askin, and Banner all appeared (as different characters) in the 1968 film The Wicked Dreams of Paula Schultz.
- "Hogan's Heroes: Behind the Scenes at Stalag 13," by Brenda Scott Royce, pages 24-25, Renaissance Books, 1998
- "Stalag 13 History: What Really Happened There?".
- "Cinema Retro Hosts Book Event for Authors Robert Crane and Christopher Fryer". Cinemaretro. May 8, 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- "Bob Crane Interview - August 4th, 1972" (Interview). August 4, 1972.
- Weinraub, Bernard (December 8, 2000). "Werner Klemperer, Klink in 'Hogan's Heroes,' Dies at 80". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- Charles Witbeck (April 16, 1967). "Ex-Villain John Banner Turns 'Good Guy'". Fresno Bee. p. 96 – via Newspapers.com.
- "John Banner, the Sgt. Schultz Of 'Hogan's Heroes,' Dies at 63". The New York Times. February 2, 1973. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- Susan King (March 24, 2013). "Robert Clary a survivor in life and entertainment". Los Angeles Times.
- "Richard Dawson role in King Rat not of a prisoner".
- "Richard Dawson role in King Rat not of a prisoner".
- "Hogan's Heroes star Richard Dawson dies". ABC News. June 3, 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- Hayward, Anthony (16 May 2008). "Ivan Dixon: Kinchloe in 'Hogan's Heroes'". The Independent. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- "Larry Hovis - Actor, singer". Variety. September 10, 2003. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- Royce, Brenda Scott (October 15, 1998). Hogan’s Heroes: Behind the Scenes at Stalag 13. Renaissance Books. p. 22. ISBN 978-1580630313. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Sara Buttsworth; Maartje Abbenhuis, eds. (2010). Monsters in the Mirror: Representations of Nazism in Post-war Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 105. ISBN 9780313382161. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
- Weintraub, Bernard (December 8, 2000). "Werner Klemperer, Klink in 'Hogan's Heroes,' Dies at 80". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "John Banner aka "Sergeant Schultz" query". Axis History Forum. December 20, 2007. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Steinmetz, Greg (May 31, 1996). "In Germany Now, Col. Klink's Maid Cleans in the Nude". The Wall Street Journal. Hogan's Heroes Fan Club. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 24, 2003. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Gardner, Eric (March 21, 2012). "WGA Fights Over Movie Rights to 'Hogan's Heroes'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
- Fleming, Jr., Mike (March 15, 2013). "'Hogan's Heroes' Rights Won Back By Creators Al Ruddy And Bernard Fein; They're Plotting New Movie". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "Nominations | Television Academy". Emmys.com. 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
- "'The Complete Series' is Getting a DVD Re-Release Soon! Box". TVShowsOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- "Fleer Hogan's Heroes 1965 Trading Card Set". Oldbubblegumcards.com. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
- "Henry Scarpelli".
- "Mad #108 January 1967". Doug Gilford's Mad Cover Site. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- "Hogan's Heroes Sing The Best of World War II". Hogan's Heroes Fan Club. Archived from the original on September 4, 2006. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
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