Rājataraṅgiṇī (Sanskrit: राजतरङ्गिणी, romanized: rājataraṅgiṇī, IPA: [ɾɑː.d͡ʑɐ.t̪ɐˈɾɐŋ.ɡi.ɳiː], "The River of Kings") is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western part of Indian sub-continent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE.[3]

Translation of the Rajatarangini by Sir Aurel Stein (1900 edition).[1][2]

List of kings edit

Book 1 : Gonanda dynasty (I) edit

The total reign of the following kings is mentioned as 1266 years.[4]

Ruler[4] Notes
Gonanda I Contemporary of Yudhishthira, a relative of Magadha's ruler Jarasandha (Jarasindhu) (I.59). He was killed by Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna.
Damodara I Killed in a battle by Krishna.
Yashovati Wife of Damodara. She was pregnant at the time of her husband's death, and Krishna helped her ascend the throne.
Gonanda II Son of Yashovati and Damodara. Ruled as a minor over Kashmir, during the Kurukshetra War. Killed by Parikshit.[5]
35 kings
(names lost)
A manuscript titled Ratnakar Purana supposedly contained these names, and was translated into Persian by the orders of the later Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abidin. The purported original manuscript as well as its translation are now lost. A Muslim historian named Hassan is said to have obtained a copy of the translation, and the later Muslim historians provided a fabricated list of 35 names ending in -Khan.[6]Some sources claim that after Gonanda II was killed, Parikshit handed over Kashmir to his second son Harnadeva. This gave rise to the Pandava Dynasty of Kashmir. Harnadeva lost a succession war against Janamejaya, and so he remained the King of Kashmir. The last ruler was Bhagavanta, who was defeated by Lava in 1752 BCE.[7]
Lava A descendant of Gonanda I, who belonged to the Naga Dynasty and defeated King Bhagavanta of the Pandava Dynasty of Kashmir in 1752 BCE. He laid the foundation of Kashmira Naga Dynasty, a sub-division of the Gonanda Dynasty (I). He established a city named Lolora (Lolab)[8] in Kashmir. According to the Rajatarangini, there were 84 lakh stone-walled houses in it.
Kusheshaya Son of Lava
Khagendra Son of Kushyendra
Surendra Son of Khagendra. Surendra was the first Buddhist king of Kashmir who established the Buddhist culture of Saman culture in Kashmir.
Godhara Belonged to a different family from Lava's dynasty (I.95)
Suvarna Known for constructing a canal named Suvarnamani
Janaka Unsuccessfully invaded Persia
Shachinara Died childless
Ashoka Great-grandson of Shakuni and son of Shachinara's first cousin. Built a great city called Srinagara (near but not same as the modern-day Srinagar). In his days, the mlechchhas (foreigners) overran the country, and he took sannyasa. According to Kalhana's account, this Ashoka would have ruled in the 2nd millennium BCE, and was a member of the dynasty founded by Godhara. Kalhana also states that this king had adopted the doctrine of Jina, constructed stupas and Shiva temples, and appeased Bhutesha (Shiva) to obtain his son Jalauka. Despite the discrepancies, multiple scholars identify Kalhana's Ashoka with the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, who adopted Buddhism.[9] Although "Jina" is a term generally associated with Jainism, some ancient sources use it to refer to the Buddha.[10]
Jalauka (Jaloka) A staunch Shaivite, who constructed several Shiva temples. He rid the country from the mlechchhas (foreigners, possibly Greco-Bactrians). [11]
Damodara II Devout Shaivite. Built a new city called Damodarasuda, and a dam called Guddasetu.
Hushka, Jushka, and Kanishka Buddhist kings of Turashka origin (according to Kalhana). The third king is identified with Kanishka of the Kushan Empire.[12]
Abhimanyu I A Shaivite during whose reigns Buddhists also flourished. Because of the rising Buddhist influence, people stopped following the Shaivite Nāga rites prescribed in the holy text Nilamata Purana. This angered the Nāgas, who heavily persecuted the Buddhists. To avoid this disorder, the king retired. A Brahmin named Chandradeva restored Shaivite rites by worshipping Shiva.

