Rajatarangini (Rājataraṃgiṇī, "The River of Kings") is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE. The work consists of 7826 verses, which are divided into eight books called Tarangas ("waves").
The Rajataringini provides the earliest source on Kashmir that can be labeled as a "historical" text on this region. Although inaccurate in its chronology, the book still provides an invaluable source of information about early Kashmir and its neighbours in the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent, and has been widely referenced by later historians and ethnographers.
Little is known about the author Kalhana (c. 12th century CE), apart from what is written in the book. His father Champaka was the minister (Lord of the Gate) in the court of Harsha of Kashmir. In the first Taranga (book) of Rajatarangini, Kalhana expresses his dissatisfaction with the earlier historical books, and presents his own views on how history ought to be written:
- Verse 7. Fairness: That noble-minded author is alone worthy of praise whose word, like that of a judge, keeps free from love or hatred in relating the facts of the past.
- Verse 11. Cite earlier authors: The oldest extensive works containing the royal chronicles [of Kashmir] have become fragmentary in consequence of [the appearance of] Suvrata's composition, who condensed them in order that (their substance) might be easily remembered.
- Verse 12. Suvrata's poem, though it has obtained celebrity, does not show dexterity in the exposition of the subject-matter, as it is rendered troublesome [reading] by misplaced learning.
- Verse 13. Owing to a certain want of care, there is not a single part in Ksemendra's "List of Kings" (Nrpavali) free from mistakes, though it is the work of a poet.
- Verse 14. Eleven works of former scholars containing the chronicles of the kings, I have inspected, as well as the [Purana containing the] opinions of the sage Nila.
- Verse 15. By looking at the inscriptions recording the consecretations of temples and grants by former kings, at laudatory inscriptions and at written works, the trouble arising from many errors has been overcome.
Despite these stated principles, Kalhana's work is also full of legends and inconsistencies (see Historical reliability below).
List of kingsEdit
The kings of Kashmir described in the Rajatarangini are given below. Notes in parentheses refer to a book ("Taranga") and verse. Thus (IV.678) is Book IV verse 678. The summary is from J.C. Dutt's translation. Kalhana's work uses Kali and Laukika (or Saptarishi) calendar eras: the ascension year in CE, as given below, has been calculated by Dutt based on Kalhana's records.
Kalhana mentions that Gonanda I ascended the throne in 653 Kali calendar era. According to Jogesh Chander Dutt's calculation, this year corresponds to 2448 BCE. The total reign of the following kings is mentioned as 1266 years.
|Gonanda I||Contemporary of Yudhishthira, a relative of Magadha's ruler Jarasindhu (I.59). He was killed by Balarama, the elder brother of Jarasandha's enemy Krishna.|
|Damodara I||Killed in a battle with by Krishna's friends|
|Yashovati||Wife of Damodara. She was pregnant at the time of her husband's death, and Krishna helped her ascend the throne.|
|Gonanda II||Son of Yashovati and Damodara|
|35 kings (names lost)||A manuscript titled Ratnakar Purana supposedly contained these names, and was translated into Persian by the orders of the later Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abidin. The purported original manuscript as well as its translation are now lost. A Muslim historian named Hassan is said to have obtained a copy of the translation, and the later Muslim historians provided a fabricated list of 35 names ending in -Khan.|
|Lava||Son of Shri Rama|
|Kusheshaya (Kusha)||Son of Lava|
|Khagendra||Son of Kusha|
|Surendra||Son of Khagendra|
|Godhara||Belonged to a different family from Lava's dynasty (I.95)|
|Suvarna||Known for constructing a canal named Suvarnamani|
|Janaka||Unsuccessfully invaded Persia|
