Amar Chitra Katha
Amar Chitra Katha (ACK, "Immortal Picture Stories") , the flagship brand, was founded in 1967 and is a household name in India.
|Amar Chitra Katha|
|Publisher||Amar Chitra Katha Pvt. Ltd.|
|No. of issues||1029|
It is synonymous with the visual reinvention of Indian stories from the great epics, mythology, history, literature, oral folktales and many other sources. Today, Amar Chitra Katha is a cultural phenomenon, boasting of more than 400 comics in 20+ languages that have sold over 100 million copies to date.
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|Authors||Anant Pai, Reena Ittyerah Puri|
Amar Chitra Katha was created by Anant Pai, and published by India Book House. In 2007, the imprint and all its titles were acquired by a new venture called ACK Media. On 17 September 2008, a new website by ACK-media was launched.
Creation and creatorsEdit
The comic series was started by Anant Pai in an attempt to teach Indian children about their cultural heritage. He was shocked that Indian students could answer questions on Greek and Roman mythology, but were ignorant of their own history, mythology and folklore. It so happened that a quiz contest aired on Doordarshan in February 1967, in which participants could easily answer questions pertaining to Greek mythology, but were unable to reply to the question "In the Ramayana, who was Rama's mother?".
The above is an oft-told story of how ACK was founded beginning with 'Uncle Pai', in Mumbai in 1967. However, Outlook Magazine has this article about the genesis of this popular comic series: The idea and proposal for Amar Chitra Katha was made by a Bangalore book salesman called G.K. Ananthram which led to the first Amar Chitra Katha comics being produced in 1965—in Kannada, not English. "The English ACK titles begin from number eleven because the first ten were in Kannada," clarifies Ananthram. To Anathram's satisfaction, the 1965 Kannada ACK venture was a great commercial success which led to Mirchandani in the head office in Mumbai pursuing the Amar Chitra Katha idea in English diligently. "They brought in Anant Pai" says Ananthram. "And he built a wonderful team and a great brand."
Writers like Kamala Chandrakant, Margie Sastry, Subba Rao, Debrani Mitra and C.R Sharma joined the creative team of Amar Chitra Katha, with Anant Pai taking on the role of editor and co-writer on most scripts. The notable illustrators were Ram Waeerkar, who illustrated the very first issue of Amar Chitra Katha, Krishna, Dilip Kadam, C. M. Vitankar, Sanjeev Waeerkar, Souren Roy, C.D Rane, Ashok Dongre, V.B. Halbe, Jeffrey Fowler, Pratap Mullick and Yusuf Lien aka Yusuf Bangalorewala.
The original printings of Amar Chitra were not in full colour—because of budgetary constraints, the panels were printed using yellow, blue and green. Subsequent issues, however, changed to full colour. All Amar Chitra Katha books stuck to a monthly (later fortnightly) 30-page format, with emphasis on lucid, entertaining storylines. In addition to the 'singles' form, at the stories are also available as hardcover 3-in-1 and 5-in-1 bundles. There are special editions of the epics like the Mahabharata which is available in a 3 volume 1300+ pages set.
Occasionally there were "bumper" issues with 90 pages, most collecting stories of a similar type from individual issues (e.g. Monkey Stories From The Hitopadesha, Tales of Birbal and some being longer stories The Story of Rama). As the epic stories became more popular, the team began to publish stories based on Indian history, of men and women belonging to different regions and religions and also on stories based on Sanskrit as well as regional classics. The continuous popularity of the comics led to reprints being issued frequently, which ensured that the back-issues remained in print throughout the seventies and the eighties. At the height of its popularity, in the mid-eighties, it had been translated into Bengali, Marathi, Assamese, Gujarati, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil and Urdu and selling half a million copies a month. Some titles were also translated into French, Spanish, German, Swahili, Fijian, Indonesian, and Serbo-Croat.
Towards the mid-nineties, the original comics were reprinted in sleeker and more durable editions, with thick cardstock covers and better colour separations. Today, Amar Chitra Katha has a national footprint across all major book retailers, hundreds of small bookstores, and tens of thousands of vendors. It is the best-selling children's publication in most large format stores.