Gonanditya dynasty (I) edit

The Gonanda dynasty ruled Kashmir for 1002 years.[4]

Ruler Reign[4] Ascension year Notes
Gonanda III 35 years 1182 BCE Gonanda III founded a new dynasty. (I.191) He belonged to Rama's lineage, and restored the Nāga rites
Vibhishana I 53 years, 6 months 1147 BCE
Indrajit 35 years 1094 BCE
Ravana 30 years, 6 months A Shivalinga attributed to Ravana could still be seen at the time of Kalhana.
Vibhishana II 35 years, 6 months 1058 BCE
Nara I (Kinnara) 40 years, 9 months 1023 BCE His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. He tried to abduct a Nāga woman, who was the wife of a Brahmin. Because of this, the Nāga chief burnt down the king's city, and the king died in the fire.
Siddha 60 years 983 BCE Siddha, the son of Nara, was saved from Nāga's fury, because he was away from the capital at the time. He was a religious king, and followed a near-ascetic lifestyle.
Utpalaksha 30 years, 6 months 923 BCE Son of Siddha
Hiranyaksha 37 years, 7 months 893 BCE Son of Utpalaksha
Hiranyakula 60 years 855 BCE Son of Hiranyaksha
Vasukula (Mukula) 60 years 795 BCE Son of Hiranyakula. During his reign, the Mlechchhas (possibly Hunas) overran Kashmir.
Mihirakula 70 years 735 BCE According to historical evidence, Mihirakula's predecessor was Toramana. Kalhana mentions a king called Toramana, but places him much later, in Book 3.[13] According to Kalhana, Mihirakula was a cruel ruler who ordered killings of a large number of people, including children, women and elders. He invaded the Sinhala Kingdom, and replaced their king with a cruel man. As he passed through Chola, Karnata and other kingdoms on his way back to Kashmir, the rulers of these kingdoms fled their capitals and returned only after he had gone away. On his return to Kashmir, he ordered killings of 100 elephants, who had been startled by the cries of a fallen elephant. Once, Mihirakula dreamt that a particular stone could be moved only by a chaste woman. He put this to test: the women who were unable to move the stone were killed, along with their husbands, sons and brothers. He was supported by some immoral Brahmins. In his old age, the king committed self-immolation.
Vaka (Baka) 63 years, 18 days 665 BCE A virtuous king, he was seduced and killed by a woman named Vatta, along with several of his sons and grandsons.
Kshitinanda 30 years 602 BCE The only surviving child of Vaka
Vasunanda 52 years, 2 months 572 BCE "Originator of the science of love"
Nara II 60 years 520 BCE Son of Vasunanda
Aksha 60 years 460 BCE Son of Nara II
Gopaditya 60 years, 6 days 400 BCE Son of Aksha. Gave lands to Brahmins. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-Sattvic diet); in their place, he brought others from foreign countries.
Gokarna 57 years, 11 months 340 BCE Son of Gopaditya
Narendraditya I (Khingkhila) 36 years, 3 months, 10 days 282 BCE Son of Gokarna
Yudhisthira I 34 years, 5 months, 1 day 246 BCE Called "the blind" because of his small eyes. In later years of his reign, he started patronizing unwise persons, and the wise courtiers deserted him. He was deposed by rebellious ministers, and granted asylum by a neighboring king. His descendant Meghavahana later restored the dynasty's rule.

