Akola (/əˈklɑː/) is a municipal corporation and the third largest city in Vidarbha after Nagpur and Amravati and tenth largest city in Maharashtra. is located about 580 kilometres (360 mi) east of the state capital, Mumbai, and 250 kilometres (160 mi) west of the second capital, Nagpur. Akola is the administrative headquarters of the Akola district located in the Amravati division, and is governed by the Akola Municipal Corporation.

Akola
City
Akola Fort, Temple and grasslands
Nicknames: 
Rajrajeshwar Nagari
Akola is located in Maharashtra
Akola
Akola
Location of Akola City.
Akola is located in India
Akola
Akola
Akola (India)
Akola is located in Asia
Akola
Akola
Akola (Asia)
Coordinates: 20°42′N 77°00′E / 20.7°N 77.00°E / 20.7; 77.00Coordinates: 20°42′N 77°00′E / 20.7°N 77.00°E / 20.7; 77.00
Country India
StateSeal of Maharashtra.svg Maharashtra
DistrictAkola
Established18th century
Named forAkolsingh
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyAMC
 • MayorArchana Masne
 • Municipal CommissionerKavita Dwiwedi (IAS)
Area
 • Total124 km2 (48 sq mi)
Highest elevation
324 m (1,063 ft)
Lowest elevation
287 m (942 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total537,149
 • RankIN: 84th
MH: 14th
 • Density4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
DemonymsAkolite, Akolekar
Language
 • OfficialMarathi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
444001, 444002, 444003, 444004, 444005, 444006, 444007, 444104, 444109, 444302
Telephone code0724
Vehicle registrationMH-30
Literacy92%
Sex ratio0.968
HDIHigh[2]
Websitehttps://akola.gov.in/

Akola is located north-central of Maharashtra state, western India, on the banks of the Morna River. Although it is not considered a common tourist destination, Akola is an important city due to its history, culture, politics, and agriculture. It also has a prominent road and rail junction in the Tapti River valley that functions as a commercial trading center.

Akola is an important educational center with several colleges affiliated with the Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University. The city is developing into a market center. The primary language spoken by the people of Akola is Marathi.

HistoryEdit

Early medieval history (Classical)Edit

Akola is mentioned to be a part of Berar province and the legendary kingdom of Vidarbha in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata.[3] Berar also formed part of the Mauryan Empire during the reign of Ashoka (272 to 231 BCE), before being ruled by the Satavahana dynasty (2nd century BCE – 2nd century CE), the Vakataka dynasty (3rd to 6th centuries), the Chalukya dynasty (6th to 8th centuries), the Rashtrakuta dynasty (8th to 10th centuries), the Chalukya dynasty (10th to 12th centuries), and the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri (late 12th to early 14th centuries).

Late medieval historyEdit

A period of Muslim rule began when Alauddin Khalji, Sultan of Delhi, conquered the region in the early 14th century. The region was part of the Bahmani Sultanate, which broke away from the Delhi Sultanate in the middle of the 14th century. The Bahmani Sultanate itself broke up into smaller sultanates at the end of the 15th century, and in 1572 Berar became part of the Nizam Shahi sultanate, based at Ahmednagar. The Nizam Shahis ceded Berar to the Mughal Empire in 1595, and the Mughals ruled the Berar province during the 17th century. The Akola fort was heavily fortified during the Mughal king Aurangzeb's rule.[4] As Mughal rule started to unravel at the start of the 18th century, Asif Jah I, Nizam of Hyderabad seized the southern provinces of the empire (including Berar) in 1724 to form an independent state.[5]

Maratha EmpireEdit

The region came under the rule of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, and later his sons as the Maratha Empire rose from 1674 to 1760. When Chatrapati Shahu Maharaj I died in 1749, he appointed Peshwa as the head of the Maratha Empire with certain conditions. The third battle of Panipat in 1761 crippled the Maratha Empire and weakened the power of Peshwa, but Berar remained under Maratha rule.