In 2007, the publisher created a new online store that offers all the titles with shipping worldwide. The titles are divided in following categories
- Mythology (e.g. Sati and Shiva, Nachiketa, Savitri, Tirupati)
- The Epics (e.g. The Ramayana, Bhishma, Gandhari, Uloopi, Karna, Ravana)
- Literary Classics (e.g. Vasavadatta, Kannagi, Nagananda, Shakuntala)
- Fables & Folktales (e.g. Panchatantra, Jataka Tales, Avvaiyar, Lilan Chanesar)
- Humour & wit (e.g. Birbal, Tenali Raman, Vidyut Chora)
- Biographies (e.g. Rana Pratap, Narsinh Mehta, Raja Raja Chola, Lachit Borphukan)
- 3 in 1 Titles(e.g.The Mughal Court, Valiant Sikhs, Great Indian Emperor)
- 5 in 1 Titles(e.g.Brave Rajputs, The Kuru Clan, Great Rulers of India)
- Special Issues(e.g.Saptarshi, Param Vir Chakra)
Amar Chitra Katha has evolved over times. It launched in the first generation of IOS Appstore in 2009 by iRemedi Corp on ETHERMEDIA reader; followed by a launch in the iBookStore in 2010. It has since forayed into the digital world by launching its official digital store app across platforms – Windows 8, iOS and Android. Dubbed as ACK Comics, the store offers more than 300 titles. The free app gives readers access to Amar Chitra Katha comics, ranging from its archive but also including the latest books that Amar Chitra Katha publishes, with both free and paid comics. The digital comics can be read in the app in flip-book mode as well as panel-by-panel mode, which is convenient for smaller devices. Users can download and read their comics on multiple devices using a single user account.
According to feminst book critic Nilanjana Roy, the Amar Chitra Katha series reflects 'the stereotypes and prejudices of modern mainstream Indian culture; pink-skinned, fair heroes and heroines, dark asuras and villains, passive women drawn as in Indian calendar art from the male perspective'. However, alongside these portrayals of light-browns, dark-brown skinned heroes like Ram, Krishna are among the most prominent titles covered in Amar Chitra Katha. Also, dark skinned servants and subservient women have been swapped for a more neutral skin tone and women who are active influencers in the stories like Ahilyabai Holkar.
Criticism of the Amar Chitra Katha comics has largely revolved around two central issues: the depiction of women and the portrayal of minorites, according to author Aruna Rao. The creators have also been criticised for projecting the superiority of Brahminical or upper-caste Hindu culture over other viewpoints, presenting Indian caste hierarchies uncritically. However, Aruna Rao points out that India Book House responded to some of the criticism about the depiction of women and minorities, and attempted to make amends by adopting a broader perspective.
The stories have often been criticised as distorted depictions of history, with characters being seen simplistically as 'good' and 'bad' – brave Hindu kings and Muslim 'outsiders', and so on. The publisher has released an all new series focusing on personalities belonging from the Muslim community like Razia sultan, Bacha Khan, renowned ornithologist Salim Ali and more. Also, the aim is often to create a hagiography and a lesson in character-building at the expense of authenticity and historical truth. Another criticism is that comic books, by their very nature, do not reflect the richness and complexity of the oral tradition of Indian mythology in which multiple versions of a story can co-exist simultaneously. The editors are now paying due effort in understanding different version of the mythological stories and accommodating them into regional language versions too. The new editions have been released featuring regional folktales and local heroes reflecting regional diversity of the country like Lachit Borphukan, the Assamese leader who fought the Mughals. The editors have tried to pay close attention to the changing sensitivities of the people and trying to accommodate the diversity of story telling by giving equal importance to regional versions and accommodating them in regional language version.
References in popular cultureEdit
In Anurag Kashyap's controversial Hindi film Gulaal, an anti-casteist character Rananjay Singh Ransa expresses his disillusionment with his Rajput roots by saying that: "मैं अमर चित्र कथा में नहीं जीना चाहता !" – I don't want to spend my life in Amar Chitra Katha.