Book 2 : Other rulers edit

No kings mentioned in this book have been traced in any other historical source.[13] These kings ruled Kashmir for 192 years.[4]

Ruler Reign[4] Ascension year Notes
Pratapaditya I 32 years 167 BCE Pratapaditya was a relative of a distant king named Vikrmaditya (II.6). This Vikramaditya is not same as the Vikramaditya of Ujjain, who is mentioned later as a patron of Matrigupta.
Jalauka 32 years 135 BCE Son of Pratapaditya
Tungjina I 36 years 103 BCE Shared the administration with his queen. The couple sheltered their citizens in the royal palace during a severe famine resulting from heavy frost. After his death, the queen committed sati. The couple died childless.
Vijaya 8 years 67 BCE From a different dynasty than Tungjina.
Jayendra 37 years 59 BCE Son of Vijaya: his "long arms reached to his knees". His flatters instigated him against his minister Sandhimati. The minister was persecuted, and ultimately imprisoned because of rumors that he would succeed the king. Sandhimati remained in prison for 10 years. In his old age, the childless king ordered killing of Sandhimati to prevent any chance of him becoming a king. He died after hearing about the false news of Sandhimati's death.
Sandhimati alias Aryaraja 47 years 22 BCE Sandhimati was selected by the citizens as the new ruler. He ascended the throne reluctantly, at the request of his guru Ishana. He was a devout Shaivite, and his reign was marked by peace. He filled his court with rishis (sages), and spent his time in forest retreats. Therefore, his ministers replaced him with Meghavahana, a descendant of Yudhishthira I. He willingly gave up the throne.

Book 3: Restored Gonandiya dynasty edit

Ruler Reign[4] Ascension year Notes
Meghavahana 34 years 25 CE
Possible coinage of Meghavahana. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[a][14]
Meghavahana was the son of Yudhisthira I's great-grandson, who had been granted asylum by Gopaditya, the king of Gandhara. Meghavahana had been selected the husband of a Vaishnavite princess at a Swayamvara in another kingdom. The ministers of Kashmir brought him to Kashmir after Sandhimati proved to be an unwilling king. Meghavahana banned animal slaughter and compensated those who earned their living through hunting. He patrnozed Brahmins, and set up a monastery. His queens built Buddhist viharas and monasteries. He subdued kings in regions as far as Sinhala Kingdom, forcing them to abandon animal slaughter.
Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II) 30 years 59 CE Son of Meghavahana
and co-regent
30 years, 2 months 89 CE
Coin in the name of "Śrī Toramaņa", c. 6th century, Kashmir.[14]

Son of Shreshtasena, assisted by his brother and co-regent Toramana. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. Toramana's son Pravarasena, who had been brought up in secrecy by his mother Anjana, freed him. Hiranya died childless. Several coins of a king named Toramana have been found in the Kashmir region. This king is identified by some with Huna ruler Toramana, although his successor Mihirakula is placed much earlier by Kalhana.[13]

Matrigupta 4 years, 9 months, 1 day 120 CE According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of Ujjayini defeated the Shakas, and made his friend and poet Matrigupta the ruler of Kashmir. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana has confused the legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain with the Vardhana Emperor Harsha (c. 606–47 CE).[15] The latter is identified with Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account. However, according to M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Vikramaditya is another Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account: a king of Malwa around 580 CE.[16]
Pravarasena II 60 years 125 CE
Coinage in the name of "Pravarasena". Circa 6th-early 7th century CE, Kashmir.[b][14]
Historical evidence suggests that a king named Pravarasena ruled Kashmir in the 6th century CE.[13] According to Kalhana, Pravarasena subdued many other kings, in lands as far as Saurashtra. He restored the rule of Vikramaditya's son Pratapshila (alias Shiladitya), who had been expelled from Ujjain by his enemies. Pratapshila agreed to be a vassal of Pravarasena after initial resistance. He founded a city called Pravarapura, which is identified by later historians as the modern city of Srinagar on the basis topographical details.[17]
Yudhishthira II 39 years, 8 months 185 CE Son of Pravarasena
Narendraditya I (Lakshmana) 13 years 206 CE Son of Yudhishthira II and Padmavati
Ranaditya I (Tungjina III) 300 years 219 CE
Coinage in the name of "Sri Tujina". Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[14]
Younger brother of Narendraditya. His queen Ranarambha was an incarnation of Bhramaravasini. The Chola king Ratisena had found her among the waves, during an ocean worship ritual.
Vikramaditya 42 years 519 CE Son of Ranaditya
Baladitya 36 years, 8 months 561 CE Younger brother of Vikramaditya. He subdued several enemies. An astrologer prophesied that his son-in-law would succeed him as the king. To avoid this outcome, the king married his daughter Anangalekha to Durlabhavardhana, a handsome but non-royal man from Ashvaghama Kayastha caste.