The Battle of Argaon in 1803 was fought in Akola between the British and the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. In the third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated. In 1853, the Akola district together with the rest of Berar came under the administration of the British East India Company.[6] Berar was divided into East and West Berar with the Akola district being included in the west. In 1903, Berar was leased to the Nizam of Hyderabad by the British East India Company in return for the debt.

Post-independenceEdit

After India's independence in 1947 from the British Government, the newly formed country was divided into different states. The Congress's proposed linguistic provinces plan before the Independence of India had positioned Akola as the headquarters of the Berar region.[7][8]

The states and provinces of India were reorganized in 1956, and the region of Berar was divided among different states. Akola became a part of bilingual state of Bombay which was further divided into two states in 1960 when Akola became a part of the new state of Maharashtra.

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1981 225,412—    
1991 328,043+45.5%
2001 400,520+22.1%
2011 427,146+6.6%
Source: Census of India[9]

According to the 2011 Census of India,[10] Akola City had a population of 427,146 and an area of about 128 square kilometres (49 sq mi). After the city's municipal limits were extended in Aug 2016, it was recorded to have a population of 537,137.

Geography and climateEdit

Climate data for Akola (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.2
(100.8)
40.5
(104.9)
44.4
(111.9)
47.0
(116.6)
47.8
(118.0)
47.2
(117.0)
40.6
(105.1)
40.0
(104.0)
40.0
(104.0)
40.0
(104.0)
38.9
(102.0)
36.7
(98.1)
47.8
(118.0)
Average high °C (°F) 30.0
(86.0)
32.9
(91.2)
37.2
(99.0)
41.0
(105.8)
42.2
(108.0)
37.6
(99.7)
32.3
(90.1)
30.6
(87.1)
32.3
(90.1)
33.5
(92.3)
31.8
(89.2)
30.0
(86.0)
34.3
(93.7)
Average low °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
16.2
(61.2)
20.2
(68.4)
24.8
(76.6)
27.9
(82.2)
26.3
(79.3)
24.5
(76.1)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
20.9
(69.6)
17.0
(62.6)
13.7
(56.7)
21.1
(70.0)
Record low °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
2.2
(36.0)
5.6
(42.1)
11.1
(52.0)
11.9
(53.4)
19.8
(67.6)
20.0
(68.0)
18.3
(64.9)
15.4
(59.7)
10.0
(50.0)
5.6
(42.1)
3.9
(39.0)
2.2
(36.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 12.2
(0.48)
8.6
(0.34)
12.9
(0.51)
3.4
(0.13)
13.1
(0.52)
139.4
(5.49)
213.6
(8.41)
195.2
(7.69)
132.1
(5.20)
46.9
(1.85)
17.6
(0.69)
6.8
(0.27)
801.7
(31.56)
Average rainy days 1.0 0.7 1.1 0.4 1.2 6.8 10.8 9.9 6.3 2.9 1.1 0.5 42.7
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 37 26 22 18 22 45 66 71 63 46 43 40 42
Source: India Meteorological Department[11][12]
Climate data for Akola Airport (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2002)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.4
(95.7)
40.5
(104.9)
43.0
(109.4)
45.9
(114.6)
47.7
(117.9)
46.9
(116.4)
40.5
(104.9)
36.8
(98.2)
38.4
(101.1)
39.0
(102.2)
35.5
(95.9)
35.7
(96.3)
47.7
(117.9)
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
(85.8)
32.4
(90.3)
37.2
(99.0)
41.0
(105.8)
42.4
(108.3)
37.7
(99.9)
32.3
(90.1)
30.6
(87.1)
32.5
(90.5)
33.7
(92.7)
31.6
(88.9)
29.7
(85.5)
34.2
(93.6)
Average low °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
15.8
(60.4)
20.2
(68.4)
25.1
(77.2)
27.8
(82.0)
26.2
(79.2)
24.1
(75.4)
23.5
(74.3)
23.1
(73.6)
20.2
(68.4)
16.1
(61.0)
12.9
(55.2)
20.8
(69.4)
Record low °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
7.7
(45.9)
9.0
(48.2)
12.6
(54.7)
18.6
(65.5)
18.3
(64.9)
17.7
(63.9)
19.6
(67.3)
12.5
(54.5)
10.8
(51.4)
5.1
(41.2)
4.4
(39.9)
4.4
(39.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 13.8
(0.54)
9.9
(0.39)
11.9
(0.47)
3.9
(0.15)
13.0
(0.51)
150.4
(5.92)
212.6
(8.37)
183.3
(7.22)
122.4
(4.82)
68.0
(2.68)
15.9
(0.63)
7.0
(0.28)
812.1
(31.97)
Average rainy days 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.4 1.4 7.2 10.8 9.9 6.0 3.0 0.9 0.6 42.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 37 32 23 18 21 44 66 71 62 47 40 39 41
Source: India Meteorological Department[11][12]