The following films were produced by Amar Chitra Katha under ACK Animation Studios banner
|2011||Tripura – The Three Cities of Maya||Chetan Sharma||TV Movie|
Co-produced with Animagic
|2012||Sons of Ram||Kushal Ruia||Co-produced with Maya Digital Studios and Cartoon Network India|
- List of Amar Chitra Katha comics for a comprehensive listing of all titles released till date.
- "ACK Media buys Amar Chitra Katha, Tinkle brands". Business Line. 22 November 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2008.
- In India, New Life for Comic Books as TV Cartoons The New York Times, 19 July 2009."... sells about three million comic books a year, in English and more than 20 Indian languages, and has sold about 100 million copies since it was founded in 1967"
- Now, Amar Chitra Katha gets even younger Vijay Singh, TNN, The Times of India, 16 October 2009.
- The World of Amar Chitra Katha Media and the Transformation of Religion in South Asia, by Lawrence A Babb, Susan S. Wadley. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1998. ISBN 81-208-1453-3. Chapt. 4, p. 76-86.
- A Pandit Had A Dream ... Outlook India Magazine, 21 March 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011
- For a short biography of Anant Pai, Kamala Chandrakant, Subba Rao, Margie Sastry, Ram Waeerkar, Pratap Mulick, see Norbert Barth, "India Book House and Amar Chitra Katha (1970–2002)", Wuerzburg 2008, p.47-59.
- "Amar Chitra Katha's ACK Comics App Will Take You Back to Simpler Times". NDTV Gadgets360.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "Amar Chitra Katha goes digital with ACK Comics app for Android, iOS and Windows". www.fonearena.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- Roy, Nilanjana S. (2 March 2011). "Uncle Pai and the Amar Chitra Katha universe". Business Standard.
- "The undying world of Amar Chitra Katha". dna. 10 June 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- David, Priti (16 December 2017). "And now, a dapper Ravana: Amar Chitra Katha undergoes makeover". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Rao, Aruna (2001). "From Self-Knowledge to Super Heroes: The Story of Indian Comics". In John A. Lent (ed.). Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor Magazines, and Picture Books. University of Hawaii Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8248-2471-6. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Desai, Chetan. 2003. "The Krishna Controversy." International Journal of Comic Art. Spring:325–333.
- John Stratton Hawley (1 January 1998). "The Saints Subdued: Domestic Virtue and National Integration in Amar Chitra Katha". In Lawrence A Babb & Susan S. Wadley (ed.). Media and the Transformation of Religion in South Asia. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-81-208-1453-0. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Steven E. Lindquist (1 October 2011). Religion and Identity in South Asia and Beyond: Essays in Honor of Patrick Olivelle. Anthem Press. pp. 385–. ISBN 978-0-85728-790-8. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Love revives Indian comics After a break of 4 years, Amar Chitra Katha launches a new title on Mother Teresa: Little Acts of Love, on 26 August 2010, to celebrate the Mother's 100th birth anniversary.
- India's Immortal Comic Books: Gods, Kings, and Other Heroes, by Karline McLain, Indiana University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-253-22052-3.
- The Classic Popular: Amar Chitra Katha (1967–2007), by Nandini Chandra, Yoda Press, 2008. ISBN 81-903634-3-3.3
- "Amar Chitra Katha: Western Forms, Indian Contents", by Sanjay Sircar, Bookbird, A Journal of International Children's Literature, 2000, 38, Nr. 4, p. 35–36.
- "From Self-Knowledge to Super Heroes: The Story of Indian Comics", by Aruna Rao, 2001, in: Lent, A. John (Ed.), Illustrating Asia, Comics, Humour Magazines, and Picture Books, Richmond, p. 37–63.
- "India Book House and Amar Chitra Katha (1970–2002)",(German), by Norbert Barth, Würzburg 2008, http://www.opus-bayern.de/uni-wuerzburg/volltexte/2008/2789/pdf/indiabookhouse.pdf
- Deepa Sreenivas (7 April 2010). Sculpting a Middle Class: History, Masculinity and the Amar Chitra Katha in India. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-56310-9. Retrieved 17 April 2012.