Book 4: Karkota dynasty edit

Ruler Reign[4] Ascension year Notes
Durlabhavardhana (Prajnaditya) 38 years 598 CE
Coin of Durlabhavardhana, founder of the dynasty. Obverse legend: Śri Durlabha. Reverse legend: Jayati Kidāra.[18]
Born to Nāga Karkota (a deity), Durlabhavardhana was Baladitya's officer in charge of fodder. Baladitya married his daughter Anangalekha to him. As the royal son-in-law, he became known as a just and wise man, and was given the title "Prajnaditya" by the king. His wife Anangalekha became involved in an extra-marital affair with the minister Kharga. Despite catching them sleeping together, Durlabhavardhana forgave Khankha, and won over his loyalty. After Baladitya's death, Khankha crowned him the new king.
Durlabhaka (Pratapaditya II) 60 years 634 CE Son of Durlabhavardhana and Anangalekha. He was adopted as a son by his maternal grandfather, and assumed the title Pratapaditya after the title of the grandfather's dynasty.
Chandrapida (Vajraditya I) 8 years, 8 months 694 CE Son of Durlabhaka and Shrinarendraprabha.
Tarapida (Udayaditya) 4 years, 24 days 703 CE Younger brother of Chandrapida.
Muktapida (Lalitaditya I) 36 years, 7 months, 11 days 703 CE Younger brother of Chandrapida and Tarapida. According to the historical evidence, Lalitaditya Muktapida ruled during the 8th century. Kalhana states that Lalitaditya Muktapida conquered the tribes of the north and after defeating the Kambojas, he immediately faced the Tusharas. The Tusharas did not give a fight but fled to the mountain ranges leaving their horses in the battle field. Then Lalitaditiya meets the Bhauttas in Baltistan in western Tibet north of Kashmir, then the Daradas in Karakoram/Himalaya, the Valukambudhi and then he subdues Strirajya, the Uttar Kuru/Western China and the Pragjyotisha respectively (IV.165–175). According to some historians, Kalhana has highly exaggerated the military conquests of Muktapida.[19][20]
Kuvalayapida 1 year, 15 days 739 CE Son of Lalitaditya and Kamaladevi. His short reign was marked by a succession struggle with his half-brother Vajraditya II. He abdicated the throne, and a became a hermit to seek peace.
Vajraditya II (Bappiyaka / Vappiyaka / Lalitaditya II) 7 years 746 CE
Coin of king Vajraditya (Vigraha Deva) of the Karkota dynasty, c. 763–770 CE.
Son of Lalitaditya and Chakramardika. He was a cruel and immoral person, who introduced the evil habits of mlechchhas to Kashmir.
Prithivyapida I 4 years, 1 month 750 CE Son of Vajraditya II and Mangjarika. Deposed by his half-brother Sangramapida.
Sangramapida I 7 days 750 CE Son of Vajraditya II and Massa. Deposed his half-brother to become the king, but died after a week.
Jayapida (Vinayaditya); Jajja 31 years; 3 years 781 CE Youngest son of Vajradjtya II. He erected a monument at Prayaga, which existed at Kalhana's time. His wife Kalyanadevi was the daughter of Jayanta, the king Pundravardhana in Gauda region. Jayapida subdued five kings of Gauda, and made them vassals of his father-in-law. On his way back to Kashmir, he also defeated the king of Kanyakubja. While Jayapida was in Gauda, his brother-in-law usurped the throne in Kashmir. After three years of ruling Kashmir, Jajja was killed by Shrideva, a supporter of Jayapida. Jayapida became the king once again, and patronized scholars. He waged wars against Bhimasena of the East and Aramuri of Nepala. In both instances, he was first imprisoned by the enemy king, but managed to escape and defeated the enemy. During the last years of his reign, he imposed excessive taxes on advice of Kayasthas, and treated his subjects cruelly. He died because of a curse by a Brahmin.
Lalitapida 12 years 793 CE Son of Jayapida and Durgi. He devoted his time to sensual pleasures, and neglected royal duties.
Sangramapida II (Prithivyapida II) 7 years 805 CE Son of Jayapida and Kalyana.
Chippatajayapida (Brhspati / Vrihaspati) 12 years 812 CE Son of Lalitapida and his concubine Jayadevi. The actual power was in hands of Jayadevi's brothers Padma, Utpalaka, Kalyana, Mamma and Dharmma.
Ajitapida 37 years 830 CE Son of Lalitapida and Jayadevi, made the king by his maternal uncle Utpalaka. Dethroned by Utpalaka's rival Mamma and the latter's son Yashovarman.
Anangapida 3 years 867 CE Son of Sangramapida II. Made king by Mamma and Yashovarman.
Utpalapida 2 years 870 CE Son of Ajitapida. Made king by Sukhavarman, the son of Utpala. Deposed by the minister Shura.