|Ashoka||Great-grandson of Shakuni and son of Shachinara's first cousin. Built a great city called Srinagara (near but not same as the modern-day Srinagar). In his days, the mlechchhas (foreigners) overran the country, and he took sannyasa. According to Kalhana's account, this Ashoka would have ruled in the 2nd millennium BCE, and was a member of the dynasty founded by Godhara. Kalhana also states that this king had adopted the doctrine of Jina, constructed stupas and Shiva temples, and appeased Bhutesha (Shiva) to obtain his son Jalauka. Despite the discrepancies, multiple scholars identify Kalhana's Ashoka with the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, who adopted Buddhism. Although "Jina" is a term generally associated with Jainism, some ancient sources use it to refer to the Buddha.|
|Jalauka (Jaloka)||A staunch Shaivite, who constructed several Shiva temples. He rid the country from the mlechchhas (foreigners, possibly Greco-Bactrians). Romila Thapar equates Jalauka to the Mauryan prince Kunala, arguing that "Jalauka" is an erroneous spelling caused by a typographical error in Brahmi script.|
|Damodara II||Devout Shaivite. Built a new city called Damodarasuda, and a dam called Guddasetu.|
|Hushka, Jushka, and Kanishka||Buddhist kings of Turashka origin (according to Kalhana). The third king is identified with Kanishka of the Kushan Empire.|
|Abhimanyu I||A Shaivite during whose reigns Buddhists also flourished. Because of the rising Buddhist influence, people stopped following the Shaivite Nāga rites prescribed in the holy text Nila Purana. This angered the Nāgas, who heavily persecuted the Buddhists. To avoid this disorder, the king retired. A Brahmin named Chandradeva restored Shaivite rites by worshipping Shiva.|
The Gonanditya dynasty ruled Kashmir for 1002 years.
|Gonanda III||35 years||1182 BCE||Gonanda III founded a new dynasty. (I.191) He belonged to Rama's lineage, and restored the Nāga rites|
|Vibhishana I||53 years, 6 months||1147 BCE|
|Indrajit||35 years||1094 BCE|
|Ravana||30 years, 6 months||-||A Shivalinga attributed to Ravana could still be seen at the time of Kalhana.|
|Vibhishana II||35 years, 6 months||1058 BCE|
|Nara I (Kinnara)||40 years, 9 months||1023 BCE||His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. He tried to abduct a Nāga woman, who was the wife of a Brahmin. Because of this, the Nāga chief burnt down the king's city, and the king died in the fire.|
|Siddha||60 years||983 BCE||Siddha, the son of Nara, was saved from Nāga's fury, because he was away from the capital at the time. He was a religious king, and followed a near-ascetic lifestyle.|
|Utpalaksha||30 years, 6 months||923 BCE||Son of Siddha|
|Hiranyaksha||37 years, 7 months||893 BCE||Son of Utpalaksha|
|Hiranyakula||60 years||855 BCE||Son of Hiranyaksha|
|Vasukula (Mukula)||60 years||795 BCE||Son of Hiranyakula. During his reign, the Mlechchhas (possibly Hunas) overran Kashmir.|
|Mihirakula||70 years||735 BCE||Identified with the Huna ruler Mihirakula (6th century CE), although Kalhana does not mention him as a Huna, and places him nearly 1200 years earlier. According to historical evidence, Mihirakula's predecessor was Toramana. Kalhana mentions a king called Toramana, but places him much later, in Book 3. According to Kalhana, Mihirakula was a cruel ruler who ordered killings of a large number of people, including children, women and elders. He invaded the Sinhala Kingdom, and replaced their king with a cruel man. As he passed through Chola, Karnata and other kingdoms on his way back to Kashmir, the rulers of these kingdoms fled their capitals and returned only after he had gone away. On his return to Kashmir, he ordered killings of 100 elephants, who had been startled by the cries of a fallen elephant. Once, Mihirakula dreamt that a particular stone could be moved only by a chaste woman. He put this to test: the women who were unable to move the stone were killed, along with their husbands, sons and brothers. He was supported by some immoral Brahmins. In his old age, the king committed self-immolation.|
|Vaka (Baka)||63 years, 18 days||665 BCE||A virtuous king, he was seduced and killed by a woman named Vatta, along with several of his sons and grandsons.|
|Kshitinanda||30 years||602 BCE||The only surviving child of Vaka|
