Pusad is a city in the Yavatmal district located in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state of India. It is named after the Pus river. Its ancient name was 'Pushpawanti'. Pusad is second largest city of yavatmal district. For last 20 years Pusad is being tried to be promoted to the stature of district but due to lack of administration of governing bodies it is only a dream of the people.
|Coordinates: 19°52′N 77°47′E / 19.87°N 77.78°ECoordinates: 19°52′N 77°47′E / 19.87°N 77.78°E|
|• Type||Municipal Council|
|• Total||59 km2 (23 sq mi)|
|Elevation||315 m (1,033 ft)|
|• Density||1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||MH 29 (Yavatmal district)|
Pusad is a tribal area, of mostly Banjaras. Banjara of Pusad area have an oral tradition of their migration from Rajasthan toward central and south India from 12th century after the defeat and death of Prithviraj Chauhan by Muhammad Ghouri in the 1191 Battle of Tarain in present-day Haryana, a narrative which also coincides with the oral traditions of Romani gypsies of Europe who also recall 12th century Islamic invasion of India as the cause of their migration.
Two temples in 13th century hemadpanti architecture, ruins of several temples, a fine tank exist in Pusad area as per the ASI report of 1874 CE.
During the 16th to 20th centuries Pusad was part of Berar Province which kept changing hands between Maratha Peshwas and Mughals. During 1760 and 1795 this area was with Maratha Bhonsla rajas of Nagpur kingdom. Marathas ceded these to British after Wellesley's victories at Assaye and Argaon (1803), who in turn handed these over to Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad State in 1804. After this Pindari and Bhil raiders too stopped their harassing raids in this area. Nizam was initially a viceroy of Hydrabad province of Mughal Empire, from 1724 CE he ruled this area independently until he came under British protectorate, after 1857 he gradually became a princely state of the British Raj.
During British raj's Great Trigonometrical Survey (1802-1871), to install and maintain measuring marker stones, the Bittergaon and Sukli villages in Pusad area were visited regularly including in 1868 and 1873. Washim to Pusad road through Penganga reserve was constructed around 1878.
In 1853, the administration of the Berar province was assigned to the British East India Company by the Nizam following a treaty. It was divided into two districts each headed by a deputy commissioner, South Berar with its headquarters at Hingoli, and North Berar with its headquarters at Buldana. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Hingoli and its adjoining areas [including Pusad] were restored to the Nizam and the province was reconstituted into two districts, East Berar with its headquarters at Amravati, and West Berar with its headquarters at Akola. In 1903 Berar Province became the Berar Division of Central Provinces. In 1936 these were renamed as Central Provinces and Berar.
In 1950 when the Constitution of India came into effect, Pusad as part of the Central Provinces & Berar was merged with the newly formed state of Madhya Pradesh. In 1956, under pressure from Marathi Irredentists, the Berar and Nagpur divisions were transferred to Bombay state. In 1960, the Bombay State was partitioned into Maharashtra & Gujarat. There is an ongoing Vidarbha movement to demand statehood for Vidarbha region, as well as a separate movement to demand upgrade of Pusad's status from taluk to district.
Vasantrao Naik, a grassroots Banjara leader, who was born in Gavli village of Pusad remains the longest serving Chief Minister of Maharashtra from 1963 to 1975. Sudhakarrao Naik is former Chief Minister of Maharashtra from 1991 to 1993 and former Governor of Himachal Pradesh in 1994.
Just north of Pusad hills is the Buldhana-Yavatmal plateau, itself part of the bigger deccan plateau, extends from Penganga valley of Pusad region in south, to the Purna valley of Ajanta range of Marathwada in north, and to Wardha valley in the east. It covers the southern parts of districts of Akola, Buldhana and Yavatmal. Highest elevation of 600–900 metres (2,000–3,000 ft) is found in Buldhana and Chikhuli, 450–600 metres (1,480–1,970 ft) in south around Pusad, 300–450 metres (980–1,480 ft) sloping escarpment (steep cliff) towards Purna and Wardha river valleys in north and east respectively. The edges and interior of this plateau are jagged and littered with series of hills and valleys. Hills are mostly "flat topped" (eroded former larger plateau) with sharp drops, trappean in structure, made of basalt, gradually sloping in the west but uneven in the east. Slopes are steep, dry, without many plants or trees. Further north of Ajanta range is "Amravati plateau" which extends till Gawilghur hill range.
The town is located on the south and western banks of the "Pus river". The Pus river flows through Pusad taluka, the Arunavati River and Adan River through Darwha taluka. Murray Leaf explains that the "Pus valley" lies in a wide but isolated upland valley in the tribal area which has small towns and very few highways as most of the area is covered with teak and sal forests which are illegally felled by the poachers. Pus river originates in Ajanta range near Washim town. It flows through Pusad, converges with Penganga River near Mahur in Nanded district of Maharashtra, Penganga River in turn flows into Wardha River, which in turn flows into Pranhita River, and Pranhita in turn flows in to Godavari river which finally end in the Bay of Bengal just east of Rajahmundry in the state of Andhra Pradesh. All these rivers drain the Deccan Plateau in the south-easterly and easterly directions along the general slope of the plateau.