Book 5 : Utpala dynasty (Part-I) edit

Ruler Reign Ascension year Notes
Avantivarman 855 CE Son of Sukhavarman. Made king by the minister Shura. Established the city of Avantipura
Shankaravarman 883 CE According to Kalhana, this king "did not speak the language of the gods but used vulgar speech fit for drunkards, showed that he was descended from a family of spirit-distillers" (Stein's translation). This refers to the fact that the power had passed to the brothers of a queen, who was born in a family of spirit-distillers.
Gopalavarman 2 years 902 CE Son of Shankaravarman; ruled with help of his mother Sugandha; Murdered
Sankata 10 days 904 CE Brother of Gopalavarman, died soon after ascending the throne
Sugandha 2 years 904 CE Became queen after the death of all male heirs. Deposed by Tantrin soldiers, who had earlier served as the royal bodyguards. Waged a war against the Tantrins with help of their rivals (known as Ekanga), but was defeated and killed.
Partha 906 CE 10-year-old child of Nirjitavarman; placed on throne by the Tantrins
Nirjitavarman 921 CE Half-brother of Avantivarman.
Chakravarman 922 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Shuravarman I 1 year 933 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Partha (2nd reign) 934 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Chakravarman (2nd reign) 935 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Shankaravardhana (or Shambhuvardhana) 935 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Chakravarman (3rd reign) 936 CE Defeated the Tantrins with help of Damara feudal lords. An unpopular king, he was killed.
Unmattavanti ("Mad Avanti") 937 CE Son of Partha. Murdered his father, and starved his half-brothers to death.
Shuravarman II 939 CE Sonf of Unmattavanti

Book 6 : Utpala dynasty (Part-II) edit

Ruler Ascension year Notes
Yashaskara-deva 939 CE
The nobles of Kashmir enthrone Yashaskara, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Jami' al-Tawarikh of Rashid al-Din
Elected by a council of Brahmins
Varnata 948 CE
Sangramadeva (Sanggrama I) 948 CE Murdered by the divira (clerk or writer) Parvagupta, who had become a regent-minister
Parvagupta 948 CE Strong but unpopular ruler
Kshemagupta 950 CE Son of Parvagupta and husband of Didda (a member of the Lohara dynasty). Didda and/or her relatives ran the administration.
Abhimanyu II 958 CE Ruled with his mother Didda as regent, aided by the minister Naravahana. Died young.
Nandigupta 972 CE Didda's grandson, deposed by her
Tribhuvanagupta 973 CE Didda's grandson, deposed by her
Bhimagupta 975 CE Didda's grandson, deposed by her
Didda 980 CE Wife of Kshemagupta