|Vasunanda||52 years, 2 months||572 BCE||"Originator of the science of love"|
|Nara II||60 years||520 BCE||Son of Vasunanda|
|Aksha||60 years||460 BCE||Son of Nara II|
|Gopaditya||60 years, 6 days||400 BCE||Son of Aksha. Gave lands to Brahmins. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-Sattvic diet); in their place, he brought others from foreign countries.|
|Gokarna||57 years, 11 months||340 BCE||Son of Gopaditya|
|Narendraditya I (Khingkhila)||36 years, 3 months, 10 days||282 BCE||Son of Gokarna|
|Yudhisthira I||34 years, 5 months, 1 day||246 BCE||Called "the blind" because of his small eyes. In later years of his reign, he started patronizing unwise persons, and the wise courtiers deserted him. He was deposed by rebellious ministers, and granted asylum by a neighbouring king. His descendant Meghavahana later restored the dynasty's rule.|
|Pratapaditya I||32 years||167 BCE||Pratapaditya was a relative of a distant king named Vikrmaditya (II.6). This Vikramaditya is not same as the Vikramaditya of Ujjain, who is mentioned later as a patron of Matrigupta.|
|Jalauka||32 years||135 BCE||Son of Pratapaditya|
|Tungjina I||36 years||103 BCE||Shared the administration with his queen. The couple sheltered their citizens in the royal palace during a severe famine resulting from heavy frost. After his death, the queen committed sati. The couple died childless.|
|Vijaya||8 years||67 BCE||From a different dynasty than Tungjina.|
|Jayendra||37 years||59 BCE||Son of Vijaya: his "long arms reached to his knees". His flatters instigated him against his minister Sandhimati. The minister was persecuted, and ultimately imprisoned because of rumors that he would succeed the king. Sandhimati remained in prison for 10 years. In his old age, the childless king ordered killing of Sandhimati to prevent any chance of him becoming a king. He died after hearing about the false news of Sandhimati's death.|
|Sandhimati alias Aryaraja||47 years||22 BCE||Sandhimati was selected by the citizens as the new ruler. He ascended the throne reluctantly, at the request of his guru Ishana. He was a devout Shaivite, and his reign was marked by peace. He filled his court with rishis (sages), and spent his time in forest retreats. Therefore, his ministers replaced him with Meghavahana, a descendant of Yudhishthira I. He willingly gave up the throne.|
Book 3: Restored Gonandiya dynastyEdit
|Meghavahana||34 years||25 CE||Meghavahana was the son of Yudhisthira I's great grandson, who had been granted asylum by Gopaditya, the king of Gandhara. Meghavahana had been selected the husband of a Vaishnavite princess at a Swayamvara in another kingdom. The ministers of Kashmir brought him to Kashmir after Sandhimati proved to be an unwilling king. Meghavahana banned animal slaughter and compensated those who earned their living through hunting. He patrnozed Brahmins, and set up a monastery. His queens built Buddhist viharas and monasteries. He subdued kings in regions as far as Sinhala Kingdom, forcing them to abandon animal slaughter.|
|Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II)||30 years||59 CE||Son of Meghavahana|
|Hiranya||30 years, 2 months||89 CE||Son of Shreshtasena, assisted by his brother and co-regent Toramana. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. Toramana's son Pravarasena, who had been brought up in secrecy by his mother Anjana, freed him. Hiranya died childless. Several coins of a king named Toramana have been found in the Kashmir region. This king is identified by some with Huna ruler Toramana, although his successor Mihirakula is placed much earlier by Kalhana.|
|Matrigupta||4 years, 9 months, 1 day||120 CE||According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of Ujjayini defeated the Shakas, and made his friend and poet Matrigupta the ruler of Kashmir. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana has confused the legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain with the Vardhana Emperor Harsha (c. 606-47 CE). The latter is identified with Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account. However, according to M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Vikramaditya is another Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account: a king of Malwa around 580 CE.|