Pusad's climate is extreme, with temperatures ranging as high as 49 °C (120 °F) during summer to as low as 5 °C (41 °F) during winter. This temperature range is a result of the "Basket Effect" (i.e. high-altitude hillside effect), as Pusad is surrounded by hills.
|Climate data for Pusad (1981–2010, extremes 1960–2008)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.2
|Average high °C (°F)||30.6
|Average low °C (°F)||13.0
|Record low °C (°F)||2.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||15.7
|Average rainy days||0.8||0.4||0.8||0.8||1.8||9.1||11.9||11.3||7.0||4.0||1.3||0.6||49.7|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||42||33||30||27||24||49||66||71||64||50||46||43||46|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
As of 2011 Indian Census, Pusad had a total population of 112346, of which 67,366 were males and 55,680 were females. The population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 8,673. The total number of literates in Pusad was 58,794, which constituted 80.5% of the population with male literacy of 83.6% and female literacy of 77.2%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Pusad was 91.3%, of which the male literacy rate was 95.5% and the female literacy rate was 87.0%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 10,194 and 3,453 respectively. Pusad had 14905 households in 2011. The nearby 6 villages is to be included in city of puasd N.Parishad i.e.Shrirampur,kakad dati,Dhankeshwar,kawadipur, gaimukhnagar,Adarsh nagar
Jaati or caste based breakup of PusadEdit
Banjaras are the main tribal group of Pusad taluka, among them, Rathod and Chavhan Banjaras are most numerous. Charan Banjaras, also called Gormati Banjaram, in Pusad taluk belong to both Bada Rathod and Chota Rathode clans. Main subclans among Bada Rathod are Khola, Ratla, Khatrot, Gedavat, Raslinya, and Dedavat. The main subclans among Chota Rathod are Meghwat, Ghegawat, Ralsot, Ramawat, Khelkhawat, Manlot, Harawat, Tolawat, Dudhawat, Sangawat, and Patolot. The main subclans among Jadon or Jadhav Banjaras are Dharawat, Gughlot, Badawat, Boda, Malod, Ajmera, Padya, Lakhawat, and Nulawat. The main subclans among Labhana Banjaras are Kesharot, Dhirbasi, Gugra, Rusawat, Meghawat, kachkad, Pachoria, Alwat, Khasawat, Bhokan, Katkwal, Dhobda, Machalya, Khaseria, Gozal, Borya, Ramawat, Bhutiya, Bumbholya, Retheyo, and Manzawat. There are some rare Sonar Banjara clans such as Medran. The drum beater Dhale Banjaras who are found in Pusad, unlike other banjaras, do not have Rajput sounding names as they are like native tribes of Maharashtra who were accepted later among Banjaras as service providers. Apart from Banjaras, Pusad has a sizable Komati (caste), Marwadi and Maratha (caste) population. Pusad also has a good population of adherents of Jain, Boudh and Muslim religion.
Agriculture and aquaculture sectorEdit
Main crops are millet, wheat, tur, cotton, groundnut, sunflower, etc. In the hilly parts of Pusad taluka the soil type is coarse gravelly or loose friable of black colour. The command area of medium size Pus River irrigation system has 25265 ha. of which 13680 ha is cultivatable and further 8215 ha is irrigable, and the project is designed with 114% "irrigation density" which is the ratio of total irrigated area to total irrigable area. For the irrigation, "Pus river" has Upper Pus Dam 18 km (11 mi) northwest of Pusad town built in 1971, and Lower Pus Dam near Mahagaon 40 km (25 mi) east of Pusad built in 1983.
In terms of fish farming, the minor carp fish constitute 75 to 95% of the total catch in the Pus river reservoirs.
Industrial and manufacturing sectorEdit
Since before 1958, Pusad has cotton ginning and oil press factories. To boost the Small and medium-sized enterprises the Banjara elites of the Pusad city established a microfinance cooperative banking society in 2006 with 1100 members.
Ganeshotsav and Navaratri festival is celebrated annually in Pusad. Bal Gangadhar Tilak is credited with turning Ganeshotsav into a community festival from a private ceremony. The tradition of Ganeshotsav in Pusad is linked to Tilak's visit to the city. Dankeshwar (Shiva temple) and Karla Jatra are major religious festivals as well.
Pusad is connected to major cities in the Maharashtra State by roadways only. MSRTC buses run from Pusad to Mumbai, Nagpur, Yavatmal, Pune, Amravati, Akola, Washim, Hingoli, Nanded, Solapur, Aurangabad, Raipur, Umarkhed, Mahur, Ansing, Adilabad, Mahagaon and Indore. Roads in Pusad are equipped with traffic signals recently built in 2017.
Pusad was connected to Darwha Moti Bagh Junction railway station in Yavatmal by Central Provinces Railway Company, but line from Darwha to Pusad was dismantled in 1920. From Yavatmal it was further linked to Achalpur railway station in Amravati district by narrow gauge Shakuntala Railway which was built in 1903 to carry cotton from cotton-rich interior areas of Vidarbha to the Murtajapur Junction on main broad gauge line to Mumbai from where it was shipped to Manchester in England. Pusad railway station (reporting code PUB) is planned on the under construction Wardha–Nanded line, which has been given a "special project" status. Nearest railway station is at Washim 60 km (37 mi), Akola and Nanded 110 km (68 mi).
Nearest functional airports are Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji Airport 110 km (68 mi) away in Nanded and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport 270 km (170 mi) away at Nagpur. Other nearby airports without functional scheduled flights are Yavatmal Airport 110 km (68 mi) and Akola Airport 140 km (87 mi).
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