After a young son of Yashaskara, Pravaragupta, a Divira (clerk), became king. His son Kshemagupta married Didda, daughter of Simharaja of Lohara. After ruling indirectly and directly, Didda (980–1003 CE) placed Samgrāmarāja, son of her brother on the throne, starting the Lohara dynasty.

Book 7: First Lohara dynasty edit

Ruler Reign[4] Ascension year Notes
Sangramaraja (Samgramaraja / Kshamapati) 1003 CE Nephew of Didda. Ascended the throne after her death, beginning Lohara dynasty's rule over Kashmir
Hariraja 22 days 1028 CE
Ananta-deva 1028 CE Abdicated the throne in favour of his son, but retained power through his minister Haladhara
Kalasha (Ranaditya II) 1063 CE Rebelled against his parents, leading to the suicide of his father Ananta, followed by sati-suicide by his mother. His son Harsha revolted against him, and was imprisoned.
Utkarsha 22 days 1089 CE Second son of Kalasha. His half-brother Vijaymalla rebelled against him, and got Harsha released from prison. Utkarsha was imprisoned and committed suicide
Harsha died in 1101 CE
Harshadeva of Kashmir 1089–1101 CE
In his early years, he was a sagacious king, and a patron of art and literature. The later years of his reign were marked by unsuccessful military campaigns, resulting in excessive taxation and plundering of temples. Revolts by his generals Uchchala and Sussala (of Lohara family) ended his reign. His son Bhoja was killed, and Harsha himself was killed by Uchchala's men while hiding in a village.

Book 8: Second Lohara dynasty edit

Ruler[4] Notes
Uchchala Made his brother Sussala the ruler of Lohara. Murdered by Radda.
Radda (Shankharaja) Usurped the throne, claiming to be a descendant of Yashaskara
Salhana Uchchala's step-brother; became the king after Radda's death. The real power lay in the hands of a noble named Gargachandra. Salhana was deposed and imprisoned.
Sussala Uchchala's brother; ascended throne with Gargachandra's support
Bhikshachara Harsha's grandson, who had escaped Uchchala's revolt. Brought up by Naravarman, the king of Malava. Deposed Sussala.
Sussala (2nd reign) Within 6 months of Bhikshachara's ascension, Sussala recovered his capital, leading to a civil war
Jayasimha (Sinha-deva) Sussala's son. In the early years of his reign, the actual power was held by Sussala. Kalhana's account closes in the 22nd year of his reign.

Evaluation edit

Literary edit

Kalhana was an educated and sophisticated Sanskrit scholar, well-connected in the highest political circles. His writing is full of literary devices and allusions, concealed by his unique and elegant style.[21]

Historical reliability edit

Despite the value that historians have placed on Kalhana's work, there is little evidence of authenticity in the earlier books of Rajatarangini. For example, Ranaditya is given a reign of 300 years. Toramana is clearly the Huna king of that name, but his father Mihirakula is given a date 700 years earlier.[22] Even where the kings mentioned in the first three books are historically attested, Kalhana's account suffers from chronological errors.[23]

Kalhana's account starts to align with other historical evidence only by Book 4, which gives an account of the Karkota dynasty. But even this account is not fully reliable from a historical point of view. For example, Kalhana has highly exaggerated the military conquests of Lalitaditya Muktapida.[19][20]