|Pravarasena II||60 years||125 CE||Historical evidence suggests that a king named Pravarasena ruled Kashmir in the 6th century CE. According to Kalhana, Pravarasena subdued many other kings, in lands as far as Saurashtra. He restored the rule of Vikramaditya's son Pratapshila (alias Shiladitya), who had been expelled from Ujjain by his enemies. Pratapshila agreed to be a vassal of Pravarasena after initial resistance. He founded a city called Pravarapura, which is identified by later historians as the modern city of Srinagar on the basis topographical details.|
|Yudhishthira II||39 years, 8 months||185 CE||Son of Pravarasena|
|Narendraditya I (Lakshmana)||13 years||206 CE||Son of Yudhishthira II and Padmavati|
|Ranaditya I (Tungjina III)||300 years||219 CE||Younger brother of Narendraditya. His queen Ranarambha was an incarnation of Bhramaravasini. The Chola king Ratisena had found her among the waves, during an ocean worship ritual.|
|Vikramaditya||42 years||519 CE||Son of Ranaditya|
|Baladitya||36 years, 8 months||561 CE||Younger brother of Vikramaditya. He subdued several enemies. An astrologer prophesied that his son-in-law would succeed him as the king. To avoid this outcome, the king married his daughter Anangalekha to Durlabhavardhana, a handsome but non-royal man from Ashvaghama Kayastha caste.|
Book 4: Karkota dynastyEdit
|Durlabhavardhana (Prajnaditya)||38 years||598 CE||Born to Nāga Karkota (a deity), Durlabhavardhana was Baladitya's officer in charge of fodder. Baladitya married his daughter Anangalekha to him. As the royal son-in-law, he became known as a just and wise man, and was given the title "Prajnaditya" by the king. His wife Anangalekha became involved in an extra-marital affair with the minister Kharga. Despite catching them sleeping together, Durlabhavardhana forgave Khankha, and won over his loyalty. After Baladitya's death, Khankha crowned him the new king.|
|Durlabhaka (Pratapaditya II)||60 years||634 CE||Son of Durlabhavardhana and Anangalekha. He was adopted as a son by his maternal grandfather, and assumed the title Pratapaditya after the title of the grandfather's dynasty.|
|Chandrapida (Vajraditya I)||8 years, 8 months||684 CE||Son of Durlabhaka and Shrinarendraprabha.|
|Tarapida (Udayaditya)||4 years, 24 days||693 CE||Younger brother of Chandrapida.|
|Muktapida (Lalitaditya I)||36 years, 7 months, 11 days||697 CE||Younger brother of Chandrapida and Tarapida. According to the historical evidence, Lalitaditya Muktapida ruled during the 8th century. Kalhana states that Lalitaditya Muktapida conquered the tribes of the north and after defeating the Kambojas, he immediately faced the Tusharas. The Tusharas did not give a fight but fled to the mountain ranges leaving their horses in the battle field. Then Lalitaditiya meets the Bhauttas in Baltistan in western Tibet north of Kashmir, then the Daradas in Karakoram/Himalaya, the Valukambudhi and then he subdues Strirajya, the Uttar Kuru/Western China and the Pragjyotisha respectively (IV.165-175). According to some historians, Kalhana has highly exaggerated the military conquests of Muktapida.|
|Kuvalayapida||1 year, 15 days||733 CE||Son of Lalitaditya and Kamaladevi. His short reign was marked by a succession struggle with his half-brother Vajraditya II. He abdicated the throne, and a became a hermit to seek peace.|
|Vajraditya II (Bappiyaka / Vappiyaka / Lalitaditya II)||7 years||734 CE||Son of Lalitaditya and Chakramardika. He was a cruel and immoral person, who introduced the evil habits of mlechchhas to Kashmir.|
|Prithivyapida I||4 years, 1 month||741 CE||Son of Vajraditya II and Mangjarika. Deposed by his half-brother Sangramapida.|
|Sangramapida I||7 days||745 CE||Son of Vajraditya II and Massa. Deposed his half-brother to become the king, but died after a week.|