GovernanceEdit

Police administrationEdit

Akola Police maintains eight police stations in the Akola city subdivision that cover the metropolitan area of the city.[13]

The government also approved the creation of a new Railway Police Akola subdivision that will include Akola, Wardha, and Badnera railway police units. The Akola Police subdivision falls under the Nagpur District of Railway.[14]

 
Mahabeej Bhavan, Akola

TransportationEdit

AirEdit

Akola Airport (also known as Shioni Airport) (IATA: AKD, ICAO: VAAK) is the domestic airport of Akola and is 304 metres (999 ft) above sea level. It was built by British authorities in the 1940s and regularly sent flights to Mumbai. Now it is non-functional and has one runway (4,600×145 ft). The airport's expansion and use have been delayed as it is unable to get land from the University of Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth.[15]

RoadEdit

 
National Highway No. 6 passes through Akola.

NH-6, which connects Surat to Kolkata, passes through the city . State Highways No. 68 and 69 also pass through the municipal limits. Other highways include State Highway 204, State Highway 200: Akola – Amravati, and State Highway 197. NH-161 begins from Akola and reaches in Telangana near Hyderabad.[16]

EducationEdit

Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University
College of Engineering & Technology, Akola
Government Medical College, Akola

Agricultural universityEdit

Akola houses Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (PDKV), whose jurisdiction covers all eleven districts of Vidarbha.[17]

Medical science collegesEdit

Notable peopleEdit

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Religion in Akola (2011)[18]

  Hinduism (58.51%)
  Islam (21.32%)
  Buddhism (18.53%)
  Jainism (1.01%)
  Christianity (0.32%)
  Others (1%)
 
Raj-Rajeshwar Temple, Akola
 
This church is an 1873 British establishment. It has Christmas decorations.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Akola, India Metro Area Population 1950-2021". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  2. ^ https://www.maharashtra.gov.in/Site/upload/WhatsNew/Economic%20Survey%20of%20Maharashtra...pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ "Mahabharat Map - Come, let us create a Mahan Bharat".
  4. ^ "Friends of Forts". Archived from the original on 5 April 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
  5. ^ "Berar | region, India". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  6. ^ "Akola District Gazetteer, Mediaeval Period History". Maharashtra State Gazetteers, Akola District. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  7. ^ "101". Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  8. ^ "101a". Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  9. ^ "Mahapopulation" (PDF). Census of India (in Marathi). maharashtra.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
  10. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  11. ^ a b "Climatological Normals 1981–2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 21–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M135-M136. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Akola Police". akolapolice.gov.in.
  14. ^ "Akola Railway Police". 13 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  15. ^ "AAI red flags Akola airport extension – Times of India". The Times of India.
  16. ^ "अकोला जिल्हा शासकीय संकेत स्थळ". akola.nic.in. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Jurisdiction eg: Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Vidyapeeth, Akola".
  18. ^ "C-1 Population By Religious Community – Maharahstra". Census. Retrieved 29 December 2019.

External linksEdit