Sequels edit

Rājataraṅgiṇī by Jonarāja
During the reign of Zain-ul-Abidin, Jonarāja authored a sequel by the same name. Also known as Dvitīyā Rājataraṅgiṇī ("second Rajatarangini"), it gives an account of Kashmir from c. 1148 CE to 1459 CE.[24]
Jaina-Rājataraṅgiṇī by Śrīvara
After Jonarāja's death in 1459, his disciple Śrīvara Paṇḍita continued his work. He titled his work Jaina-Rājataraṅgiṇī, and it is also known as Tṛtīyā Rājataraṅgiṇī ("third Rājataraṅgiṇī"). It gives an account of Kashmir from 1451 CE to 1486 CE.[25]
Rājāvalipatākā by Prājyabhaṭṭa
Prājyabhaṭṭa's Rājāvalipatākā gave an account of Kashmir from 1486 to 1513. His work is lost.[26]
Caturthī Rājataraṅgiṇī by Śuka
Śuka continued Prājyabhaṭṭa's lost work, resulting in the Caturthī Rājataraṅgiṇī ("fourth Rājataraṅgiṇī"). It begins after the end of Bhaṭṭa Prājya’s Rājāvalipatākā in 1513, while Fatḥ Šāh was still exercising his second reign, and ends in 1597 with the construction of the Naganagarī city fort just before Emperor Akbar’s third visit to Śrīnagara.[26]

Translations edit

A Persian translation of Rajatarangini was commissioned by Zain-ul-Abidin, who ruled Kashmir in the 15th century CE.

Horace Hayman Wilson partially translated the work, and wrote an essay based on it, titled The Hindu History of Kashmir (published in Asiatic Researches Volume 15). Subsequent English translations of Kalhana's Rajatarangini include:

  • Rajatarangini: The Saga of the Kings of Kashmir by Ranjit Sitaram Pandit (The Indian Press, Allahabad; 1935)
  • Kings of Kashmira (1879) by Jogesh Chandra Dutt
  • Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kaśmir by Marc Aurel Stein
  • In the Guise of Poetry — Kalhaṇa Reconsidered. In: Śāstrārambha. Inquiries into the Preamble in Sanskrit. Edited by Walter Slaje. Preface by Edwin Gerow. (AKM 62). Wiesbaden 2008: 207–244.
  • Slaje, Walter (2014). Kingship in Kaśmīr (AD 1148–1459). From the Pen of Jonarāja, Court Paṇḍit to Sulṭān Zayn al-‘Ābidīn (PDF). Studia Indologica Universitatis Halensis. Vol. 7. University of Halle-Wittenberg. Critically Edited by Walter Slaje with an Annotated Translation, Indexes and Maps. [1]
  • Slaje, Walter (2022). Kaschmir unter den Šāhmīrīden. Śrīvaras Jaina- und Rājataraṅgiṇī, A.D. 1451–1486. Studia Indologica Universitatis Halensis (in German). Vol. 20. University of Halle-Wittenberg. Four contemporary historical lives of rulers of an Indo-Persian sultanate. Newly published with annotated translation. [2]
  • Slaje, Walter (2023). Kaschmir im 16. Jahrhundert. Vom unabhängigen Sultanat zur mogulischen Annexion (Śukas Rājataraṅgiṇī, A. D. 1513–1597) (PDF). Studia Indologica Universitatis Halensis (in German). Vol. 27. University of Halle-Wittenberg. Republished with an annotated translation. [3]

Translations in other languages include:

  • Rajatarangini with Hindi commentary by Ramtej Shastri Pandey (Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, 1985)
  • Rajatarangini of Kalhana, edited by Vishwa Bandhu (1963–65); a later addition includes the texts of Jonaraja, Srivara and Suka (1966–67)
  • Rajatarangini, Hindi translation by Pandit Gopi Krishna Shastri Dwivedi
  • Histoire Des Rois Du Kachmir: Rajatarangini, French translation by M. Anthony Troyer
  • Rajatarangini, Urdu translation by Pandit Thakar Acharchand Shahpuriah
  • Rajatarangini, Telugu translation by Renduchintala Lakshmi Narasimha Sastry