|Jayapida (Vinayaditya); Jajja||31 years; 3 years||745 CE||Youngest son of Vajradjtya II. He erected a monument at Prayaga, which existed at Kalhana's time. His wife Kalyanadevi was the daughter of Jayanta, the king Pundravardhana in Gauda region. Jayapida subdued five kings of Gauda, and made them vassals of his father-in-law. On his way back to Kashmir, he also defeated the king of Kanyakubja. While Jayapida was in Gauda, his brother-in-law usurped the throne in Kashmir. After three years of ruling Kashmir, Jajja was killed by Shrideva, a supporter of Jayapida. Jayapida became the king once again, and patronized scholars. He waged wars against Bhimasena of the East and Aramuri of Nepala. In both instances, he was first imprisoned by the enemy king, but managed to escape and defeated the enemy. During the last years of his reign, he imposed excessive taxes on advice of Kayasthas, and treated his subjects cruelly. He died because of a curse by a Brahmin.|
|Lalitapida||12 years||776 CE||Son of Jayapida and Durgi. He devoted his time to sensual pleasures, and neglected royal duties.|
|Sangramapida II (Prithivyapida II)||7 years||788 CE||Son of Jayapida and Kalyana.|
|Chippatajayapida (Brhspati / Vrihaspati)||12 years||795 CE||Son of Lalitapida and his concubine Jayadevi. The actual power was in hands of Jayadevi's brothers Padma, Utpalaka, Kalyana, Mamma and Dharmma.|
|Ajitapida||37 years||813 CE||Son of Lalitapida and Jayadevi, made the king by his maternal uncle Utpalaka. Dethroned by Utpalaka's rival Mamma and the latter's son Yashovarman.|
|Anangapida||3 years||849 CE||Son of Sangramapida II. Made king by Mamma and Yashovarman.|
|Utpalapida||2 years||852 CE||Son of Ajitapida. Made king by Sukhavarman, the son of Utpala. Deposed by the minister Shura.|
|Avantivarman||855 CE||Son of Sukhavarman. Made king by the minister Shura. Established the city of Avantipura|
|Shankaravarman||883 CE||According to Kalhana, this king "did not speak the language of the gods but used vulgar speech fit for drunkards, showed that he was descended from a family of spirit-distillers" (Stein's translation). This refers to the fact that the power had passed to the brothers of a queen, who was born in a family of spirit-distillers.|
|Gopalavarman||2 years||902 CE||Son of Shankaravarman; ruled with help of his mother Sugandha; Murdered|
|Sankata||10 days||904 CE||Brother of Gopalavarman, died soon after ascending the throne|
|Sugandha||2 years||904 CE||Became queen after the death of all male heirs. Deposed by Tantrin soldiers, who had earlier served as the royal bodyguards. Waged a war against the Tantrins with help of their rivals (known as Ekanga), but was defeated and killed.|
|Partha||906 CE||10-year-old child of Nirjitavarman; placed on throne by the Tantrins|
|Nirjitavarman||921 CE||Half-brother of Avantivarman.|
|Chakravarman||922 CE||Purchased the throne from the Tantrins|
|Shuravarman I||1 year||933 CE||Purchased the throne from the Tantrins|
|Partha (2nd reign)||934 CE||Purchased the throne from the Tantrins|
|Chakravarman (2nd reign)||935 CE||Purchased the throne from the Tantrins|
|Shankaravardhana (or Shambhuvardhana)||-||Purchased the throne from the Tantrins|
|Chakravarman (3rd reign)||935 CE||Defeated the Tantrins with help of Damara feudal lords. An unpopular king, he was killed.|
|Unmattavanti ("Mad Avanti")||937 CE||Son of Partha. Murdered his father, and starved his half-brothers to death.|
|Shuravarman II||939 CE||Sonf of Unmattavanti|
|Yashaskara-deva||939 CE||Elected by a council of Brahmins|
|Sangramadeva (Sanggrama I)||948 CE||Murdered by the divira (clerk or writer) Parvagupta, who had become a regent-minister|
|Parvagupta||948 CE||Strong but unpopular ruler|
|Kshemagupta||950 CE||Son of Parvagupta and husband of Didda (a member of the Lohara dynasty). Didda and/or her relatives ran the administration.|
|Abhimanyu II||958 CE||Ruled with his mother Didda as regent, aided by the minister Naravahana. Died young.|
|Nandigupta||972 CE||Didda's grandson, deposed by her|
|Tribhuvanagupta||973 CE||Didda's grandson, deposed by her|
|Bhimagupta||975 CE||Didda's grandson, deposed by her|
|Didda||980 CE||Wife of Kshemagupta
After a young son of Yashaskara, Pravaragupta, a Divira (clerk), became king. His son Kshemagupta married Didda, daughter of Simharaja of Lohara. After ruling indirectly and directly, Didda (980-1003 CE) placed Samgramaraja, son of her brother on the throne, starting the Lohara dynasty.
Book 7: First Lohara dynastyEdit
|Sangramaraja (Samgramaraja / Kshamapati)||1003 CE||Nephew of Didda. Ascended the throne after her death, beginning Lohara dynasty's rule over Kashmir|
|Hariraja||22 days||1028 CE|
|Ananta-deva||1028 CE||Abdicated the throne in favour of his son, but retained power through his minister Haladhara|
|Kalasha (Ranaditya II)||1063 CE||Rebelled against his parents, leading to the suicide of his father Ananta, followed by sati-suicide by his mother. His son Harsha revolted against him, and was imprisoned.|
|Utkarsha||22 days||1089 CE||Second son of Kalasha. His half-brother Vijaymalla rebelled against him, and got Harsha released from prison. Utkarsha was imprisoned and committed suicide|
|Harsha||died in 1101 CE||In his early years, he was a sagacious king, and a patron of art and literature. The later years of his reign were marked by unsuccessful military campaigns, resulting in excessive taxation and plundering of temples. Revolts by his generals Uchchala and Sussala (of Lohara family) ended his reign. His son Bhoja was killed, and Harsha himself was killed by Uchchala's men while hiding in a village.|
Book 8: Second Lohara dynastyEdit
|Uchchala||Made his brother Sussala the ruler of Lohara. Murdered by Radda.|
|Radda (Shankharaja)||Usurped the throne, claiming to be a descendant of Yashaskara|
|Salhana||Uchchala's step-brother; became the king after Radda's death. The real power lay in the hands of a noble named Gargachandra. Salhana was deposed and imprisoned.|
|Sussala||Uchchala's brother; ascended throne with Gargachandra's support|
|Bhikshachara||Harsha's grandson, who had escaped Uchchala's revolt. Brought up by Naravarman, the king of Malava. Deposed Sussala.|
|Sussala (2nd reign)||Within 6 months of Bhikshachara's ascension, Sussala recovered his capital, leading to a civil war|
|Jayasimha (Sinha-deva)||Sussala's son. In the early years of his reign, the actual power was held by Sussala. Kalhana's account closes in the 22nd year of his reign.|
Kalhana was an educated and sophisticated Sanskrit scholar, well-connected in the highest political circles. His writing is full of literary devices and allusions, concealed by his unique and elegant style.
Despite the value that historians have placed on Kalhana's work, there is little evidence of authenticity in the earlier books of Rajatarangini. For example, Ranaditya is given a reign of 300 years. Toramana is clearly the Huna king of that name, but his father Mihirakula is given a date 700 years earlier. Even where the kings mentioned in the first three books are historically attested, Kalhana's account suffers from chronological errors.
Kalhana's account starts to align with other historical evidence only by Book 4, which gives an account of the Karkota dynasty. But even this account is not fully reliable from a historical point of view. For example, Kalhana has highly exaggerated the military conquests of Lalitaditya Muktapida.
- Rajatarangini by Jonaraja
- During the reign of Zain-ul-Abidin, Jonaraja authored a sequel by the same name. Also known as Dvitiya Rajatarangini ("second Rajatarangini"), it gives an account of Kashmir from c. 1150 CE to 1459 CE.
- Jaina-Rajatarangini by Srivara
- After Jonaraja's death in 1459, his disciple Srivara Pandita continued his work. He titled his work Jaina-Rajatarangini, and it is also known as Tritiya Rajatarangini ("third Rajatarangini"). It gives an account of Kashmir from 1459 CE to 1486 CE.
- Rajavalipataka by Prajyabhatta
- Prajyabhatta's Rajavalipataka gives an account of Kashmir from 1486 to 1512.