Adaptations edit

Several books containing legendary stories from Rajatarangini have been compiled by various authors. These include:

  • S.L. Sadhu's Tales from the Rajatarangini (1967)[27]
  • Devika Rangachari's Stories from Rajatarangini: Tales of Kashmir (2001)
  • Anant Pai's Amar Chitra Katha series:
    • Chandrapeeda and other Tales of Kashmir (1984)
    • The Legend of Lalitaditya: Retold from Kalhana's Rajatarangini (1999)

A television series based on Rajatarangini named Meeras began in 1986 in Doordarshan, Srinagar.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Obverse: Shiva Pashupati ("Lord of the Beasts"), making a mudra gesture with right hand and holding filleted trident; behind, a lioness or tiger. Trace of legend Meghana... in Brahmi. Reverse: Goddess seated facing on lotus, holding lotus in both hand, Kidara monogram to left, Jaya in Brahmi to right.
  2. ^ Obverse: Standing king with two figured seated below. Name "Pravarasena". Reverse: goddess seated on a lion. Legend "Kidāra".

References edit

  1. ^ Stein, Aurel (1900). Kalhana's Rajatarangini Vol 1.
  2. ^ Stein, Aurel (1900). Kalhanas Rajatarangini,vol.2.
  3. ^ "Rajatarangini" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 17 December 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Stein 1979, pp. 133–138.
  5. ^ "Gonanda Dynasty". Kashmir Through Ages. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  6. ^ Raina 2013, p. 260.
  7. ^ "Pandav Dynasty". Kashmir Through Ages. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  8. ^ "Lava Naga - Jatland Wiki". www.jatland.com. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  9. ^ Guruge 1994, pp. 185–186.
  10. ^ Lahiri 2015, pp. 378–380.
  11. ^ Guruge 1994, p. 130.
  12. ^ Pandit, Ranjit Sitaram (1935). River Of Kings (rajatarangini). p. 23 I68-.
  13. ^ a b c d Stein 1979, p. 65.
  14. ^ a b c d Cribb, Joe (2016). "Early Medieval Kashmir Coinage – A New Hoard and An Anomaly". Numismatic Digest. 40.
  15. ^ D. C. Sircar (1969). Ancient Malwa And The Vikramaditya Tradition. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 111. ISBN 978-8121503488. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016.
  16. ^ Stein 1979, p. 66.
  17. ^ Stein 1989, pp. 439–441.
  18. ^ Majumdar, R. C., ed. (1981). A Comprehensive History of India: pt. 1. A.D. 300–985. People's Publishing House. p. 30. The dynasty which he founded ruled for more than two centuries, from c. A.D. 625 to 855 (see Appendix I). Kalhaņa tells us little about Durlabha-vardhana except that he built a temple of Vishņu and granted two villages to Brāhmaṇas. (...) The mixed metal coins bearing the legend Sri Durlabha on the obverse and jayati Kidāra on the reverse, belong to this monarch.
  19. ^ a b Chadurah 1991, p. 45.
  20. ^ a b Hasan 1959, p. 54.
  21. ^ Kalhana – Makers of Indian Literature. IDE087 by Somnath Dhar Paperback (Edition: 1998)
  22. ^ A history of Sanskrit literature by Arthur Berriedale Keith, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993; ISBN 81-208-0979-3, ISBN 978-81-208-0979-6
  23. ^ Stein 1979, p. 69.
  24. ^ Slaje 2014, p. 29.
  25. ^ Slaje 2022.
  26. ^ a b Slaje 2023.
  27. ^ Machwe, Prabhakar, and Samyukta. 1969. Indian Literature 12 (2). Sahitya Akademi: 72–74.

Bibliography edit

External links edit