A Persian translation of Rajatarangini was commissioned by Zain-ul-Abidin, who ruled Kashmir in the 15th century CE.
Horace Hayman Wilson partially translated the work, and wrote an essay based on it, titled The Hindu History of Kashmir (published in Asiatic Researches Volume 15). Subsequent English translations of Kalhana's Rajatarangini include:
- Rajatarangini: The Saga of the Kings of Kashmir by Ranjit Sitaram Pandit (The Indian Press, Allahabad; 1935)
- Kings of Kashmira (1879) by Jogesh Chandra Dutt
- Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kaśmir by Marc Aurel Stein
Translations in other languages include:
- Rajatarangini with Hindi commentary by Ramtej Shastri Pandey (Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, 1985)
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana, edited by Vishwa Bandhu (1963–65); a later addition includes the texts of Jonaraja, Srivara and Suka (1966–67)
- Rajatarangini, Hindi translation by Pandit Gopi Krishna Shastri Dwivedi
- Histoire Des Rois Du Kachmir: Rajatarangini, French translation by M. Anthony Troyer
- Rajatarangini, Urdu translation by Pandit Thakar Acharchand Shahpuriah
Several books containing legendary stories from Rajatarangini have been compiled by various authors. These include:
- S.L. Sadhu's Tales from the Rajatarangini (1967)
- Devika Rangachari's Stories from Rajatarangini: Tales of Kashmir (2001)
- Anant Pai's Amar Chitra Katha series:
- Chandrapeeda and other Tales of Kashmir (1984)
- The Legend of Lalitaditya: Retold from Kalhana's Rajatarangini (1999)
- "Rajatarangini" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 17 December 2011.
- Stein, M. A. (2007). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir. 1–3 (Reprint ed.). Srinagar, India: Saujanya Books. ISBN 81-8339-043-9.
- Dutt 1879, pp. xix-xxiii.
- Stein 1979, pp. 133-138.
- Raina 2013, p. 260.
- Guruge 1994, pp. 185-186.
- Lahiri 2015, pp. 378-380.
- Guruge 1994, p. 130.
- Stein 1979, pp. 65.
- D. C. Sircar (1969). Ancient Malwa And The Vikramaditya Tradition. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 111. ISBN 978-8121503488. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016.
- Stein 1979, pp. 66.
- Stein 1989, pp. 439-441.
- Chadurah 1991, p. 45.
- Hasan 1959, pp. 54.
- Kalhana - Makers of Indian Literature. IDE087 by Somnath Dhar Paperback (Edition: 1998)
- A history of Sanskrit literature by Arthur Berriedale Keith, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993; ISBN 81-208-0979-3, ISBN 978-81-208-0979-6
- Stein 1979, pp. 69.
- Sharma 2005, pp. 37.
- Hasan 1959, pp. 2.
- Hasan 1959, pp. 3.
- Sharma 2005, pp. 38.
- Machwe, Prabhakar, and Samyukta. 1969. Indian Literature 12 (2). Sahitya Akademi: 72–74.
- Dutt, Jogesh Chandra (1879). Kings of Káshmíra. Trübner & Co.
- Stein, Marc Aurel (1979) . "Chronological and Dynastic Tables of Kalhana's Record of Kasmir Kings". Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmir. 1. Motilal Banarsidass.
- Sharma, Tej Ram (2005). Historiography: A History of Historical Writing. Concept.
- Hasan, Mohibbul (1959). Kashmir Under the Sultans. Aakar. ISBN 9788187879497.
- Guruge, Ananda (1994). "King Aśoka and Buddhism: historical and literary studies". In Nuradha Seneviratna (ed.). King Asoka and Buddhism: Historical and Literary Studies. Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 978-955-24-0065-0.
- Chadurah, Haidar Malik (1991). History of Kashmir. Bhavna Prakashan.
- Stein, Marc Aurel (1989). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0370-1.
- Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People. Partridge. ISBN 9781482899450.
- Lahiri, Nayanjot (2015). Ashoka in Ancient India. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-91525-1.
- Culture and Political History of Kashmir: Medieval Kashmir by Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai, 1994 ISBN 81-85880-31-X, 9788185880310